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The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
To determine if specific dietary patterns are associated with risk of hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and high BMI in four sites in Peru.
We analysed dietary patterns from a cohort of Peruvian adults in four geographical settings using latent class analysis. Associations with prevalence and incidence of hypertension, T2DM and high BMI were assessed using Poisson regression and generalised linear models, adjusted for potential confounders.
Four sites in Peru varying in degree of urbanisation.
Adults aged ≥35 years (n 3280).
We identified four distinct dietary patterns corresponding to different stages of the Peruvian nutrition transition, reflected by the foods frequently consumed in each pattern. Participants consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet, characterised by high proportional consumption of processed foods, animal products and low consumption of vegetables, mostly consumed in the semi-urban setting, showed the highest prevalence of all health outcomes (hypertension 32·1 %; T2DM 10·7 %; high BMI 75·1 %). Those with a more traditional ‘stage 1’ diet characterised by potato and vegetables, mostly consumed in the rural setting, had lower prevalence of hypertension (prevalence ratio; 95 CI: 0·57; 0·43, 0·75), T2DM (0·36; 0·16, 0·86) and high BMI (0·55; 0·48, 0·63) compared with the ‘stage 3’ diet. Incidence of hypertension was highest among individuals consuming the ‘stage 3’ diet (63·75 per 1000 person-years; 95 % CI 52·40, 77·55).
The study found more traditional diets were associated with a lower prevalence of three common chronic diseases, while prevalence of these diseases was higher with a diet high in processed foods and low in vegetables.
To determine the association between excess body fat, assessed by skinfold thickness, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension (HT).
Data from the ongoing PERU MIGRANT Study were analysed. The outcomes were T2DM and HT, and the exposure was skinfold thickness measured in bicipital, tricipital, subscapular and suprailiac areas. The Durnin–Womersley formula and SIRI equation were used for body fat percentage estimation. Risk ratios and population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated using Poisson regression.
Rural (Ayacucho) and urban shantytown district (San Juan de Miraflores, Lima) in Peru.
Adults (n 988) aged ≥30 years (rural, rural-to-urban migrants, urban) completed the baseline study. A total of 785 and 690 were included in T2DM and HT incidence analysis, respectively.
At baseline, age mean was 48·0 (sd 12·0) years and 47 % were males. For T2DM, in 7·6 (sd 1·3) years, sixty-one new cases were identified, overall incidence of 1·0 (95 % CI 0·8, 1·3) per 100 person-years. Bicipital and subscapular skinfolds were associated with 2·8-fold and 6·4-fold risk of developing T2DM. On the other hand, in 6·5 (sd 2·5) years, overall incidence of HT was 2·6 (95 % CI 2·2, 3·1) per 100 person-years. Subscapular and overall fat obesity were associated with 2·4- and 2·9-fold risk for developing HT. The PAF for subscapular skinfold was 73·6 and 39·2 % for T2DM and HT, respectively.
We found a strong association between subscapular skinfold thickness and developing T2DM and HT. Skinfold assessment can be a laboratory-free strategy to identify high-risk HT and T2DM cases.
Despite the fact that literature regarding the implications of envy in the work environment has generated growing interest in recent years, the role of malicious and benign envy in the workplace has scarcely been studied. Therefore, the present study, using an experimental design, N = 213 (140 female and 73 male; Mage = 31.05, SD = 10.01; range from 18 to 68), aims to examine the effects of malicious (vs. benign) envy on perceived injustice, negative emotions, and the individual tendency to express counterproductive work behaviors. The results obtained showed that the mere activation of malicious envy (vs. benign envy) leads to an increased perceived injustice (p < .001, ηp2= .15), and to higher levels of negative emotions (p < .001, ηp2= .18) and counterproductive (harmful) behaviors toward the envied co-worker (p < .001, ηp2= .16). Additionally, we found that perceptions of injustice and negative emotions mediated the effect of malicious (vs. benign) envy on the inclination to express counterproductive work behaviors (Indirect Effect (IE) = .227, SE = .064, 95% CI [.127, .386]. Finally, these findings and their possible implications are discussed.
Unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAVs) have had a rapid escalation in manageability and affordability, which can be exploited in healthcare. We conducted a systematic review examining the use of drones for health-related purposes.
A search was conducted in Medline, Embase, Global Health, Scopus, CINAHL and SciELO. Experimental studies were selected if the population included human subjects, the intervention was the use of UAVs and there was a health-related outcome.
Of 500 results, five met inclusion criteria during an initial search. An updated search yielded four additional studies. Nine studies, all in high-income countries, were included for systematic syntheses: four studies addressed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest emergencies, three assessed drones for identification of people after accidents, one used drones to transport blood samples and one used drones to improve surgical procedures in war zones.
Research on the use of drones in healthcare is limited to simulation scenarios, and this review did not retrieve any studies from low- and middle-income countries.
To determine the association between consumption of snacks and sweetened beverages and risk of overweight among children.
