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Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a serious complication in immunocompromised hosts. This study compares epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of BSI among children with haematological malignancies (HM) and solid tumours (ST). The study was conducted from October 2012 through to November 2015 at a referral hospital for cancer care and included the first BSI episode detected in 210 patients aged 18 years or less. BSI cases were prospectively detected by daily laboratory-based surveillance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definitions for primary or secondary BSI were used. A higher proportion of use of corticosteroids (P = 0.02), chemotherapy (P = 0.01) and antibiotics (P = 0.05) before the BSI diagnosis; as well as of neutropenia (P < 0.001) and mucositis (P < 0.001) at the time of BSI diagnosis was observed in patients with HM than with ST. Previous surgical procedures (P = 0.03), mechanical ventilation (P = 0.01) and bed confinement (P < 0.001) were more frequent among children with ST. The frequency of use of temporary (P = 0.01) and implanted vascular lines (P < 0.01) was significantly higher in children with ST than with HM while the tunnelled line (P = 0.01) use was more frequent in children with HM as compared to ST. Most (n = 181) BSI cases were primary BSI. BSI associated with a tunnelled catheter was more frequent in children with HM (P < 0.01), whereas BSI associated with an implanted (P < 0.01) or temporary central line (P < 0.02) was more common in patients with ST. BSI associated with mucosal barrier injury was more frequent (P = 0.01) in children with HM. Indication for intensive care was more frequent in children (P = 0.05) with ST. Mortality ratio was similar in children with ST and HM, and length of hospital stay after BSI was higher in patients with HM than with ST (median of 19 vs. 13 days; P = 0.02). Infection caused by Gram-negative bacteria (P = 0.04) and polymicrobial infections (P = 0.05) due to Gram-positive cocci plus fungus was more common in patients with HM. These findings suggest that the characteristics of BSI acquisition and mortality can be cancer-specific.
Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
Many school-based interventions for obesity prevention have been proposed with positive changes in behaviour, but with unsatisfactory results on weight change. The objective was to verify the effectiveness of a combined school- and home-based obesity prevention programme on excessive weight gain in adolescents. Teachers delivered the school-based primary prevention programme to fifth- and sixth-graders (nine schools, forty-eight control classes, forty-nine intervention classes), which included encouraging healthy eating habits and physical activity. A subgroup of overweight or obese adolescents also received a home-based secondary prevention programme delivered by community health professionals. Schools were randomised to intervention or control group. Intent-to-treat analysis used mixed models for repeated continuous measures and considered the cluster effect. The main outcomes were changes in BMI and percentage body fat (%body fat) after one school-year of intervention and follow-up. Against our hypothesis, BMI increased more in the intervention group than in the control group (Δ = 0·3 kg/m2; P = 0·05) with a greater decrease in %body fat among boys (Δ = –0·6 %; P = 0·03) in the control group. The intervention group increased physical activity by 12·5 min per week compared with the control group. Female adolescents in the intervention group ate healthier items more frequently than in the control group. The subgroup that received both the school and home interventions had an increase in %body fat than in the control group (Δ = 0·89 %; P = 0·01). In the present study, a behavioural change led to a small increase in physical activity and healthy eating habits but also to an overall increase in food intake.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is a public health concern in Latin America. Epigenetic events, such as histone acetylation, affect DNA topology, replication and gene expression. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are involved in chromatin compaction and post-translational modifications of cytoplasmic proteins, such as tubulin. HDAC inhibitors, like trichostatin A (TSA), inhibit tumour cell proliferation and promotes ultrastructural modifications. In the present study, TSA effects on cell proliferation, viability, cell cycle and ultrastructure were evaluated, as well as on histone acetylation and tubulin expression of the T. cruzi epimastigote form. Protozoa proliferation and viability were reduced after treatment with TSA. Quantitative proteomic analyses revealed an increase in histone acetylation after 72 h of TSA treatment. Surprisingly, results obtained by different microscopy methodologies indicate that TSA does not affect chromatin compaction, but alters microtubule cytoskeleton dynamics and impair kDNA segregation, generating polynucleated cells with atypical morphology. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays indicated that treated cell microtubules were more intensely acetylated. Increases in tubulin acetylation may be directly related to the higher number of parasites in the G2/M phase after TSA treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that deacetylase inhibitors represent excellent tools for understanding trypanosomatid cell biology.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that was first identified in Brazil in 2014. It causes a febrile illness characterised by severe arthralgia and rash. Our group investigated a suspected CHIKV outbreak in Governador Valadares, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil and from 25 acute-phase patients, 10 had qRT-PCR positive sera samples and had E1 partial sequence amplified and Sanger sequenced. Samples were identified as East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype by phylogenetic analysis and clustered with CHIKV sequences isolated in the neighbour state of Bahia. Our findings confirm previous predictions that ECSA genotype would spread through northeast and southeast of Brazil.
