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Drawing on five waves of longitudinal data from 392 families (52% female; mean age of wave 1 [Mage_W1] = 12.89, standard deviation [SD] = .48; Mage_W5 = 21.95, SD = .77; 199 European American and 193 Mexican American families; 217 intact and 175 stepfather families), this study documented transactional relations of mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms with youth's symptomatology from early adolescence to young adulthood. Trait and time-varying cross-lagged models revealed that both mothers’ and fathers’ between- and within-person differences in depressive symptoms were associated with youth's internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Whereas each parent's depressive symptoms uniquely contributed to youth's internalizing symptoms, however, only mothers’ depressive symptoms influenced youth's externalizing symptoms. Although reciprocal effects of youth's internalizing symptoms on parents’ depressive symptoms were not significant, youth's externalizing symptoms predicted changes in mothers’ depressive symptoms over time. Moderation analyses revealed distinct transactional patterns by family ethnicity and child gender, but not by family structure. This study revealed dynamic transactions among family members’ symptomatology that point to opportune times and targets for intervention efforts aimed at mitigating the negative impact of parents’ depressive symptoms on youth's adjustment.
In this article, the material distributive topology-based design optimization of ultra-wide band (UWB) antenna is proposed by using improved binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the improved BPSO implementation, the velocity of each particle is calculated based on complete set of bits of particle position vector. The V-shaped transfer function is employed to transform all real values of velocities to values in the interval [0,1]. The fitness function of all the particles in BPSO algorithm are computed parallely by using FDTD simulation. The usage of FDTD and the parallel computation helps in analyzing the broadband frequency characteristics of the antenna with a single simulation run. The return loss of the optimized UWB antenna obtained from FDTD, Computer Simulation Technology (CST) simulation and practical measurement are in good agreement and show good impedance matching.
Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is associated with high rates of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia in up to 30% of individuals with the syndrome. Despite this, we know relatively little about trajectories and predictors of persistence of psychiatric disorders from middle childhood to early adulthood. Accordingly, we followed youth over four timepoints, every 3 years, to assess long-term trajectories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, mood, and psychosis-spectrum disorders (PSDs), as well as medication usage.
Eighty-seven youth with 22q11DS and 65 controls between the ages of 9 and 15 years at the first timepoint (T1; mean age 11.88 ± 2.1) were followed for 9 years (mean age of 21.22 ± 2.01 years at T4). Baseline cognitive, clinical, and familial predictors of persistence were identified for each class of psychiatric disorders.
Baseline age and parent-rated hyperactivity scores predicted ADHD persistence [area under curve (AUC) = 0.81]. The presence of family conflict predicted persistence of anxiety disorders (ADs) whereas parent ratings of child internalizing symptoms predicted persistence of both anxiety and mood disorders (MDs) (AUC = 0.84 and 0.83, respectively). Baseline prodromal symptoms predicted persistent and emergent PSDs (AUC = 0.83). Parent-reported use of anti-depressants/anxiolytics increased significantly from T1 to T4.
Psychiatric, behavioral, and cognitive functioning during late childhood and early adolescence successfully predicted children with 22q11DS who were at highest risk for persistent psychiatric illness in young adulthood. These findings emphasize the critical importance of early assessments and interventions in youth with 22q11DS.
Vanadium Oxide has application to infrared bolometers due to high temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR). It has attracted interest for switchable plasmonic devices due to its metal to insulator transition near room temperature. We report here the properties of vanadium oxide deposited by an aqueous spray process. The films have a ropy surface morphology with ∼70 nm surface roughness. The polycrystalline phase depends on annealing conditions. The films have TCR of ∼2%/deg, which compares well with sputtered films. Only weak evidence is found for an insulator-metal phase transition in these films.
