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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has serious physiological and psychological consequences. The long-term (>12 weeks post-infection) impact of COVID-19 on mental health, specifically in older adults, is unclear. We longitudinally assessed the association of COVID-19 with depression symptomatology in community-dwelling older adults with metabolic syndrome within the framework of the PREDIMED-Plus cohort.
Participants (n = 5486) aged 55–75 years were included in this longitudinal cohort. COVID-19 status (positive/negative) determined by tests (e.g. polymerase chain reaction severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, IgG) was confirmed via event adjudication (410 cases). Pre- and post-COVID-19 depressive symptomatology was ascertained from annual assessments conducted using a validated 21-item Spanish Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models assessed the association between COVID-19 and depression symptomatology.
COVID-19 in older adults was associated with higher post-COVID-19 BDI-II scores measured at a median (interquartile range) of 29 (15–40) weeks post-infection [fully adjusted β = 0.65 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15–1.15; p = 0.011]. This association was particularly prominent in women (β = 1.38 points, 95% CI 0.44–2.33, p = 0.004). COVID-19 was associated with 62% increased odds of elevated depression risk (BDI-II ≥ 14) post-COVID-19 when adjusted for confounders (odds ratio; 95% CI 1.13–2.30, p = 0.008).
COVID-19 was associated with long-term depression risk in older adults with overweight/obesity and metabolic syndrome, particularly in women. Thus, long-term evaluations of the impact of COVID-19 on mental health and preventive public health initiatives are warranted in older adults.
To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal (2-year follow-up) associations between dietary diversity (DD) and depressive symptoms.
An energy-adjusted dietary diversity score (DDS) was assessed using a validated FFQ and was categorised into quartiles (Q). The variety in each food group was classified into four categories of diversity (C). Depressive symptoms were assessed with Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck II) questionnaire and depression cases defined as physician-diagnosed or Beck II >= 18. Linear and logistic regression models were used.
Spanish older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
A total of 6625 adults aged 55–75 years from the PREDIMED-Plus study with overweight or obesity and MetS.
Total DDS was inversely and statistically significantly associated with depression in the cross-sectional analysis conducted; OR Q4 v. Q1 = 0·76 (95 % CI (0·64, 0·90)). This was driven by high diversity compared to low diversity (C3 v. C1) of vegetables (OR = 0·75, 95 % CI (0·57, 0·93)), cereals (OR = 0·72 (95 % CI (0·56, 0·94)) and proteins (OR = 0·27, 95 % CI (0·11, 0·62)). In the longitudinal analysis, there was no significant association between the baseline DDS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2 years of follow-up, except for DD in vegetables C4 v. C1 = (β = 0·70, 95 % CI (0·05, 1·35)).
According to our results, DD is inversely associated with depressive symptoms, but eating more diverse does not seem to reduce the risk of future depression. Additional longitudinal studies (with longer follow-up) are needed to confirm these findings.
The burden of depression is increasing worldwide, specifically in older adults. Unhealthy dietary patterns may partly explain this phenomenon. In the Spanish PREDIMED-Plus study, we explored (1) the cross-sectional association between the adherence to the Prime Diet Quality Score (PDQS), an a priori-defined high-quality food pattern, and the prevalence of depressive symptoms at baseline (cross-sectional analysis) and (2) the prospective association of baseline PDQS with changes in depressive symptomatology after 2 years of follow-up. After exclusions, we assessed 6612 participants in the cross-sectional analysis and 5523 participants in the prospective analysis. An energy-adjusted high-quality dietary score (PDQS) was assessed using a validated FFQ. The cross-sectional association between PDQS and the prevalence of depression or presence of depressive symptoms and the prospective changes in depressive symptoms were evaluated through multivariable regression models (logistic and linear models and mixed linear-effects models). PDQS was inversely associated with depressive status in the cross-sectional analysis. Participants in the highest quintile of PDQS (Q5) showed a significantly reduced odds of depression prevalence as compared to participants in the lowest quartile of PDQS (Q1) (OR (95 %) CI = 0·82 (0·68, 0·98))). The baseline prevalence of depression decreased across PDQS quintiles (Pfor trend = 0·015). A statistically significant association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms after 2-years follow-up was found (β (95 %) CI = −0·67 z-score (–1·17, −0·18). A higher PDQS was cross-sectionally related to a lower depressive status. Nevertheless, the null finding in our prospective analysis raises the possibility of reverse causality. Further prospective investigation is required to ascertain the association between PDQS and changes in depressive symptoms along time.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
According to 2008 data, there are 80.000 patients undergoing replacement opiate programs (RMP) in Spain. However, the clinical therapeutic management and the psychiatric and medical comorbidities have not been well described.