Although Aplysia depilans is a widely known European species and the type species of the genus, the distinctions that separate it from other related congeners are not entirely clear. Aimed at improving this scenario, a detailed morphological description is performed herein, showing some unprecedented and useful features. Based on our anatomical examination, this study has found the opaline gland to be dark in colour, as well as a metapodium with an indistinctly delimited pedal sucker, a crop divided into two equal chambers of similar volume by a circular muscle, gizzard plates arranged in groups, and a peculiar penial sheath structure. All of these characters appear to be significantly different from the other species, based on a review of the anatomical literature and several examined samples of ongoing studies. Our central objective is to provide new data on the anatomy of the type species of Aplysiidae; and, based on topological evidence, to propose a new terminology and possible homologies to some important characters, such as parapodia lobation, cephalic tentacles, crop, penial sheath, gizzard plates and visceral ganglion in anaspideans, for future phylogenetic analysis. The subgenus Subaplysia Medina, Collins & Walsh, 2005 is regarded as a junior synonym of subgenus Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767.
Antibiotics have been widely used in piglet diets to promote growth performance and reduce diarrhea incidence. However, the resistance of pathogens to antibiotics and the risk of residues of antibiotics in animal products induced a growing interest in the use of alternatives to in-feed antibiotics. Chito-oligosaccharide (COS), a natural alkaline polymer of glucosamine is currently being tested as a substitute for in-feed antibiotics. In weaned piglets, COS has positive effects on promoting growth, which may be related to its action on intestinal morphology, immune ability and beneficial microbiota. However, previous studies shown variable results with effective doses ranging from 30 mg/kg to 5 g/kg. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the use of COS can be an alternative to in-feed antibiotics by improve the intestinal morphology of piglets, using the jejunal explant model. The intestinal explants were exposed for 4 h to following treatments: control – only culture media and culture media with COS in doses of 0.025 mg/ml, 0.05 mg/ml, 0.1 mg/ml and 0.15 mg/ml. After the incubation period the explants were processed for histological and morphometrical analysis. The histological changes were evaluated using an adapted histological score based on the intensity and severity of lesions. Mild histological changes were observed in jejunal explants exposed to different treatments; however, no significant difference in the histological score, villi height, crypt depth or villus : crypt ratio were observed between the COS-groups and the control. In addition, goblet cells density in intestinal explants exposed to COS remained statistically similar to control group. Our results indicate that COS exposure in levels ranging from 0.025 to 0.15 mg/ml induced no effect on intestinal morphology of pig’s explants. The research will provide guidance on the low dosage of COS supplementation on weaning pigs.
Here we evaluated the effect of fermented milk supplemented with whey protein (approximately 80 % protein), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB12) and pomegranate juice (Punica granatum L.) on the physical performance, intestinal motility and villi structure, inflammatory markers and intestinal microbiota of rats under high-intensity acute exercise. In all, twenty-four Wistar rats were separated into groups: control (Ctrl), supplemented (Supp), exercised (Exe) and exercised and supplemented (Exe+Supp). Rats in the Supp groups received fermented milk during 6 weeks by oral administration. At the end of the supplementation period, the Exe groups were submitted to high-intensity acute exercise on a treadmill. We found that intense acute exercise caused changes in the intestinal villi interspace, changes in the proportion of Lactobacillus species and an increase in Clostridium species, as well as a decrease in intestinal motility. Supplementation increased intestinal motility, and maintained the intestinal villi interspace and the natural microbiota proportions of the exercised rats. Physical performance was not improved by fermented milk supplementation. We conclude that the fermented milk containing whey protein, B. animalis (BB12) and pomegranate juice can re-establish intestinal microbiota and protect the animals from the undesirable effects of intense acute exercise.