Low-density, highly porous graphene/graphene oxide (GO) based-foams have shown high performance in energy absorption applications, even under high compressive deformations. In general, foams are very effective as energy dissipative materials and have been widely used in many areas such as automotive, aerospace and biomedical industries. In the case of graphene-based foams, the good mechanical properties are mainly attributed to the intrinsic graphene and/or GO electronic and mechanical properties. Despite the attractive physical properties of graphene/GO based-foams, their structural and thermal stabilities are still a problem for some applications. For instance, they are easily degraded when placed in flowing solutions, either by the collapsing of their layers or just by structural disintegration into small pieces. Recently, a new and scalable synthetic approach to produce low-density 3D macroscopic GO structure interconnected with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric chains (pGO) was proposed. A controlled amount of PDMS is infused into the freeze-dried foam resulting into a very rigid structure with improved mechanical properties, such as tensile plasticity and toughness. The PDMS wets the graphene oxide sheets and acts like a glue bonding PDMS and GO sheets. In order to obtain further insights on mechanisms behind the enhanced mechanical pGO response we carried out fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Based on MD results, we build up a structural model that can explain the experimentally observed mechanical behavior.
The mechanism of electrical noise in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) has mostly been attributed to charge carrier fluctuations between the oxide traps and the conducting channel, in accordance with the McWhorter model. However, the original McWhorter model was formulated for diffusive transport with conducting carriers having extended electronic wave functions. Our work serves to generalize the McWhorter mechanism to include strongly localized systems such as the TMDC family and provides an explanation for the unusual exponential behavior of noise magnitude with temperature.
In this paper, we present our study on multi-frequency scatter-broadening observations of a large sample of pulsars, made using the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT) and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). For each pulsar, the scatter-broadening time scales (τsc) have been estimated at different observing frequencies and the dependence of τsc with the observing frequency, i.e., the frequency scaling index (α) has been obtained. We report estimates of α for a set of 39 pulsars, of which 31 are completely new and provide the first-time measurement on about 50% of the sample. This enhanced sample suggests that almost 65% of the pulsars have an α much lower than the conventional value of 4.4 for a Kolmogorov type turbulence spectrum, and a considerably large scattering strength. An increase in scattering strength is observed with the distance to the pulsar in the Galaxy.
Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
The Nepal earthquake of 2015 was a major disaster that exacted an enormous toll on human lives and caused extensive damage to the infrastructure of the region. Similar to other developing countries, Nepal has a network of community health workers (CHWs; known as female community health volunteers [FCHVs]) that was in place prior to the earthquake and continues to function to improve maternal and child health. These FCHVs and other community members were responsible, by default, for providing the first wave of assistance after the earthquake.
Community health workers such as FCHVs could be used to provide formal relief services in the event of an emergency, but there is a paucity of evidence-based literature on how to best utilize them in disaster risk reduction, preparedness, and response. Data are needed to further characterize the roles that this cadre has played in past disasters and what strategies can be implemented to better incorporate them into future emergency management.
In March 2016, key-informant interviews, FCHV interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Nepali health facilities using semi-structured guides. The audio-recorded data were obtained with the assistance of a translator (Nepali-English), transcribed verbatim in English, and coded by two independent researchers (manually and with NVivo 11 Pro software [QSR International; Melbourne, Australia]).
Across seven different regions, 14 interviews with FCHVs, two FGDs with community women, and three key-informant interviews were conducted. Four major themes emerged around the topic of FCHVs and the 2015 earthquake: (1) community care and rapport between FCHVs and local residents; (2) emergency response of FCHVs in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake; (3) training requested to improve the FCHVs’ ability to manage disasters; and (4) interaction with relief organizations and how to create collaborations that provide aid relief more effectively.
The FCHVs in Nepal provided multiple services to their communities in the aftermath of the earthquake, largely without any specific training or instruction. Proper preparation, in addition to improved collaboration with aid agencies, could increase the capacity of FCHVs to respond in the event of a future disaster. The information gained from this study of the FCHV experience in the Nepal earthquake could be used to inform risk reduction and emergency management policies for CHWs in various settings worldwide.
