To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Public hospital systems have struggled to identify ways of cutting costs while improving quality of mental health treatment, even more since the economic downturn.
To compare mental health care expenditures and quality in two large sites, Boston and Madrid, and to analyze the amount of the expenditure corresponding to pharmacy, ER, outpatient and inpatient care.
Data are mental health electronic records from three hospitals in Madrid (n=31,183 person-years) and in Boston(n=8,805). Adequacy of care was measured as four or more visits within the last year. Unadjusted comparisons of variables were conducted using t-tests. Multivariate generalized linear regression models were computed with log link and residual variance proportional to mean squared, adjusting for covariates. Results were also adjusted for World Bank Purchasing Power Parity and converted to U.S. dollars.
The annual average treatment expenditure is $4,874 in Boston and $2,693 in Madrid . Boston patients had a bigger percentage of use (13,6% vs 5,3%) and greater annual expenditure ($25,175 vs $15,470) for inpatient services (p<0,05). Conversely, Madrid patients used and spent more on outpatient treatments (87% vs 84%;$1,670 vs $1,378;p<0,05). Being in the Boston site, having a bipolar, psychotic or alcohol disorder was a significant positive predictor of total expenditure. Adequacy of care was bigger in Boston (32,8% vs 23,1%)
Emphasis on outpatient care appears to reduce inpatient stays and global expenditures. An earlier recognition due to a more open access to treatments in Spain may help decreasing costs. Bipolar, psychotic and alcohol disorders imply bigger costs.
To investigate the possible associations between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
Four databases (PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Science and SCIelo) were used to retrieve relevant articles using an open timeframe. Articles were reviewed if they contained a systematic measure (i.e. food checklist) of the food environment (e.g. food availability) and dietary intake.
Urban and rural communities in Mexico.
Population-based studies of Mexican communities.
Twenty studies that assessed at least one food environment level, and at least one dietary outcome, were reviewed. Findings from these studies showed that changes in the Mexican food environment seem to be associated with higher availability of energy-dense foods. Energy-dense foods can be linked to a high consumption in household, environment and community food environments. When both nutrient-dense and energy-dense foods were present, individuals were more likely to consume foods with added sugars, fats and salt options than nutrient-dense items.
The various levels of the food environment (i.e. household, school, community) exposed participants to energy-dense foods. Although nutrient-dense foods were present in all three levels, individuals were more likely to consume energy-dense food items. Not all three levels of the food environment are well represented in the urban and rural settings. Most studies on the community food environment were done in rural areas, whereas most studies on the school food environment were done in urban settings. Additional rigorously designed studies are needed to document the relationship between the food environment and dietary intake in the Mexican population.
Suicide is a serious and growing problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, for each death there are twenty attempts on record. Every year over 800,000 people commit suicide, that is, one in every forty. 45% of the people who commit suicide visit their Primary Health Care physician in the previous month. Seventy-five percent of suicides take place in countries with medium or low income and Argentine heads the suicide rate in Latin America. In the last twenty years the death by suicides rate in young people (aged 15–35) and has decreased in older age groups (+ 55), which historically presented the highest rates. In the inner zone of the province of Santiago del Estero, suicides have increased among teenagers .
To know suicide statistics in young people in the last decade so that a prevention scheme can be produced.
Descriptive observational study.
In the province of Santiago del Estero suicides occur more frequently among young people, aged 15–35, and the rate has increased significantly in the inner zone of the province.
The analysis carried out reveal that this problem in increasing in our province and it requires analysis and consensus in order to design a model of Primary Health Care Prevention.
Disclosure of Interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of no competing interest.
Prior studies have identified that individuals with comorbid substance use disorder and mental health disorder are at a greater risk of benzodiazepine abuse compared to individuals that present with mental health disorder without an accompanying substance use disorder. These studies were conducted in predominantly white populations, and little is known if the same associations are seen in safety net health care networks. Also, the literature is mixed as to whether or not psychiatrists’ prescription of benzodiazepines places individuals at undue risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
We use 2013–2015 electronic health record data from a Boston healthcare system. Patients with benzodiazapene abuse were identified if they had received treatment under the ICD-9 code 304.1. Benzodiazepine abuse was compared between patients with only mental illness and patients with existing comorbid substance and mental health disorder, in unadjusted comparisons and adjusted regression models. Covariates in regression models were used to identify subgroups at higher risk of benzodiazepine abuse.