This study systematised and synthesised the results of observational studies that were aimed at supporting the association between dietary patterns and cardiometabolic risk (CMR) factors among adolescents. Relevant scientific articles were searched in PUBMED, EMBASE, SCIENCE DIRECT, LILACS, WEB OF SCIENCE and SCOPUS. Observational studies that included the measurement of any CMR factor in healthy adolescents and dietary patterns were included. The search strategy retained nineteen articles for qualitative analysis. Among retained articles, the effects of dietary pattern on the means of BMI (n 18), waist circumference (WC) (n 9), systolic blood pressure (n 7), diastolic blood pressure (n 6), blood glucose (n 5) and lipid profile (n 5) were examined. Systematised evidence showed that an unhealthy dietary pattern appears to be associated with poor mean values of CMR factors among adolescents. However, evidence of a protective effect of healthier dietary patterns in this group remains unclear. Considering the number of studies with available information, a meta-analysis of anthropometric measures showed that dietary patterns characterised by the highest intake of unhealthy foods resulted in a higher mean BMI (0·57 kg/m²; 95 % CI 0·51, 0·63) and WC (0·57 cm; 95 % CI 0·47, 0·67) compared with low intake of unhealthy foods. Controversially, patterns characterised by a low intake of healthy foods were associated with a lower mean BMI (−0·41 kg/m²; 95 % CI −0·46,−0·36) and WC (−0·43 cm; 95 % CI −0·52,−0·33). An unhealthy dietary pattern may influence markers of CMR among adolescents, but considering the small number and limitations of the studies included, further studies are warranted to strengthen the evidence of this relation.
By using quasi-optical tools, it is possible to approximate microwave radiation to Gaussian beams, which enables the study of its propagation and coupling to different components. Hence, their usefulness for wireless power transfer and rapid system design. In this paper, a system composed of two reflectors is analyzed both theoretically and by discussing two cases where quasi-optical tools were applied. The near- and far-field regimes were considered and corresponding frequencies of operation, beam radius, and radius of curvature were computed.
The properties of the acoustic modes are sensitive to magnetic activity. The unprecedented long-term Kepler photometry, thus, allows stellar magnetic cycles to be studied through asteroseismology. We search for signatures of magnetic cycles in the seismic data of Kepler solar-type stars. We find evidence for periodic variations in the acoustic properties of about half of the 87 analysed stars. In these proceedings, we highlight the results obtained for two such stars, namely KIC 8006161 and KIC 5184732.
Eight new species of Pyrenulaceae are described as new to science from Brazil, Guyana and Puerto Rico. Pyrenula sanguineomeandrata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with red, KOH+ purple pigmentation of lines or a reticulum, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, a deep red inspersed, KOH+ orange hamathecium, and dark brown 3-septate ascospores 25–29×10–12 μm) and P. sanguineostiolata Aptroot & Mercado Diaz (with a thallus with deeply immersed simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, which are superficial and bright red, and 3-septate ascospores 25–28×9–12 μm) are described from submontane evergreen forests in Puerto Rico. Pyrenula biseptata Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, an inspersed hamathecium and 2-septate ascospores 11–12×4·5–5·0 μm) and P. xanthinspersa Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with an ecorticate thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with vertical ostioles, not inspersed hamathecium and 3-septate ascospores 14–17×6·0–7·5 μm) are described from rainforest in Amazonian Brazil. Pyrenula subvariabilis Aptroot & Sipman (with fused ascomata with lateral ostioles and submuriform ascospores 17–20(–25)×6–9 μm) and Sulcopyrenula biseriata Aptroot & Sipman (with a thallus containing lichexanthone, simple ascomata with lateral ostioles and lozenge-shaped ascospores with 8 locules, (13–)15–17(–20)×8–10 (width)×6–7 (thickness) μm) are described from savannahs in Guyana. Special attention is paid to the genus Pyrgillus: two new species from the 3-septate core group of this small genus are described from Brazil, viz. P. aurantiacus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with orange, KOH+ violet, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 13–16×6·0–7·5 μm) and P. rufus Aptroot & M. Cáceres (with a corticate thallus containing lichexanthone, mazaedium with dark red, KOH+ orange, UV+ red pruina and ascospores of 15·0–17·5×5·0–6·5 μm). An updated key to the 3-septate species of Pyrgillus is provided.