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To evaluate the experiences of parenting a child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome after the child has been discharged home from hospital.
A study of the parents’ experiences using face-to-face interviews and psychometric measures with parents whose child had survived stage surgery.
Parents were interviewed within the home environment or within the hospital if that was their choice.
A total of 29 parents (16 mothers and 13 fathers) of surviving children.
A semi-structured face-to-face interview plus psychometric tests (parent demographics, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Impact on Family Scale, and the Psychological Check List – Civilian).
Measurements and main results
The parents’ experience in supporting a child with hypoplastic left heart syndrome is one of stress, of commitment, and of love. Although parents experienced joy in their child, they were also subjected to anxiety with four parents test positive to post-traumatic stress disorder and hypervigilance while monitoring their child’s condition. Parents lived with many difficulties, and demands.
Evidence suggests a role of Mg and the ratio of Ca:Mg intakes in the prevention of colonic carcinogenesis. The association between these nutrients and oesophageal adenocarcinoma – a tumour with increasing incidence in developed countries and poor survival rates – has yet to be explored. The aim of this investigation was to explore the association between Mg intake and related nutrients and risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett’s oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. This analysis included cases of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (n 218), Barrett’s oesophagus (n 212), reflux oesophagitis (n 208) and population-based controls (n 252) recruited between 2002 and 2005 throughout the island of Ireland. All the subjects completed a 101-item FFQ. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was applied to determine odds of disease according to dietary intakes of Mg, Ca and Ca:Mg ratio. After adjustment for potential confounders, individuals consuming the highest amounts of Mg from foods had significant reductions in the odds of reflux oesophagitis (OR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·87) and Barrett’s oesophagus (OR 0·29; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·71) compared with individuals consuming the lowest amounts of Mg. The protective effect of Mg was more apparent in the context of a low Ca:Mg intake ratio. No significant associations were observed for Mg intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·30, 1·99 comparing the highest and the lowest tertiles of consumption). In conclusion, dietary Mg intakes were inversely associated with reflux oesophagitis and Barrett’s oesophagus risk in this Irish population.
Objective: To evaluate the psychosocial status of mothers and fathers in response to their infant’s diagnosis of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. Design: A study on interviews with parents whose children had survived staged surgery. Setting: Tertiary hospital paediatric ICU. Subjects: A total of 29 parents (16 mothers and 13 fathers) of surviving children. Intervention: A semi-structured face-to-face interview was conducted to explore experiences of parents in response to their infant’s diagnosis, their interaction with the doctor delivering the diagnosis, their deliberation about staged surgery, and their reasons for this choice. Measurement and Main Results: All parents were devastated about their infant’s diagnosis, and most (83%) of them said that the time of the diagnosis and the aftermath was the worst time of their lives. Parents reported helpful and unhelpful communication at this time. Although all parents in this study chose surgery for their infant, when faced with the choice, 17 of them made an immediate decision “to protect their infant’s life”, 8 were initially unsure when their infant was diagnosed in utero, and 4 were unsure when the infant was diagnosed after birth. Parents also experienced loss and other stressors. Conclusions: All parents of the infants diagnosed with hypoplastic left heart syndrome experienced intense loss and stressors. Physicians need to be sensitive to the needs and thinking of the parents when discussing treatment options before surgery. The nature of the relationship with the doctor at this time can support parents or be a further source of stress.
There is a growing interest in high-order finite and spectral/hp element
methods using continuous and discontinuous Galerkin formulations. In this paper we
investigate the effect of h- and p-type refinement on
the relationship between runtime performance and solution accuracy. The broad spectrum of
possible domain discretisations makes establishing a performance-optimal selection
non-trivial. Through comparing the runtime of different implementations for evaluating
operators over the space of discretisations with a desired solution tolerance, we
demonstrate how the optimal discretisation and operator implementation may be selected for
a specified problem. Furthermore, this demonstrates the need for codes to support both
low- and high-order discretisations.
Evidence is accumulating that vitamin D may be protective against carcinogenesis, although exceptions have been observed for some digestive tract neoplasms. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between dietary vitamin D and related nutrients and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis. In an all-Ireland case–control study conducted between March 2002 and July 2005, 218 oesophageal adenocarcinoma patients, 212 Barrett's oesophagus patients, 208 reflux oesophagitis patients and 252 population-based controls completed a 101-item FFQ, and provided lifestyle and demographic information. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the association between dietary intake and disease risk. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk was significantly greater for individuals with the highest compared with the lowest tertile of vitamin D intake (OR 1·99, 95 % CI 1·03, 3·86; P for trend = 0·02). The direct association could not be attributed to a particular vitamin D food source. Vitamin D intake was unrelated to Barrett's oesophagus and reflux oesophagitis risk. No significant associations were observed for Ca or dairy intake and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's oesophagus or reflux oesophagitis development. High vitamin D intake may increase oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk but is not related to reflux oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus. Ca and dairy product intake did not influence the development of these oesophageal lesions. These findings suggest that there may be population subgroups at an increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma if advice to improve vitamin D intake from foods is implemented. Limited work has been conducted in this area, and further research is required.
We report the growth of GaN films by RF-MBE on SiC, ZnO, and LiGaO2 substrates, without buffer layers. Structural and optical properties of the films were probed by AFM for surface morphology, XRD for crystalline structure, and PL for optical properties. The dependence of GaN layer quality on the substrates and their surface pre-treatment prior to growth was studied within a similar MBE growth parameter matrix for all samples.