FredricksK, DinhH, KusiM, YogalC, KarmacharyaBM, BurkeTF, NelsonBD. Community Health Workers and Disasters: Lessons Learned from the 2015 Earthquake in Nepal. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):604–609.
Here we discuss the observational properties of supernovae exploding in extremely dense environments, namely Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn). In SNe IIn, the surrounding environments play significant role in the supernovae energetics and evolution. Thus they are different than other classes of core collapse supernovae, whose energetics are not significantly altered by their environments. Though high density of medium is a prerequisite for radio and X-ray emission, less than 10% on SNe IIn are bright in these bands. This has important implications for their progenitor models. I will discuss the radio and X-ray observations of SNe IIn, which are crucial to unravel their complex environments. We also discuss some individual supernovae belonging to this class and discuss as to how they have refined our understanding of SNe IIn. Finally the importance of well sampled long term light curves in radio and X-ray bands cannot be stressed enough.
HESS J1731−347 a.k.a. SNR G353.6−0.7 is one of the five known very high energy (VHE, Energy > 0.1 TeV) shell-type supernova remnants. We carried out Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) observations of this TeV SNR in 1390, 610 and 325 MHz bands. We detected the 325 and 610 MHz radio counterparts of the SNR G353.6−0.7 (Nayana et al. 2017). We also determined the spectral indices of individual filaments and our values are consistent with the non-thermal radio emission. We compared the radio morphology with that of VHE emission. The peak in radio emission corresponds to the faintest feature in the VHE emission. We explain this anti-correlated emission in a possible leptonic origin of the VHE γ-rays.
We present the results of a multi-wavelength investigation of the dwarf galaxy populations in three interacting galaxy groups: NGC 871/6/7, NGC 3166/9, NGC 4725/47. Using degree-scale Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope Hi mosaics and deep optical photometry from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we measured the Hi and stellar properties of the gas-rich low-mass group members to classify each one as a classical dwarf galaxy, a short-lived tidal knot or a tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG). Our observations detect several dwarf irregulars and various tidal knots. We identify four potentially long-lived tidal objects in the three groups, implying that TDGs are not readily produced. The tidal objects examined in this small survey also appear to have a wider variety of properties than TDGs formed in current simulations.
Between the fourth century B.C. and second century A.D., changes in climate, culture and commerce converged to extend networks of influence and intensify social stratification in communities situated along the Silk Road. The horse-riding nomads and agro-pastoralists of what is now Southeastern Kazakhstan were important actors in the unfolding of these events. The settlements and kurgan burials of the Saka and Wusun could be found dotting the alluvial fans north of the Tien Shan Mountains just a short time before Alexander the Great founded outposts in the Ferghana Valley and Chinese emissaries formalized relations with their periphery. In other words, the appearance of Iron Age Saka-Wusun sites anticipated the formation of the Silk Road’s northern branch and subsequently helped mediate long-distance relationships connecting East and West. Historical accounts appear to confirm the presence of the Saka and Wusun in this role, but there is much that remains unknown regarding relationships both within and across their communities. Typological variability in their material culture has fed speculation concerning their position within trade networks, but there has been very little in the way of materials analysis to test the validity of these assumptions.