Secondary analysis of the Young Lives cohort study in Peru.
Twenty sentinel sites from a total of 1818 districts available in Peru.
Children in the younger cohort of the Young Lives study in Peru, specifically those included in the third (2009) and the fourth (2013) rounds.
A total of 1813 children were evaluated at baseline; 49·2 % girls and mean age 8·0 (sd 0·3) years. At baseline, 3·3 (95 % CI 2·5, 4·2) % reported daily sweetened beverage consumption, while this proportion was 3·9 (95 % CI 3·1, 4·9) % for snacks. Baseline prevalence of overweight was 22·0 (95 % CI 20·1, 23·9) %. Only 1414 children were followed for 4·0 (sd 0·1) years, with an overweight incidence of 3·6 (95 % CI 3·1, 4·1) per 100 person-years. In multivariable analysis, children who consumed sweetened beverages and snacks daily had an average weight increase of 2·29 (95 % CI 0·62, 3·96) and 2·04 (95 % CI 0·48, 3·60) kg more, respectively, than those who never consumed these products, in approximately 4 years of follow-up. Moreover, there was evidence of an association between daily consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of overweight (relative risk=2·12; 95 % CI 1·05, 4·28).
Daily consumption of sweetened beverages and snacks was associated with increased weight gain v. never consuming these products; and in the case of sweetened beverages, with higher risk of developing overweight.
Collagen associated with bone samples is frequently used for radiocarbon (14C) dating of bones recovered from archaeological sites. However, submersion and exposure to moisture favors the degradation of collagen, which leads to difficulty in reliably dating bones from tropical, humid, or previously submerged archaeological sites. In this paper, we characterized the preservation state of a series of bones, through parameters such as %C, %N, C/N ratio, and collagen recovery. We performed 14C analyses of three collagen fractions obtained through the pretreatment steps (total, ultrafiltered, and insoluble collagen) in order to link the preservation state and the reproducibility of 14C values obtained from the three fractions. Collagen ultrafiltration resulted in a decrease of C/N ratio, although collagen yield was reduced. When two or three collagen fractions were obtained, ages were reproducible and consistent with expected values, according to archaeological or hydrogeological criteria. The pretreatment steps were monitored by infrared spectroscopy in order to analyze the collagen fractions at the molecular level. The presence of collagen in the total and insoluble fractions was confirmed. Since many of the Mexican samples had poor ultrafiltered collagen yield (<3%) or nonexistent yield, our results show that if additional contextual information is carefully considered, the remnant collagen in the total and insoluble fraction can be dated, especially from sites where no other datable fraction exists.
The Nevado de Toluca is a stratovolcano located in the southwest of the Toluca Valley in central Mexico. At a height of around 4200 m there are two crater lakes: El Sol and La Luna. Since Precolumbian times, people in the surrounding valleys carried out rituals and deposited offerings into the lakes. After the Spanish conquest, these rituals were kept alive clandestinely. Currently, reminiscent of Mesoamerican rituals subsist. Due to the long duration of the ritual at the Nevado de Toluca, it is important to date the materials recovered in the underwater and terrestrial archaeological explorations. This article proposes a chronology of Prehispanic ritual activities performed in the Nevado de Toluca based on the characterization and radiocarbon (14C) dating performed to materials from the volcano’s lakes.
Sleep difficulties and short sleep duration have been associated with hypertension. Though body mass index (BMI) may be a mediator variable, the mediation effect has not been defined. We aimed to assess the association between sleep duration and sleep difficulties with hypertension, to determine if BMI is a mediator variable, and to quantify the mediation effect. We conducted a mediation analysis and calculated prevalence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The exposure variables were sleep duration and sleep difficulties, and the outcome was hypertension. Sleep difficulties were statistically significantly associated with a 43% higher prevalence of hypertension in multivariable analyses; results were not statistically significant for sleep duration. In these analyses, and in sex-specific subgroup analyses, we found no strong evidence that BMI mediated the association between sleep indices and risk of hypertension. Our findings suggest that BMI does not appear to mediate the association between sleep patterns and hypertension. These results highlight the need to further study the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep patterns and cardiovascular risk factors.
The protein kinase R (PKR, also called EIF2AK2) is an interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA protein kinase with multiple effects on cells that plays an active part in the cellular response to numerous types of stress. PKR has been extensively studied and documented for its relevance as an antiviral agent and a cell growth regulator. Recently, the role of PKR related to metabolism, inflammatory processes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases has gained interest. In this review, we summarise and discuss the involvement of PKR in several cancer signalling pathways and the dual role that this kinase plays in cancer disease. We emphasise the importance of PKR as a molecular target for both conventional chemotherapeutics and emerging treatments based on novel drugs, and its potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target for several pathologies. Finally, we discuss the impact that the recent knowledge regarding PKR involvement in metabolism has in our understanding of the complex processes of cancer and metabolism pathologies, highlighting the translational research establishing the clinical and therapeutic potential of this pleiotropic kinase.