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We demonstrate that the surface topography of a sample can be reconstructed from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns collected with a commercial EBSD system. This technique combines the location of the maximum background intensity with a correction from Monte Carlo simulations to determine the local surface normals at each point in an EBSD scan. A surface height map is then reconstructed from the local surface normals. In this study, a Ni sample was machined with a femtosecond laser, which causes the formation of a laser-induced periodic surface structure (LIPSS). The topography of the LIPSS was analyzed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reconstructions from EBSD patterns collected at 5 and 20 kV. The LIPSS consisted of a combination of low frequency waviness due to curtaining and high frequency ridges. The morphology of the reconstructed low frequency waviness and high frequency ridges matched the AFM data. The reconstruction technique does not require any modification to existing EBSD systems and so can be particularly useful for measuring topography and its evolution during in situ experiments.
Experiments on the National Ignition Facility show that multi-dimensional effects currently dominate the implosion performance. Low mode implosion symmetry and hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by capsule mounting features appear to be two key limiting factors for implosion performance. One reason these factors have a large impact on the performance of inertial confinement fusion implosions is the high convergence required to achieve high fusion gains. To tackle these problems, a predictable implosion platform is needed meaning experiments must trade-off high gain for performance. LANL has adopted three main approaches to develop a one-dimensional (1D) implosion platform where 1D means measured yield over the 1D clean calculation. A high adiabat, low convergence platform is being developed using beryllium capsules enabling larger case-to-capsule ratios to improve symmetry. The second approach is liquid fuel layers using wetted foam targets. With liquid fuel layers, the implosion convergence can be controlled via the initial vapor pressure set by the target fielding temperature. The last method is double shell targets. For double shells, the smaller inner shell houses the DT fuel and the convergence of this cavity is relatively small compared to hot spot ignition. However, double shell targets have a different set of trade-off versus advantages. Details for each of these approaches are described.
The objective was to determine the effects of immunization against gonadotropin-releasing hormone on reproductive characteristics in boars. A total of 72 boars were used in a randomized design with three treatments: single immunization (SI) (10 weeks of age) or double immunization (DI) (10 and 15 weeks of age) with Improvest® and intact controls (no Improvest®; CNT) (n=24/group). At 10, 15, 20, 25 and 40 weeks of age, blood was collected and serum harvested to evaluate testosterone concentrations. Testosterone concentrations were less for DI boars compared with CNT boars and SI boars at 20 and 25 weeks (P<0.001), but not at 40 weeks of age. At week 25, 18 pigs (n=6/group) were sacrificed and testes were removed, weighed and measured, and seminiferous tubules were examined and scored using histological slides of testes parenchyma. A sample of neck fat was assessed for boar taint aroma. All testicular measurements and weights and seminiferous tubule scores were less for DI boars compared with SI and CNT boars (P<0.001). More (P<0.05) SI and CNT boars had detectable boar taint aroma than DI boars. Libido was assessed at 32, 36, 47, 60 and 63 weeks of age and semen collected at 60 weeks of age was analyzed for indicators of quality. There were no effects of treatment (P=0.41) or treatment by week (P=0.71) on libido. Semen volume, gel weight and total number of sperm cells, determined in a subset of boars (n=3/treatment), were not different among treatments. Sperm concentration was greater for DI than SI (P=0.01), and tended to be greater for DI compared with CNT (P=0.10). Sperm motility tended to be greater for DI boars compared with CNT boars (P=0.066). In conclusion, our results show that there are no long-term effects of immunocastration on reproductive characteristics in boars.
Zinc Oxide crystals have historically been grown in hydrothermal autoclaves with a basic mineralizer; however, doubts have been raised about the quality of such crystals because they have often exhibited large x-ray rocking curve widths and low photoluminescence (PL) yield with large linewidths. Several ZnO crystals were grown hydrothermally and sliced parallel to the c-plane. This resulted in opposite surfaces (the C+ and C−) exhibiting pronounced chemical and mechanical differences. Different surface treatments were investigated and compared by PL both at room temperature and liquid helium temperatures, and by double axis X-ray rocking curve measurements. The high quality of hydrothermally-grown ZnO is substantiated by the narrow rocking curve widths and sharp PL peaks obtained. A critical factor in obtaining these results was found to be surface preparation.
A new process for synthesis and bulk crystal growth of GaN is described. GaN single crystal c-plane platelets up to 9mm by 2mm by 100μm thick have been grown by the Chemical Vapor Reaction Process (CVRP). The reaction between gallium and a nitrogen precursor is produced by sublimation of solid ammonium chloride in a carrier gas, which passes over gallium at a temperature of approximately 900°C at near atmospheric pressures. Growth rates for the platelets were 25-100 μm/hr in the hexagonal plane. Seeded growth in the c-direction was also accomplished by re-growth on previously grown c-plane platelets. The crystals were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, inert gas fusion, and room temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements.
There is little information on the association of the APOEe4 allele and AD risk in African populations. In previous analyses from the Indianapolis-Ibadan dementia project, we have reported that APOE ε4 increased the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in African Americans but not in Yoruba. This study represents a replication of this earlier work using enriched cohorts and extending the analysis to include cognitive decline.
