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An understanding of the processes involved in grazing behaviour is a prerequisite for the design of efficient grassland management systems. The purpose of managing the grazing process is to identify sward structures that can maximize animal forage daily intake and optimize grazing time. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of different grazing management strategies on foraging behaviour and herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass under rotational stocking. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in southern Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two grazing management strategies and four replicates. The grazing management treatments were a traditional rotational stocking (RT), with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 25 and 5 cm, respectively, and a ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking (RN) with pre- and post-grazing sward heights of 18 and 11 cm, respectively. Male sheep with an average live weight of 32 ± 2.3 kg were used. As intended, the pre- and post-grazing sward heights were according to the treatments. The pre-grazing leaf/stem ratio of the Italian ryegrass pasture did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05) (~2.87), but the post-grazing leaf/stem ratio was greater (P < 0.001) in the RN than in the RT treatment (1.59 and 0.76, respectively). The percentage of the non-grazed area was greater (P < 0.01) in post-grazing for RN compared with RT treatment, with an average of 29.7% and 3.49%, respectively. Herbage nutritive value was greater for the RN than for the RT treatment, with greater CP and lower ADF and NDF contents. The total time spent grazing, ruminating and resting did not differ between treatments (P > 0.05), with averages of 439, 167 and 85 min, respectively. The bite rate, feeding stations per min and steps per min by sheep were greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment. The grazing time per hour and the bite rate were greater (P < 0.05) in the afternoon than in the morning in both treatments. The daily herbage intake by sheep grazing Italian ryegrass was greater (P < 0.05) in the RN than in the RT treatment (843.7 and 707.8 g organic matter/sheep, respectively). Our study supports the idea that even though the grazing time was not affected by the grazing management strategies when the animal behaviour responses drive management targets, such as in ‘Rotatinuous’ stocking, the sheep herbage intake is maximized, and the grazing time is optimized.
Raw milk cheeses are commonly consumed in France and are also a common source of foodborne outbreaks (FBOs). Both an FBO surveillance system and a laboratory-based surveillance system aim to detect Salmonella outbreaks. In early August 2018, five familial FBOs due to Salmonella spp. were reported to a regional health authority. Investigation identified common exposure to a raw goats' milk cheese, from which Salmonella spp. were also isolated, leading to an international product recall. Three weeks later, on 22 August, a national increase in Salmonella Newport ST118 was detected through laboratory surveillance. Concomitantly isolates from the earlier familial clusters were confirmed as S. Newport ST118. Interviews with a selection of the laboratory-identified cases revealed exposure to the same cheese, including exposure to batches not included in the previous recall, leading to an expansion of the recall. The outbreak affected 153 cases, including six cases in Scotland. S. Newport was detected in the cheese and in the milk of one of the producer's goats. The difference in the two alerts generated by this outbreak highlight the timeliness of the FBO system and the precision of the laboratory-based surveillance system. It is also a reminder of the risks associated with raw milk cheeses.
Recent studies involved the pathways of kinases regulated by extracellular signal (ERK - extracellular signal regulated kinases), a broad range of key cellular processes, in the mechanisms of depression and consequently in the action of antidepressants. It is also known that the use of specific inhibitors of phosphorylation of ERKs1 / 2 showed to have antidepressant effect in animal models. Fluoxetina (SSRI) was recently discovered to be a potente inhibitor of phosphorylation of ERKs. The ERKs1 / 2 and recently the 3, are present in neurons and glia, these also engaged in biological mechanisms of depression.
The authors propose to do, based on the current literature, the characterization of the type (s) of cell (s) where changes in activation of ERKs1 / 2, occur during depression, and during the administration of antidepressants, in order to understand, to what extent these kinases may be considered as biological markers of depression. Possibly also to examine the feasibility of using these markers in clinical use.