Individuals with benzodiazepine abuse had higher rates of emergency room and inpatient use than patients with other mental health and/or substance use disorders. Those with comorbid substance and mental disorder were significantly more likely than individuals with mental or substance use disorder alone to abuse benzodiazepines (P < .01). Among those with benzodiazepine abuse, 93.3% were diagnosed with a mental illness, 75.6% were diagnosed with a substance use disorder (other than benzodiazepine), and 64.4% had comorbid anxiety disorder and substance use disorder. These analyses suggest that patients with benzodiazepine abuse have complex presentations and intensive service use.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Treatment resistance is considered a challenging problem of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia, especially, when it is associated with other factors, such as cultural aspects, diverse clinical presentation, furthermore functional impact. Then, combination approaches are commonly used, for instance, the add-on of aripiprazole to clozapine; which allows increasing of efficacy and safety.
Assess the response to clozapine–aripiprazole combination treatment in the management of resistant schizophrenia.
Treatment of resistant schizophrenia.
Analysis of a clinical case.
A 27-year-old male resident in an Iberian country two years ago, is from a Latin American country, lives with his mother, his sister and his nephew. Their parents were separated. Eight years ago, his father died and shortly thereafter, he started impaired behavior, auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions about referentiality, persecution and prejudice, which required a brief hospitalization in their country. Upon arrival, he is included in the network of Mental Health, with positive symptoms, significant behavioral and cognitive disorganization and he needed hospitalization again. Then, treatment is instituted in different lines with risperidone, quetiapine, olanzapine, haloperidol, amisulpride, without results. Then, combined clozapine therapy is initiated up to 400 mg/day, more aripiprazole 20 mg/day, which switch after to pattern injectable depot, with informed consent. Six months after, he presents encapsulated delirium and improvement of disorganization, allowing the patient to retake studies.
Clozapine–aripiprazole combination was associated with 22% reduction of clozapine dose. There was improvement in positive and negative symptoms, social functions and amelioration in their metabolic profile.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The use of valid and practical screening scales might ease the burden for greatly needed universal testing for mental health, substance use and dual disorders, but do they work well with all populations? Do they miss correct identification of certain groups?
To understand discrepancies in diagnostic prediction using the AC-OK screen in conjunction with other standardized assessment scales.
Two hundred and twenty-six Latino participants were recruited from primary care and community clinics in Madrid, Barcelona and Boston and assessed with standardized mental health and substance abuse measures including the AC-OK screen and with a Computerized adaptive test for mental health (CAT-MH). A measure of frequency of discrepancies and an adjusted and unadjusted comparison of results and demographic characteristics or respondents were made for mental health, substance abuse or for discrepancies in both categories.
35.4% of cases were discrepant in mental health (AC-OK-Mental Health vs. Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 or PTSD Checklist) and 14.2% in substance abuse (AC-OK-substance abuse vs. drug abuse screening test or Alcohol use disorders identification test). When CAT-MH scale was incorporated, discrepant results were found in 24.3% and 14.2%, respectively. No association was found between substance abuse discrepancies and patient demographics. In logit regressions being from Barcelona, of younger age and male were significant predictors of discrepancies.
Discrepancies were observed in the diagnostic prediction, with differences detected for site and sociodemographic characteristics of participants suggesting the importance of testing screeners for site and population differences. Evidence for the misclassification of young males is discussed. Caution is warranted in the implementation of screeners for at risk populations.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
In the current study, phage-exposed mimotopes as targets against tegumentary leishmaniasis (TL) were selected by means of bio-panning cycles employing sera of TL patients and healthy subjects, besides the immune stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) collected from untreated and treated TL patients and healthy subjects. The clones were evaluated regarding their specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in the in vitro cultures, and selectivity and specificity values were calculated, and those presenting the best results were selected for the in vivo experiments. Two clones, namely A4 and A8, were identified and used in immunization protocols from BALB/c mice to protect against Leishmania amazonensis infection. Results showed a polarized Th1 response generated after vaccination, being based on significantly higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); which were associated with lower production of specific IL-4, IL-10 and immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibodies. Vaccinated mice presented significant reductions in the parasite load in the infected tissue and distinct organs, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we presented a strategy to identify new mimotopes able to induce Th1 response in PBMCs from TL patients and healthy subjects, and that were successfully used to protect against L. amazonensis infection.