The ceramics recovered at Tuzusai near Almaty provide an excellent opportunity for examination of the impacts and implications of extended regional contacts throughout the region. Although no Persian or Chinese ceramic imports were identified, an extensive vocabulary of pot forms was locally produced. However, the pottery, particularly pitchers, drinking cups and bowls, and, especially with bright red surface decoration, is found in elaborate burial kurgans. The pottery is coarse, perhaps better called a “rock body” than a clay body, as very little clay is present. The frequency of sherds from the excavation (over 1000) and from surface survey is very low (e.g. 3 surface sherds for one-half days effort) compared with excavations in Southwest Asia or China. Rims are unusually worn. Thus, we suggest pottery was precious and high status, but difficult to make. A local survey of clay resources produced meager results. Tests showed that the finest sediments had perhaps 3% clay-sized particles. Among the adobe houses at Tuzusai is evidence of courtyard work areas for pottery production with fired remains of a possible firing pit or kiln and bone potting tools. Other courtyards were areas for dairying and spinning and some copper alloy and iron metal working. Our aim was to establish the life history, production sequences, status and uses of the pottery. Given our current understanding of local production resources and the technical difficulty associated with the production of thin walled forms using these materials, we suggest that these ceramics were high-status goods, many used in feasting activities, and valued not solely for their function in feasting activities, but for the labor and skill required to produce them. Study of the ceramics, clay sources, production methods, and decoration suggests greater social permeability of Saka-Wusun communities than was previously proposed and allows us to understand the formative dynamics of village along the Silk Road.
The electromagnetic (EM) imaging technique at mm-band 60 GHz is proposed for data encoding purpose in the chipless Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems. The fully printable chipless RFID tag comprises tiny conductive EM polarizers to create high cross-polar radar cross-section. Synthetic aperture radar approach is applied for formation of the tag's EM-image and revealing the tag's content. The achieved high data encoding capacity of 2 bits/cm2 in this technique based on a fully printable tag is very convincing for many applications. The system immunity to multipath interference, bending effect, and printing inaccuracy suggests huge potentials for low-cost item tagging. Tags are also readable through a tick paper envelop; hence secure identification is provided by the proposed technique.
Photovoltaic (PV) systems are progressively used for decentralized electricity generation. To obtain the maximum yield from such systems, optimisation of all components is essential. In this contribution, we provide a comprehensive modelling and sizing of PV systems for any location. Three applications are here presented providing real time monitoring of PV potential, accurate prediction of yield taking into account thermodynamic temperature effects, optimization of modules orientation addressing the effects of shading and efficient sizing of inverter for a higher yield output. When combined, these models can accurately predict the real time performance of any PV system.
Effective trauma resuscitation requires the coordinated efforts of an interdisciplinary team. Mental practice (MP) is defined as the mental rehearsal of activity in the absence of gross muscular movements and has been demonstrated to enhance acquiring technical and procedural skills. The role of MP to promote nontechnical, team-based skills for trauma has yet to be investigated.
We randomized anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, and surgery residents to two-member teams randomly assigned to either an MP or control group. The MP group engaged in 20 minutes of MP, and the control group received 20 minutes of Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) training. All teams then participated in a high-fidelity simulated adult trauma resuscitation and received debriefing on communication, leadership, and teamwork. Two blinded raters independently scored video recordings of the simulated resuscitations using the Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS), a validated team-based behavioural rating scale. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess for between-group differences.
Seventy-eight residents provided informed written consent and were recruited. The MP group outperformed the control group with significant effect on teamwork behaviour as assessed using the MHPTS: r=0.67, p<0.01.
MP leads to improvement in team-based skills compared to traditional simulation-based trauma instruction. We feel that MP may be a useful and inexpensive tool for improving nontechnical skills instruction effectiveness for team-based trauma care.
We have demonstrated some facile ways to fabricate the large area polymer surfaces with varying roughness followed by studying their anti-reflective properties. One of the approaches is based on electrospun nanofibers deposited on a substrate in an uneven non-woven matrix. This electrospun fabric was used as a master template to fabricate the negative replica of the fibers by soft lithography generating the roughness in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. The second approach is based on biomimicking of flower petals. Petals are used as a master template to transfer surface features with hierarchical roughness over PDMS surface using replica moulding. As fabricated polymer surfaces with varied roughness have then tested for their anti-reflective properties using UV-VIS spectroscopy over a wide range of wavelengths and angles of incidence of light. These measurements show near zero reflection of patterned PDMS surfaces as compared to planar PDMS. This omnidirectional broadband anti-reflection behaviour of polymer surfaces can be used in wide variety of engineering applications including in solar cells.