To describe the current therapeutic management and psychiatric comorbilities of opiate-dependent patients undergoing a RMP in Spain.
We carried out an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study from September 2008 to February 2009. Patients > 18 years, with written informed consent, with a opiate-dependence according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and currently scheduled in a RMP in Spain were included.
624 patients (38.89±7.95 y.o.,84% men) were included in the study from 74 centers.
Psychiatric comorbidities were clinically detected in 68% of all valuable patients, most frequently anxiety (53%), mood (48%) and sleep disorders (41%). Patients receiving buprenorphine-naloxone suffered less sleep disorders (19% vs. 43%; p=0.0327) The proportion of patients with at least one psychiatric comorbidity was directly related to methadone dose (p=0.0066).
The most frequent replacement therapy was methadone (94%), usually in ≤ 40 mg/day (38%) and 40-80 mg/day doses (40%); mean follow up period being 45.88±51.86 months. Significant differences were found between methadone doses and retention. Patients with HIV and HCV infection received higher doses of methadone (HIV+ patients (p=0.0024) and HCV+/ HIV+ patients (p=0.0250) due to ARV treatment; and showed less PMM retention.
Patients present high rates of dual diagnosis, and infectious and non-infectious comorbidities, expecting higher doses of methadone than found (54.04±47.26 mg/day) in the study to assure a proper retention in the maintenance programs.
To explore maintenance of effect with OROS MPH in adults with ADHD.
Multicenter study randomizing adult subjects with ADHD who completed open-label (OL) treatment with OROS MPH (18-90mg/day) for at least 52-week and consented to a 4-week, randomized, double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled (PLC) withdrawal period. Efficacy measures included total CAARS score, CAARS-S:S, GAE, CGI-S and CGI-C. Endpoint analyses were performed using LOCF.
99/155 patients completed the OL OROS MPH treatment phase, only 45/99 patients consented to double-blind randomization. At DB baseline, mean ± SD TCS was 12.1±5.34 (n=23) in the continued OROS MPH group and 16.5±7.49 (n=22) in the placebo group. CAARS changed from DB baseline to DB endpoint by 4.0±7.61 and 6.5±7.82, respectively (p = 0.2586 between groups). CGI-C scores indicated more worsening of symptoms in the placebo group compared to the continued PR OROS MPH (p = 0.0422). Median (range) GAE scores at endpoint were 2.0 (0-3) and 0.5 (0-3), respectively (p=0.0254). Other efficacy endpoints were numerically in favor of OROS MPH. The randomized withdrawal phase may have been underpowered to show statistical significance between treatment groups for the primary outcome. The incidence of treatment-emergent AEs during the DB phase was comparable between groups.
The results indicate that treatment discontinuation after long-term exposure of adults with ADHD to OROS MPH is associated with worsening of clinical symptoms. Statistical significance for several outcomes was not reached, possibly due to study limitations.
There are 80.000 patients undergoing replacement opiate programs in Spain, mainly methadone. Gender differences and the ratio of dual diagnosis in this population are unknown.
To describe gender differences in the current therapeutic management of opiate-dependent patients undergoing a replacement therapy program in Spain.
624 patients from 74 centers in Spain were included between September 2008 and February 2009 in an observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Patients were ≥ 18 years, had a diagnosis of opiate dependence according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, were currently scheduled in a replacement therapy program in Spain and were given written informed consent.
Only 16% of patients were female. Methadone average doses were significantly higher in man (57,59mg ± (SD 46,77) vs 52,81mg ± (SD 50,81) (p< 0.05)). Most women were caretaken by their partner (56.8% vs 34,2%) and man by their parents (61,6% vs 37,8) p< 0,05.Women were found to have significantly more sexual disorders than men (6% versus 2%; p=0.0316); but less delirium, dementia, amnesic and other cognitive disorders (none versus 6%; p=0.0486); schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders (3% versus 13%; p=0.0226); and adaptive disorders (2% versus 9%; 0.0427). No significant differences were found between sexes for other psychiatric comorbidities.