In this longitudinal study of two community dwelling cohorts of elderly Yoruba and African Americans, APOE genotyping was conducted from blood samples taken on or before 2001 (1,871 African Americans & 2,200 Yoruba). Mean follow up time was 8.5 years for African Americans and 8.8 years for Yoruba. The effects of heterozygosity or homozygosity of ε4 and of the possession of e4 on time to incident AD and on cognitive decline were determined using Cox's proportional hazards regression and mixed effects models.
After adjusting for covariates, one or two copies of the APOE ε4 allele were significant risk factors for incident AD (p < 0.0001) and cognitive decline in the African-American population (p < 0001). In the Yoruba, only homozygosity for APOE ε4 was a significant risk factor for AD (p = 0.0002) but not for cognitive decline (p = 0.2346), however, possession of an e4 allele was significant for both incident AD (p = 0.0489) and cognitive decline (p = 0.0425).
In this large longitudinal comparative study, APOE ε4 had a significant, but weaker, effect on incident AD and on cognitive decline in Yoruba than in African Americans. The reasons for these differences remain unclear.
High peak electron mobilities were observed in free-standing c-plane GaN substrates. Two layers, a low mobility degenerate layer and a high mobility bulk layer, were present in these samples. The carrier concentrations and mobilities for the layers were extracted using two methods: 1) magnetic field dependent Hall effect analysis and 2) a simple two carrier model with the assumption that one of the layers is degenerate. In addition, measurements were performed after etching away the degenerate layer. The mobility of the bulk layer is found to peak at nearly 8000 cm2/Vs at 60K using the magnetic field dependent Hall effect data. Record room temperature mobility for bulk GaN of 1190 cm2/V s was measured.
This paper reports the most recent results from the cluster chemistry program at the Naval Research Laboratory, in which our efforts in the characterization of gas-phase cluster properties have been extended to studies of condensed-phase species. First, in an attempt to investigate the fundamental interactions between mass-selected cluster ions and surfaces, two tandem mass spectrometers were constructed or modified, and the results of the initial experiments will be discussed. The emphasis will be on illustrating the general utility of ion/surface collisions to study fragmentations, reactions, and deposition. Second, clusters were deposited into a matrix in order to perform spectroscopic analyses. The initial experiments have been directed at optimization of the techniques. Finally, recent measurement of the ionization potentials of large carbon clusters will be reported. These results are especially significant because of the new developments in large-scale production, isolation, and characterization of these species.
The physical and chemical properties of large carbon clusters, Cn(n>40), have been studied extensively over the past six years. The spherical nature of these clusters has been debated and inferred from both experimental and theoretical studies until the recent isolation and subsequent spectroscopic identification of bulk C60 and C70. Although the n=60 and 70 cluster ions are anomalously abundant (“magic numbers”) in the mass spectra and are proposed to be highly symmetric species, the other “magic number” clusters have yet to be isolated.
Fullerenes with a metal atom inside of the cage, metallofulierenes, were produced by either laser vaporization or a graphite arc and characterized using a variety of mass spectrometric methods. First, yttrium-fullerene adducts were formed by direct laser vaporization of samples consisting of graphite, yttrium oxide and fullerenes. Fragmentation and oxidation ion/molecule reactions showed that the laser-generated adducts are endohedral complexes (Yx@Cn), in contrast to externally-bound Y(Cn)+ species formed by gas-phase reactions. In addition, evidence was obtained for laserinduced bulk coalescence reactions yielding the metallofullerenes. Second, negative ion/desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometry was used to characterize metallofullerenes in arc-generated soot, pyridine extracts and the extract residue. The pyridine extracts of La2O3/graphite soot contain mostlyLa@C82 and La2@C80', in addition to (empty) fullerenes. However, the raw soot and the extract residue contain a broader range of metallofullerenes with relative abundances different than those observed from the extract (e.g. abundant La@C60', Lax@Cn') and La@C74). The thermal desorption behavior of the doped and undoped fullerenes indicate an interaction between the Cn and Lax@Cn species. Analysis of aqueous solutions of dried pyridine extracts of La2O3/graphite soot show Cn and Lax;@Cn' which is consistent with the possible presence ofmetallofullerene/ fullerene ionic complexes, (Lax@Cn)+C-n.
Numerical calculations of disposal room configurations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM are presented. Specifically, the behavior of either crushed salt or a crushed salt-bentonite mixture, when used as a backfill material in disposal rooms, is modeled in conjunction with the creep behavior of the surrounding intact salt. The backfill consolidation model developed at Sandia National Laboratories was implemented into the SPECTROM-32 finite element program. This model includes nonlinear elastic as well as deviatoric and volumetric creep components. Parameters for the models were determined from laboratory tests with deviatoric and hydrostatic loadings. The performance of the intact salt creep model previously implemented into SPECTROM-32 is well documented.
Results from the SPECTROM-32 analyses were compared to a similar study conducted by Sandia National Laboratories using the SANCHO finite element program. The calculated deformations and stresses from the SPECTROM-32 and SANCHO analyses agree reasonably well despite differences in constitutive models and modeling methodology. These results provide estimates of the backfill consolidation through time. The trends in the backfill consolidation can then be used to estimate the permeability of the backfill and subsequent radionuclide transport.