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Nerve transfer surgery (NT) for patients with nerve and spinal cord injuries can result in dramatic functional improvements. As a result, interdisciplinary complex nerve injury programs (CNIPs) have been established in many Canadian centres, providing electrodiagnostic and surgical consultations in a single encounter. We sought to determine which allied health care services are included in Canadian CNIPs, at the 3rd Annual Canadian Peripheral Nerve Symposium. Twenty CNIPs responded to a brief survey and reported access as follows: occupational therapy=60%, physiotherapy=40%, social work=20%, mental health=10%. Access to allied health services is variable in CNIPs across Canada, possibly resulting in heterogeneity in patient care.
Schizophrenia (SZ) is typically preceded by a prodromal (i.e. pre-illness) period characterized by attenuated positive symptoms and declining functional outcome. Negative symptoms are prominent among individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis (i.e. those with prodromal syndromes) and highly predictive of conversion to illness. Mechanisms underlying negative symptoms in the CHR population are unclear. Two studies were conducted to evaluate whether abnormalities in a reward processing mechanism thought to be core to negative symptoms in SZ, value representation, also exist in CHR individuals and whether they are associated with negative symptoms transphasically.
Study 1 included 33 individuals in the chronic phase of illness who have been diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (SZ) and 40 healthy controls (CN). Study 2 included 37 CHR participants and 45 CN. In both studies, participants completed the delay discounting (DD) task as a measure of value representation and the Brief Negative Symptom Scale was rated to measure negative symptoms.
Results indicated that patients with SZ had steeper discounting rates than CN, indicating impairments in value representation. However, CHR participants were unimpaired on the DD task. In both studies, steeper discounting was associated with greater severity of negative symptoms.
These findings suggest that deficits in value representation are associated with negative symptoms transphasically.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Continued range expansion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is exposing new species of soft fruits and berries to potential infestation. Our understanding of cues that drive host-finding and selection in this highly polyphagous pest insect is still incomplete. Fruit firmness influences host choice behaviour by limiting suitability for oviposition and larval development. Other factors such as fruit sweetness and acidity act as cues for fruit ripening. Here we assess the role of these cues and fruit colour on host selection. We demonstrate that the use of objective and nonanthropocentric methods of quantifying colour in studies of colour preference is critical to understanding the cues evoking responses from insects. Acidity but not sweetness increased D. suzukii attraction and larval success. Differences in D. suzukii attraction were most strongly correlated with short-wavelength reflectance (blue, cyan, and green (470–560 nm)). Growers could select for fruit varieties with relatively higher reflectance values upon maturity to reduce susceptibility to D. suzukii.
Codex published the ‘Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance’ to standardise the approach for evaluating risk posed by foodborne antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. One of the first steps in the guidelines is to compile a risk profile, which provides the current state of knowledge regarding a food safety issue, describes risk management options and recommends next steps. In Canada, ceftiofur/ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg from poultry was identified as an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) food safety issue. The first objective of this article was to contextualise this food safety issue, using the risk profile format of the Codex Guidelines. A second objective was to evaluate the applicability of the Codex Guidelines. This risk profile indicated that ceftiofur/ceftriaxone-resistant S. Heidelberg (CSH) was commonly isolated from poultry and was associated with severe disease in humans. Ceftiofur use in poultry hatcheries temporally mirrored the prevalence of CSH from poultry meat at retail and from people with salmonellosis. The evidence was sufficient to indicate the need for risk management options, such as restricting the use of ceftiofur in poultry. The Codex Guidelines provided a useful approach to summarise data for decision-makers to evaluate an AMR food safety issue.