The ratio between men and women was close to 5/1, being bigger than that in the general opiate dependent Spanish population. Dual diagnosis rates vary by gender, but not in the number of diagnosis in Axis I or II. Gender differences must be considered when planning dependence services as women.
To explore the relationship between symptomatic and functional outcomes in a five week, double blind, fixed dose, placebo controlled study in adults (age 18-65 years) with ADHD.
Post hoc-analysis of a five-week, double-blind (DB), parallel arm, placebo-controlled trial in adult subjects with ADHD (DSM-IV) and a Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) score >= 24 at baseline. Subjects were randomized to OROS-MPH (18mg, 36mg, 72 mg/day) or placebo. Symptomatic outcomes were assessed by total CAARS score (TCS). Functional outcomes were assessed by Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) total score and subscales (work, social life and family life), quality of life by Q-LES-Q total score. The relationship of CAARS with SDS and Q-LES-Q was assessed by Pearson's partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for baseline scores of CAARS, SDS, Q-LES-Q, CGI-S, age, sex, and randomization group.
401 subjects were enrolled (54.4% male, mean (SD) age 34 (10.24) yrs). There was a significant treatment effect as measured in TCS at DB endpoint for all OROS MPH treatment groups compared to placebo (P< 0.05). The absolute value of partial correlations of symptomatic outcome with functional outcomes and quality of life varied between 0.54 and 0.36; all correlations were significant (p< 0.0001). These correlations were compared between the functional and quality of life measures, but none differed significantly.
Subjects’ symptomatic improvements during treatment with PR OROS MPH are reflected in improvements in their vocational and social function as measured by the SDS, and quality of life.
Describe the prevalence and characteristics of psychotic symptoms in the context of cocaine injection use in a harm reduction program.
To find associations between intravenous cocaine use and other drug use in cocaine dependent patients suffering from cocaine induced psychosis (CIP). Cannabis was found to be a risk factor for developing CIP in non-intravenous cocaine dependence.
During a period of 6 months professionals from our Outpatient Drug Clinic completed a confidential questionnaire to describe the adverse clinical effects following cocaine injection. It included age, gender, ethnic group, daily consumption rate and other drugs used in the last 30 days.
Survey was achieved with a sample of 75 Caucasians patients, 69 men and 6 women with an average age of 32 years old. Seventeen percent (13/75) had psychotic symptoms, of which 84% (11/13) had hallucinations (visuals 4/11, auditive 7/11 and kinaesthetic 2/11), 15% (2/13) illusions.
Eighteen percent (14/75) had stereotypy movements and 3% (2/75) had aggressive behaviour. Drugs used by CIP patients, the previous 30 days were: 61% (8/13) cannabis, 31% (4/13) opiates and 15% (2/13) alcohol.
Intravenous cocaine use produced acute psychotic symptoms in 17% of our patients, of which 61% used cannabis. Despite the ethical and practical implications of this type of study, it is necessary to do more observational studies with bigger surveys to conclude these results with statistically significance.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in children (5.29%) worldwide, and highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders.
To evaluate ADHD symptoms prevalence/frequency in young ambulatory patients diagnosed with other psychiatric disorders.
Non-interventional, multicentre, and cross-sectional, retrospective study. Patients aged 15-24 having a primary diagnosis of: Substance Use (SUD), Borderline personality (BPD), Anxiety (AD), Affective, Antisocial Personality (APD), or Conduct Disorders(CD) or Bulimia, giving inform consent were included (not previously treated/diagnosed with ADHD). ADHD symptoms prevalence was captured following DSM-IV criteria and moderate ADHD symptoms was considered as scoring >24 in the ADHD RS (DuPaul).