Thousands of new asteroids are discovered every year and the rate of discovery is by far larger than the determination rate of their physical properties. In 2015 a group of researchers and students of several Mexican institutions have established an observational program to study asteroids photometrically. The program, named Mexican Asteroid Photometry Campaign, is aiming to derive rotation periods of asteroids based on optical photometric observations. Since then four campaigns have been carried out. The results obtained throughout these campaigns, as well as future work, are presented.
Collagen associated with bone samples is frequently used for radiocarbon (14C) dating of bones recovered from archaeological sites. However, submersion and exposure to moisture favors the degradation of collagen, which leads to difficulty in reliably dating bones from tropical, humid, or previously submerged archaeological sites. In this paper, we characterized the preservation state of a series of bones, through parameters such as %C, %N, C/N ratio, and collagen recovery. We performed 14C analyses of three collagen fractions obtained through the pretreatment steps (total, ultrafiltered, and insoluble collagen) in order to link the preservation state and the reproducibility of 14C values obtained from the three fractions. Collagen ultrafiltration resulted in a decrease of C/N ratio, although collagen yield was reduced. When two or three collagen fractions were obtained, ages were reproducible and consistent with expected values, according to archaeological or hydrogeological criteria. The pretreatment steps were monitored by infrared spectroscopy in order to analyze the collagen fractions at the molecular level. The presence of collagen in the total and insoluble fractions was confirmed. Since many of the Mexican samples had poor ultrafiltered collagen yield (<3%) or nonexistent yield, our results show that if additional contextual information is carefully considered, the remnant collagen in the total and insoluble fraction can be dated, especially from sites where no other datable fraction exists.
The Nevado de Toluca is a stratovolcano located in the southwest of the Toluca Valley in central Mexico. At a height of around 4200 m there are two crater lakes: El Sol and La Luna. Since Precolumbian times, people in the surrounding valleys carried out rituals and deposited offerings into the lakes. After the Spanish conquest, these rituals were kept alive clandestinely. Currently, reminiscent of Mesoamerican rituals subsist. Due to the long duration of the ritual at the Nevado de Toluca, it is important to date the materials recovered in the underwater and terrestrial archaeological explorations. This article proposes a chronology of Prehispanic ritual activities performed in the Nevado de Toluca based on the characterization and radiocarbon (14C) dating performed to materials from the volcano’s lakes.
Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are utilized to resolve low coupling coefficient issue by dispersing MWCNTs in poly(vinylidene fluoride) matrix to create stress reinforcing network, dispersant, and electron conducting functions for barium titanate (BT) nanoparticles. Various BT and MWCNT percentages of nanocomposite film are fabricated by FDM three-dimensional (3D) printing which can simplify the fabrication process as well as lower cost and design flexibility. Increasing MWCNTs and BT particles gradually increase piezoelectric coefficient (d31) by 0.13 pC/N with 0.4 wt%-MWCNTs/18 wt%-BT. These results provide not only a technique to print piezoelectric nanocomposites but also unique materials combination for sensor application.
To examine the causal directionality in the relationship between food insecurity and emotional well-being among US-based populations.
Systematic literature review from January 2006 to July 2016 using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsychInfo, Web of Science and CINHAL. Inclusion criteria were: written in English; examined a longitudinal association between food insecurity and emotional well-being.
Children and adults.
Twelve out of 4161 peer-reviewed articles met inclusion criteria. Three articles examined the effect of emotional well-being on food insecurity, five studies examined the effect of food insecurity on emotional well-being, and four studies examined a bidirectional relationship. Most studies (83 %) reported a positive relationship between negative emotional well-being and food insecurity over time.
Findings suggest a bidirectional association whereby food insecurity increases the risk of poor emotional health, and poor emotional health increases the risk of food insecurity. Better-constructed studies are needed to follow cohorts at risk for both food insecurity and poor emotional health to further understand the mediators and moderators of the relationships. Intervention studies designed to mitigate or reverse risks are also needed to determine best evidence for practice and policy.