In meridional European countries such as Portugal, informal caregivers are almost always close relatives, either key-relatives (those more involved) or not. There are few systematic comparisons between the experience of key-relatives/primary caregivers (PC) and other/secondary caregivers (SC) in psychogeriatrics. We present some preliminary data from the FAMIDEM (Families of People with Dementia) survey.
Non-randomised cross-sectional study comparing two related samples of caregivers (PC versus SC) of 41 patients with DSM-IV dementia from outpatient practices in Lisbon (Portugal). Caregivers’ assessments included: Zarit Burden Interview, Caregiver Activity Survey (CAS), Positive Aspects of Caregiving, GHQ-12, Social Network Questionnaire and Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire.
Patients’ mean age was 78,7 years (SD 7,9). 24 (58,5%) were women and 58,5% had Alzheimer disease.PC were older than SC (p=0,000) and tended to live with the patient (p=0,000). They reported less emocional support (p=0,021) but higher objective burden-CAS (p=0,002). Regarding all other outcome variables, significant differences between groups were not found. Within the global sample, comparing spousals (n=23) and adult children/other relatives (n=59) yielded interestingly different preliminary results, eg higher GHQ-12 levels (p=0,010).
The experience of caregiving is possibly different regarding PC and SC, but further research is warranted in order to define who really is at risk. Being a spouse may be much more determinant, although most spouses are PC as well. for the moment, it seems prudent not to exclude SC from risk assessments. the final FAMIDEM results, even lacking generalizability, will probably provide interesting clues.
Somatic comorbidities are common among elderly patients with mental health problems, namely dementia and depression. Quite often, somatic problems are associated with a substantial impairment in daily routines, as well as to a worse outcome of the neuropsychiatric condition.
to investigate the level of impairment due to comorbid somatic problems in the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66- Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portuguese settings.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). Training of the field researchers was conducted with the supervision of the 10/66-DRG coordinators (CF, MP).
703 elderly participants were evaluated. Interference with daily activities was present in every area assessed, with moderate to severe impact in the following areas: Arthritis or rheumatism (36,9%), eyesight problems (19,8%), hypertension (10,5%) and gastro-intestinal conditions (10,4%). 48,9% of the participants had at least one contact with a primary care health centre in the last three months, and 22,5% had at least one contact with a doctor in a general hospital.
Results showed a relevant degree of impairment due to somatic conditions, and a high use of services, namely at primary care level. The significant prevalence of comorbid somatic conditions should be taken into account regarding the organization of services directed to older patients with mental health problems, that has been considered a priority in the Portuguese Mental Health Plan 2007–2016.
Above 60 years, prevalence rates of neuropsychiatric disorders double with every 5.1 years of age (from 0.7% at 60-65 years to 23.6% for those aged 85 or older). As aged people are dramatically increasing in Portugal, a Country under a serious financial crisis, it is important to understand whether health services are being used appropriately.
to characterize the use of health services among the elderly, as part of the implementation of the 10/66-Dementia Research Group Population-based Research Protocol in Portugal.
A cross-sectional survey was implemented of all residents aged 65 or more in a semi-rural area in Southern Portugal. Core evaluation included a cognitive module and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT (GDS). A structured questionnaire assessed the use of services, including health care providers (public, private), inpatient episodes, medication and costs.
703 participants were evaluated. Almost half of the participants (48,9%) were in contact with public primary care facilities, but only 22,5% had a contact with a hospital service. In both settings, nurses and other non-doctor professionals were rarely involved (6,4%) as principal care providers. 11,8% had at least one contact with a private doctor. Inpatient episodes in the last 3 months were very infrequent (3%). The National Health Service covered most costs.
Previous research strongly suggests that health services are not provided equitably to people with mental disorders, namely the elderly. Reliable and cross-culturally comparable information about patterns of care may guide the implementation of adequate management in this area in Portugal.
The burden of neuropsychiatric disorders in the elderly is high, considering patients, their families, and close or extended networks. In Portugal, the 10/66-Dementia Research Group population-based research programmes are running since 2011, with the community prevalence study. The protocol allows for valid diagnoses of dementia and depression, using comprehensive assessments which include the Geriatric Mental State- AGECAT.