795 patients meeting in- and exclusion criteria were analyzed in the study. Mean age was 21.12 (SD: 2.64), and the majority were men (57.5%).A probable ADHD diagnosis (6 or more DSMIV symptoms and ADHD RS moderate symptoms) was apparent in: 40.3% of SUD patients, 23.7% of AD, 21.7% of Affective Disorders, 30.3% of Bulimia, 48.3% of BPD, 41.7% of CD and 57.1% of APD. Moreover, patients with SUD (ODD: 1.54) and BPD (ODD: 2.2) had significantly more risk vs. rest of population studied of having moderate ADHD symptoms. Also, patients having a probable ADHD diagnosis were significantly rated more severe in the GCI-Severity scale than the rest of population studied.
This cross-sectional study showed that ADHD symptoms are highly prevalent in young ambulatory patients diagnosed primarily with other psychiatric disorders, what seems to worse patient outcome if not diagnosed/managed on time. ADHD comorbidity risk varied significantly depending on the primary diagnosis.
Cocaine consumption can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. Cocaine induced psychosis (CIP) is common but not developed in all cases.
To describe the Risk Factors for developing cocaine-induced psychosis in cocaine dependent patients, according DSM-IV-TR criteria.
This is the first European study about the relationship of CIP with consumption pattern variables and personality disorders, we evaluated 220 cocaine dependents over 18 years, 80'5% males, mean age 33.9 years (SD = 7.6). Patients were recluted from an outpatient clinic department and subsequently systematically evaluated using SCID I and SCID II interviews for comorbidity disorders, and a clinical-based systematic psychotic symptoms form.
A high proportion of cocaine dependent patients reported psychotic symptoms (51.8%) under influence of cocaine. The most frequent reported psychotic symptoms were paranoid beliefs and suspiciousness (42.4%). After a logistic regression analysis we found that a model consisted of high cocaine consumption (mean of 12.01 grams per week), cannabis dependence history and to use intranasal or smoked rout of administration had a sensitivity of 63.2% and a specificity of 70.2%.
We conclude that is relevant to evaluate CIP in patients consuming high amounts of cocaine, with cannabis dependence history and who do not use intranasal rout. It could be useful for preventing consequences or risks of psychotic states for themselves or others.
To explore the relationship between symptomatic and functional outcomes in adults (age 18-65 years) with ADHD during open label treatment with PR OROS MPH.
Post hoc analyses of a 7-week open-label extension (OLE) (N=370) of a 5 week, placebo controlled double-blind study (DB) which explored safety, efficacy, functional and quality of life outcomes in subjects with a diagnosis of ADHD (DSM-IV). Medication was flexibly dosed (18-90 mg/day) and adjusted individually to best effect during OLE. Regression analyses were performed on the change from DB baseline at OL endpoint in functionality and quality of life as measured by the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and Quality of Life (Q-LES-Q). Baseline score, country, randomization group, sex, change from baseline in CAARS Hyperactivity / Impulsivity, CAARS Inattention and CGI-S at DB endpoint were included as covariates in the analyses.
337 / 370 patients completed the 7-week open label treatment. Improvement on CAARS Hyperactivity / Impulsivity at DB endpoint was significantly related with improvement in SDS “work”, “social life”, “family life” (at least p< 0.005) and “total score” as well as quality of life (p< 0.05) at the end of open label treatment. Change in CGI-S and CAARS Inattention at DB endpoint vs. DB baseline were not related with improvements in any of the functional or quality of life scales at OL endpoint (p>0.05).
These results indicate that improvement in daily functioning and QOL under active treatment may be particularly related to improvement in hyperactivity symptoms.
There are few studies about the characteristics of Substance Use Disorder patients that relapse, defined by restart of the substance use that motivated the intake, after discharge from a Detoxification Unit.
To analyze the percentage of patients who had a relapse in the following 3 months after discharge and to describe their sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutical characteristics.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from June 2008 to August 2009. Data was gathered at admission on demographic (gender, age), clinical (main abused drug, psychiatric comorbidities, polydrug users) and therapeutical variables (hospitalisation duration, prescribed treatment). Patients were followed up for 3 months and assessed for relapse at 1 and 3 months by clinical interview, alcohol screening test and/or urinalysis. Results from patients with and without relapses were compared.