The rocky shores of New Zealand (NZ) and Australia provide many interesting comparisons in their intertidal species and structuring processes. Both countries are in the biogeographic realm of temperate Australasia and share many common species and closely related taxa. Here we review similarities and contrasts in communities and structuring processes, especially involving grazing invertebrates and macroalgae. We consider the similarity of the structure of intertidal shores of NZ and south-eastern Australia, a suite of important trophic interactions within and between regions, the utility of local-scale experiments in understanding large-scale processes and how we might better plan for and manage our coasts. The major comparisons are between warm-temperate areas of northern NZ and New South Wales, and the cooler areas of southern NZ and south-eastern Australia. In the quest for ‘ecosystem’-level understanding, which perforce involves large-scale events, there is an increasing tendency to minimise or ignore the hard-won insights gained from well-structured experiments across multiple sites. Because all large-scale effects must be manifested at local sites, it is incumbent on us to determine what scales up or down, and the caveats that make comparisons across biogeographic regions challenging. Here, we discuss these issues using austral shores as models.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Our primary objective was to understand the relationship between incident or recent stressful events and adherence to HIV care in the context of other person, environment, and HIV-specific stressors in a sample of Black women living with HIV (WLWH). METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with Black women living with HIV who receive care at an academic HIV primary care clinic in the Southern region of the United States to elicit stressful events influencing adherence to HIV care. Semi-structured interview guides were used to facilitate discussion regarding stressful events and adherence to HIV care. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were independently coded using a theme-based approach by two experienced coders, findings were compared, and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants described frequently experiencing incident stressful events including death or serious illness of a close friend or family member, and relationship, financial, and employment difficulties. Furthermore, participants reported experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescents. While experiencing traumatic events such as sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescence may be distressing, these events did not influence adherence to HIV care. However, incident stressful events as defined above did influence adherence to HIV care for some participants, but not for others. For participants who reported that stressful events did not influence adherence to HIV care, factors such as personal motivation, access to social support, and adaptive coping strategies facilitated their engagement in care. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Experiencing stressful events, incident or traumatic, is common among Black WLWH and have the potential to negatively influence adherence to HIV care. Thus, Interventions aimed at identifying and addressing stress, social support, and coping are essential to improve adherence to HIV care behaviors.
This study examined the comminution of fresh herbage, subsequent nutrient release, and the characteristics of swallowed boli from three physically and chemically contrasting forages during ingestive mastication by dairy cows. The extent and pattern of nutrient release will determine their availability to rumen microflora, and potentially influence their efficiency of use. The forages evaluated were perennial ryegrass (ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., cv Alto AR37), lucerne (Medicago sativa L., cv Torlesse) and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., cv Choice). Experimental design was a 3×3 cross-over with three forages and three consecutive 1-day measurement periods, conducted twice. Six non-lactating, pregnant, multiparous Holstein-Friesian×Jersey cows (Bos taurus) were used, with the first cross-over applied to three mature (10.1±0.61 years old; BW 631±64 kg) cows, and the second to three young (4.8±0.02 years; BW 505±19 kg) cows. Fresh cut forage was offered to the cows following partial rumen evacuation. Swallowed boli were collected directly at the cardia at the commencement, middle and end of the first feeding bout of the first meal of the day. Forage species did not affect the fresh weight of ingested boli (mean 169 g, P=0.605) but the proportion of saliva in boli varied between forage. Boli of chicory contained the greatest amount of herbage material and least amount of saliva, whereas ryegrass boli were the opposite. Boli fresh weight tended to increase as time in the meal progressed, but the age of the cow was not shown to affect any boli characteristics or nutrient release. Particle size reduction was affected by forage, with 31%, 38% and 35% of chicory, lucerne and ryegrass herbage reduced to <2 mm. There was little evidence of relationship between comminution and any physical or chemical characteristic of the forage, except in ryegrass where extent of comminution was moderately correlated with herbage strength. Proportional release of herbage soluble carbohydrate exceeded that of N during mastication. Differences in loss of N were moderately correlated with the amount of N in the herbage (R2=0.53) but herbage comminution was not strongly correlated with release of either N or carbohydrate. These findings illustrate the complex animal×forage interactions that occur during mastication, and that it is not possible to infer nutrient loss from herbage based on herbage characteristics as the driver for this differ between species.
Background: The association of myasthenia gravis (MG) and inflammatory myositis (IM) is rare and often only one of the diseases is diagnosed. Methods: In this study, we reviewed medical records of patients seen at NMDU from 2004 to 2017 who had diagnosis of concurrent MG and IM. The data is presented descriptively. -Results: We identified 7 patients with MG-IM overlap. Clinical features, laboratory and pathology data of the patients are summarized in Table 1. Conclusions: This is one of the largest case series with MG-IM overlap. It is very important to recognize such association and the different pattern of muscle involvement because therapies may be adjusted to treat both conditions. In patients with thymic pathology, conventional disease modifying agents, IVIG and glucocorticoid in addition to thymoma resection appear to be effective. In patients with refractory MG and myositis who were AChR negative, rituximab may be effective.