Objectives and aims:
We aimed to analyse informal caregiving arrangements and the psychological experience of caregiving in a subsample drawn from the ongoing 10/66 studies.
We report on 580 residents aged 65 + years of a defined catchment area in Portugal (Mora). Assessments included questionnaires on demographic and caregiving issues, the Self-Report Questionnaire (SRQ) on psychological distress and the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) on the caregiving experience.
In this subsample, 94 participants were in need of informal caregiving (dementia accounted for 28 cases, depression for 31, and other chronic physical/psychiatric conditions for the remainder). Most primary caregivers were family relatives (mostly wives and daughters) and were living with the patient. A large number were elderly people themselves (mean age 64.1±16.3years). Median scores were 3 on the SRQ (range 0-16) and 8 on the ZBI (range 0-66). Those who were caring for participants with more severe disabilities scored significantly higher on both measures.
These preliminary results of the 10/66 epidemiological community studies support previous suggestions that caregiver strain is also high in subgroups of community samples. Most overburdened families (and individual caregivers) lacked appropriate, tailored interventions. Final results will be available soon.
Although accumulating evidence suggests that individuals with mental disorders have an increased risk of mortality from physical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully understood.
To examine the association between mental disorder status and self-reported treatment for major somatic diseases, including respiratory, cardiovascular (CVD), metabolic diseases, and cancer over a 12-year follow-up period.
To test whether people with mental disorders are less likely to be treated for somatic diseases.
In the large prospective French GAZEL cohort of 15 798 employees, mental disorder was defined as at least one sickness absence exceeding 7 days from 1989 – 2000 and self-reported treatment of somatic diseases was assessed from 2001 – 2011. Longitudinal logistic regression models based on generalized estimating equations were used to study the association.
In fully adjusted-models, a diagnosis of severe mental disorder was associated with an 18% and a 6% greater annual increase in the likelihood of receiving treatment for respiratory disease and CVD over time, respectively. Any mental disorder was associated with a 2% greater annual decrease in the likelihood of receiving treatment for CVD over time. Depressive disorder (3%), mental disorders due to substance abuse, and mixed mental disorders (2%) had similar patterns of decrease.
This longitudinal study suggests that the impact of mental disorders on treatment receipt for somatic disorders depends on the diagnostic categories. People with depressive disorder, mental disorders due to substance use, and mixed mental disorders may be at risk of not receiving treatment for CVD.
The healthcare needs of the elderly are seldom assessed in practice. Research in clinical populations with neuropsychiatric disorders generally unravels high levels of unmet needs. Although there are Portuguese studies in needs assessment, explorations of community or social services’ scenarios have been scarce.
Objectives and aims:
By gathering data from health and social services research, and from an epidemiological survey in the same region, we aimed to better characterize the unmet needs of Portuguese elderly.
We report on studies with old age people in Seixal, near Lisbon: 1) the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly was used for auditing a non-profit organization, with day-centre and home support services (n=95), and in a survey of family carers of dementia outpatients (n=116); 2) the 10/66 DRG community prevalence study (n=670) used comprehensive assessments to provide psychiatric diagnoses, data on health and psychosocial needs, and the use of services.
In the social service audit, unmet needs were mainly related to food, company, physical health and daytime activities. Domiciliary care users had more unmet needs than day centre users (p<0.001). Informal caregivers of dementia patients reported information and psychological distress needs. Finally, these 10/66 DRG study partial results highlighted a high prevalence of depression (20.4%; 95%CI 17.4-23.7) and huge health services’ utilization needs.
Systematic assessments of needs for care generally unravel high proportions of health and psychosocial problems lacking adequate interventions, in clinical and community populations. This may provide a more consistent basis for health services planning.