The study sample included 103 patients (77,7% men, average age 38,31±9). At month 3, 57,3% of the patients had relapsed. We found significant differences between the relapse and the non-relapse group on the percentage of polydrug users (68,6% vs 31,4%, p=0,05), on heroine as main drug of abuse (76% vs 24%, p=0,05) and psychiatric comorbidities (60,8% vs 39,2%, p=0,04), being psychotic disorders the most frequent. No significant differences were found between the 2 groups concerning therapeutical variables.
More than half of the patients that ended the detoxification process relapsed in the first 3 months. Polydrug use, opiate dependence and having a psychiatric comorbidity might be considered as risk factors for relapse.
Drug substance abuse has been related with chronic insomnia and other sleep disorders that are thought to interfere in detoxification treatment and relapse induction. These disorders can persist after drug detoxification.
To describe sleep disorders refered by drug dependents patients in an inpatient detoxification unit.
We prospectively studied drug dependents patients admitted to our Detoxification Unit from January 2005 to March 2009. The first night, patients were asked to complete an 11-item questionnaire measure designed to assess the relationship between sleep disorders and drug use. Responses ranged from 1 to 7. The questionnaire measured the following:
a) insomnia before hospitalization;
b) patients’ beliefs about the relationship between insomnia and drug use;
c) insomnia in previous detoxifications;
d) patients’ worry about insomnia;
e) treatment of sleep disorder with benzodiazepines.
The study sample included 150 patients (75.3% men). 39% of the patients suffered from alcohol abuse, 34.67% from cocaine abuse, 22.67% from opiod abuse, 21% from cannabis abuse, 18% from benzodiazepine abuse, and 12.67% of patients were polydrug users.Lifetime prevalence of sleep disorders was 68.1%. 64% had suffered insomnia the months previous to detoxification. 80.1% of patients’ refered sleep disorders in relationship with substance abuse. 69.4% were worried about insomnia during detoxification. 75.4% of patients took benzodiazepines without prescription.
Sleep disorders in patients with drug abuse are frequent. A high prevalence of patients having worries about insomnia during the detoxification treatment and believing in a relationship between their sleep disorders and the drug abuse was found.
There is no direct relationship between migration and mental health, certain risk (e.g. acculturative stress) and protective factors of psychosocial well-being are inversely related with psychopathology. Acculturation strategies have been found to be related to psychopathology however this relationship has been minimaly examined with psychosocial well-being. The objectives of this study are to examine the relationship between acculturative stress, acculturation, and psychosocial well-being.
The sample consists of 150 immigrant inpatients hospitalized in tertiary care between 18 and 65 years of age. Acculturative stress, acculturation, social adaptation, anxiety and depression, as well as sociodemogrpahic and attitudinal items were evaluated.
With general health situation controlled, the study found a negative relationship between acculturative stress and psychosocial well-being, as well as between the marginalization acculturation strategy and psychosocial well-being. A relationship was found between acculturation strategies and acculturative stress. There is no positive relationship between the integration acculturation strategy and psychosocial well-being, although the majority of the study participants preferred integration, followed by assimilation. The latter is associated with lower levels of acculturative stress and higher psychosocial well-being. Separation, on the other hand, is associated with lower levels of anxiety and depression, and with a higher quality of life.
None of the acculturation strategies demonstrates a clear advantage in relation to psychosocial well-being, however, marginalization appears to be the least adaptive. It may be useful to revise the notion of what constitutes the most adaptive acculturation strategy for an individual, taking into account his or her psychosocial well-being.
Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence up to 4% of the general adult population, however in Spain adult ADHD is underdiagnosed. Screening instruments can help clinicians to detect adult ADHD. The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-Version 1.1 (ASRS v1.1) is a 6-question scale designed to screen for adult ADHD.
A validation of Spanish version of the ASRS v1.1 was performed.
A case control study was carry out (adult ADHD vs non ADHD) in the Adult ADHD Program of the Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona). ADHD evaluation was performed using Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-Part II) and the diagnosis was compared with the ASRS v1.1 responses. Logistic regression study was made to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV). Kappa coefficient of classification accuracy and area under curve (AUC) were calculated.
Sample consisted of 90 adult ADHD and 90 controls. Average age was 31.6 (SD=10.09) and 57.8% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Logistic regression analysis showed that the score model proposed by the authors of scale is significant (c2 =129.36, p=.0005): Sensitivity (82.2%), specificity (95.6%), PPV (94.8%), NPV (84.3%), Kappa coefficient 0.78 and AUC 0.89.