Numerous experimental studies have documented that injecting low-salinity water into an oil reservoir can increase the amount of oil recovered. However, owing to the complexity of the chemical interactions involved in this process, there has been much debate over the dominant mechanism causing this effect. In order to further understand one proposed mechanism, multicomponent ionic exchange, we study the motion of an oil slug through a clay pore throat filled with saline water. The pore throat is modelled as a capillary tube connecting two bulk regions of water. We assume that the surfaces of the oil and the capillary are negatively charged and that, due to repulsion between these surfaces, the oil slug is separated from the capillary surface by a thin film of water. Ion interactions at the oil–water and clay–water interfaces are modelled using the law of mass action. By using lubrication theory to describe the thin-film flow in the water layer separating the oil from the clay surface, and the macroscopic flow through the capillary, we derive expressions for the thickness of the wetting film, and the velocity of the oil slug, given a pressure difference across the ends of the capillary. Numerical results show that the thickness of the water layer and the velocity of the oil slug increase as the salinity of the water is reduced, suggesting that this mechanism contributes to the low-salinity effect. An analytical solution is presented in the limit in which the applied pressure is small.
One method to grow artificial body tissue is to place a porous scaffold seeded with cells, known as a tissue construct, into a rotating bioreactor filled with a nutrient-rich fluid. The flow within the bioreactor is affected by the movement of the construct relative to the bioreactor which, in turn, is affected by the hydrodynamical and gravitational forces the construct experiences. The construct motion is thus coupled to the flow within the bioreactor. Over the time scale of a few hours, the construct appears to move in a periodic orbit but, over tens of hours, the construct drifts from periodicity. In the biological literature, this effect is often attributed to the change in density of the construct that occurs via tissue growth. In this paper, we show that weak inertia can cause the construct to drift from its periodic orbit over the same time scale as tissue growth. We consider the coupled flow and construct motion problem within a rotating high-aspect-ratio vessel bioreactor. Using an asymptotic analysis, we investigate the case where the Reynolds number is large but the geometry of the bioreactor yields a small reduced Reynolds number, resulting in a weak inertial effect. In particular, to accurately couple the bioreactor and porous flow regions, we extend the nested boundary layer analysis of Dalwadi et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 798, 2016, pp. 88–139) to include moving walls and the thin region between the porous construct and the bioreactor wall. This allows us to derive a closed system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the construct trajectory, from which we show that neglecting inertia results in periodic orbits; we solve the inertia-free problem analytically, calculating the periodic orbits in terms of the system parameters. Using a multiple-scale analysis, we then systematically derive a simpler system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the long-time drift of the construct due to the effect of weak inertia. We investigate the bifurcations of the construct trajectory behaviour, and the limit cycles that appear when the construct is less dense than the surrounding fluid and the rotation rate is large enough. Thus, we are able to predict when the tissue construct will drift towards a stable limit cycle within the bioreactor and when it will drift out until it hits the bioreactor edge.
While the exchange of water through Yucatan Strait is reasonably well known, the age of the deep water in both the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico is not. We recently measured the radiocarbon (14C) concentrations in deep water in the Gulf of Mexico from a line of stations along 90°30′W. The mean apparent age of water below 900 m, the depth of the Florida Strait sill, was found to be about 740 yr relative to the 1950 14C standard. Depending on how the corrections for biological activity in the upper water are applied, this converts to a “true” age of between 231 ± 28 and 293 ± 74 yr. These ages agree with a previous estimate of the age of the deep water in the Gulf of Mexico based on heat flows, put upper limits on the age of the deep water in the Caribbean Sea, and provide constraints on modelers for the return of deep water from the Gulf of Mexico to the Caribbean. This might be important in the event of a future deep water oil or other chemical spill in the region.
The aim of this work is to better understand fluid displacement mechanisms at the pore scale in relation to capillary-filling rules. Using specifically designed micro-models we investigate the role of pore body shape on fluid displacement during drainage and imbibition via quasi-static and spontaneous experiments at ambient conditions. The experimental results are directly compared to lattice Boltzmann (LB) simulations. The critical pore-filling pressures for the quasi-static experiments agree well with those predicted by the Young–Laplace equation and follow the expected filling events. However, the spontaneous imbibition experimental results differ from those predicted by the Young–Laplace equation; instead of entering the narrowest available downstream throat the wetting phase enters an adjacent throat first. Thus, pore geometry plays a vital role as it becomes the main deciding factor in the displacement pathways. Current pore network models used to predict displacement at the field scale may need to be revised as they currently use the filling rules proposed by Lenormand et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 135, 1983, pp. 337–353). Energy balance arguments are particularly insightful in understanding the aspects affecting capillary-filling rules. Moreover, simulation results on spontaneous imbibition, in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions, reveal that the capillary number itself is not sufficient to characterise the two phase flow. The Ohnesorge number, which gives the relative importance of viscous forces over inertial and capillary forces, is required to fully describe the fluid flow, along with the viscosity ratio.