Several studies have demonstrated a strong link between fibromyalgia, negative affect (NA) and depression. However, it remains unclear why some fibromyalgia patients get depressed while others do not and, primarily, which mechanisms account for this difference. We hypothesize that, besides clinical features, the engagement in dysfunctional strategies like perseverative negative thinking (PNT) followed by an amplification of NA levels may increase the risk of fibromyalgia patients experiencing depressive symptoms.
To explore the serial mediator effect of PNT and NA on the relationship between fibromyalgia symptoms and depressive symptoms.
Hundred and three women with fibromyalgia (mean age 47.32 ± 10.63) completed the Portuguese version of the Revised-Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, Profile of Mood States and Beck Depression Inventory-II. The association between the variables was investigated via Pearson correlations and serial multiple mediation.
The estimated model was significant [F (3.86) = 57.318, P < .001] explaining 66.66% of depressive symptoms variance. The total effect of fibromyalgia symptoms on depressive symptoms was of .4998 (SE = 0.0795, P < 0.001; CI > 0.3417 and < 0.6578), with a significant direct effect of 0.1911 (SE = 0.0653; CI > 0.0614 and < 0.3209). The total indirect effects were of 0.3086 (SE = 0.0619; CI > 0.2033 < 0.4458). Three significant specific indirect effects were found.
The effect of fibromyalgia symptoms on depressive symptoms is partially operated through cognitive interference/unproductiveness, which in turn influences NA levels. Such findings highlight the crucial role of these constructs in the relationship between fibromyalgia symptoms and depressive symptoms and the urge to address them when treating individuals reporting greater fibromyalgia symptoms.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The Revised-Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), composed by 21 items, is one of the most used tools to measure the impact of fibromyalgia both in clinical and research settings. Although it has demonstrated good psychometric properties (Bennet et al., 2009; Costa et al., 2015), little is known about its factorial structure.
To explore FIQR's factorial structure and examine its association with several psychological constructs.
Hundred and three women with fibromyalgia (mean age 47.32 ± 10.63) filled in the Portuguese validated versions of the FIQR, Perceived Stress Scale, Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory-II and Profile of Mood States. A principal components analysis with varimax rotation was carried out. The number of factors to extract was based on Cattel's scree plot and eigenvalues’ magnitude. The associations between FIQR dimensions and psychological constructs were examined via Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions.
Three factors were extracted [F1/Function = Items 1–9, α = 0.92; F2/Symptoms = Items 12, 16–21, α = 0.83; F3/Impact = Items 10, 11, 13–15, α = 0.83] explaining 58.57% of the variance. FIQR symptoms were the best and, nearly in all analyses, the only significant predictor.
The factorial structure of the Portuguese version of FIQR partially overlaps with the proposed theoretical domains (Bennet et al., 2009). Similarly to Luciano et al.’s study (2013), factorial analysis also evidenced the multidimensionality of some items. Fibromyalgia symptoms seem to play the most deleterious effect, being associated with poor mental health indicators. Future studies are needed to confirm the factorial structure found, due to sample size, items subjectivity and study's exploratory nature.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The diagnosis of a primary psychiatric disorder requires the exclusion of an organic etiology. However, Brazilian public hospitals commonly lack resources. Diagnostic precision requires also the congruence of the clinical history and the natural history of the investigated disorder.
This study reports a rare case of hallucinations and retrograde amnesia, due to organic brain lesion but without other cognitive impairments.
Fifty-three-years-old male Brazilian, was evaluated after one year in Brazil after being missing for 25 years in USA. Encountering his family, he did not recognize his mother, did not remember his life in Brazil, including his infancy, nationality and mother language. He was found as a homeless in poor hygiene. In the exam, he only presented retrograde amnesia, without any disturbances of fixation memory, intelligence, formal thought, affect or psychomotor function. Patient reported hallucinations. Blood tests showed no abnormalities. EEG showed diffuse slow rhythms. Brain MRI showed cortical and hippocampal atrophy. After weekly evaluations for 5 months, he remained stable despite lack of prescription. Some weeks after MRI, patient reported frequent alcohol and inhalant use when missing. No hints of secondary gain were found until present.