The Spanish version of the ASRS v1.1 6-question shows adequate psychometric characteristics and it is a valid scale to screen ADHD for adults in a clinical setting.
Co-morbidity between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUD) is considered to be about 25–50% in adults. Several studies show vulnerability factors to later SUD to be associated with childhood ADHD features, such as conduct problems, untreated ADHD and maltreatment.
To define childhood ADHD associated factors that predispose to SUD.
Specifically, comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), temperamental traits, academic failure, familial SUD history, childhood maltreatment and subtype, severity and age of treatment of ADHD symptoms.
A comparative study was carried out in a sample of ADHD adults from the Department of Psychiatry H.U. Vall d’Hebron. Both groups, ADHD and ADHD+SUD subjects underwent the following assessment protocol: Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-I & II), Wender Utath Rating Scale (WURS), SCID-I, SCID-II and K-SDAS.
The total sample (n = 305) consisted of 201 men (66%) with age between 18–61 years. Two groups were compared: 162 ADHD subjects and 143 ADHD+SUD subjects. The ADHD+SUD group had significantly higher rates of comorbidity with ODD and CD, temperamental traits (obstinacy, bad temper, impulsive behavior), maladaptive behaviors at school, familial SUD history, childhood maltreatment, and major severity of the childhood ADHD symptoms. Neither ADHD subtype nor the non-treatment of ADHD during childhood were associated with later SUD.
An important percentage of ADHD children develop a SUD during their lifespan. This study shows that there are childhood factors that are strongly associated with SUD in ADHD subjects.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic disease that is well accepted as a childhood condition. Despite increasing evidence of its clinical relevance in adults, it would appear that adult ADHD is underdiagnosed. This is particularly the case when comorbid with another mental disorder. Comorbidity across the life-span runs as high as 70% amongst adults diagnosed with ADHD. One of the most frequently occurring comorbidities in adult ADHD are substance use disorders (SUDs), which show a bi-directional relationship. ADHD is a risk factor for the development of later SUD to the extent that 9%-30% of adults with ADHD have a substance use problem. On the other hand, prevalence studies have shown that between 15% and 25% of patients with a SUD also have ADHD. The bi-directional relationship between ADHD and SUD can modify the clinical expression of symptoms, thus rendering difficult both correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment. ADHD is a strong risk factor for the subsequent development of an SUD and can jeopardize drug treatment. Assessment for ADHD is highly recommended amongst SUD patients as is a drug evaluation for those adults diagnosed with ADHD. An undiagnosed comorbidity can result in poor results as only part of the problem is treated. More research is needed to clarify relationship between adult ADHD and substance abuse, as well as to explore new psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments for this comorbidity.
Despite of the evidence of high psychopathological disorders in patients with ATSCI, few data are available on their psychiatric morbidity prior to the injury.
Identify psychiatric morbidity pre-post ATSCI in a sample of patients admitted in the Spinal Injuries Unit of the Vall d’ Hebron University Hospital in Barcelona (Spain).
Material and methods
54 patients with ATSCI patients were admitted between 1st. October 2009 and 1st. October 2010. SPSS (version 16.1) was used to analyze the data.
Seventy-six percent of the inpatients with ATSCI (41 cases) were evaluated by the psychiatrist and constitute the study sample. Twenty-seven (66%) were male and 14 (33%) female. The average age of the sample was 41 years with younger males (p < 0.05).
Reasons for ATSCI in males were traffic accident (26%), accidental falls and sports accidents (both 18.5%). In women were suicidal attempt by precipitation, fall accident (28.6% both) and traffic accident (21.4%).
41% of men versus 14% of women had a history of substance misuse (p < 0.01) while 64% of women versus the 14.8% of males had a prior psychiatric disorder (p < 0.01). 72.5% of men with ATSCI caused by traffic accident had used substances prior to the accident, those association was not found for women.
91% of patients underwent psychopharmacological intervention.
ATSCI patients exhibit high psychiatric morbidity and require specialized assessment. The high incidence of substance use associated with road traffic injuries suggests the need to identify risk groups in order to establish effective preventive measures.