Organic etiology was suspected due to atypical presentation: hallucinations, evocative amnesia, with no further cognitive and affect disturbances. This is not compatible with schizophrenia, dementia or dissociative disorder. The brain abnormalities and recent data highly suggest this etiological hypothesis.
Since this clinical presentation does not fit into any specific psychiatric category, the case will continue to be studied.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Tuberous sclerosis complex is a rare genetic disorder leading to the growth of hamartomas in multiple organs, including cardiac rhabdomyomas. Children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma require frequent admissions to intensive care units, have major complications, namely, arrhythmias, cardiac outflow tract obstruction and heart failure, affecting the quality of life and taking on high healthcare cost. Currently, there is no standard pharmacological treatment for this condition, and the management includes a conservative approach and supportive care. Everolimus has shown positive effects on subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipoma and refractory seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. However, evidence supporting efficacy in symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma is limited to case reports. The ORACLE trial is the first randomised clinical trial assessing the efficacy of everolimus as a specific therapy for symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma.
ORACLE is a phase II, prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre protocol trial. A total of 40 children with symptomatic cardiac rhabdomyoma secondary to tuberous sclerosis complex will be randomised to receive oral everolimus or placebo for 3 months. The primary outcome is 50% or more reduction in the tumour size related to baseline. As secondary outcomes we include the presence of arrhythmias, pericardial effusion, intracardiac obstruction, adverse events, progression of tumour reduction and effect on heart failure.
ORACLE protocol addresses a relevant unmet need in children with tuberous sclerosis complex and cardiac rhabdomyoma. The results of the trial will potentially support the first evidence-based therapy for this condition.
To understand the production factors that affect conclusive parameters of sow herd performance can improve the use of the resources and profitability of farm. The objective of this study was to identify associations and quantify the effects of a set of factors related to piglet weight at weaning (PWW), kilograms of piglets weaned per sow per year (kgPWSY) and sow feed conversion (SFC). Data from 150 farms were collected, for a total study population of 135 168 sows, including gilt replacement, breeding (mating), gestation and farrowing/lactation phases. A questionnaire focusing on reproductive performance, management, facilities, feeding, health and biosafety was administered. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess associations among factors with each of the three dependent variables. Increased duration of lactation was positively associated with PWW, kgPWSY and SFC. The increase in the number of live born pigs per litter was positively associated with kgPWSY and with SFC. Farms with higher PWW had farrowing room humidifiers, did not surgically castrate male piglets and used quaternary ammonia compounds for farrowing room disinfection. Farms with higher kgPWSY used lined ceilings in farrowing rooms and winter feeds with higher CP percentages in gestation; they also had more farrowings per sow per year. Sow feed conversion was worse in farms with partly slatted floors during gestation, in farms feeding lactating sows six times a day or ad libitum and farms with a higher sow-handler ratio. This study indicates that farms can increase PWW and kgPWSY and improve the SFC by changing one or more management, biosafety and feeding practices or facilities as well as by focusing on improving several performance parameters, particularly increasing the duration of lactation and the number of live born pigs per litter.
The BW has been largely used as a selection criterion in genetic selection programmes; however, increases in BW can affect animal metabolism and metabolites. The knowledge of how genetic potential for growth affects the metabolites can give a footprint of growth metabolism. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic potential for post-weaning growth (GG) on performance, carcass traits and serum metabolome of non-castrated Nellore males during the finishing phase. Forty-eight Nellore non-castrated males, with divergent potential for post-weaning growth, were selected and divided into two groups: high potential for post-weaning growth (HG; n = 24) and low potential for post-weaning growth (LG; n = 24). Animals were kept and fed for 90 days where performance and ultrasound carcass traits were evaluated. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of feeding period to analyse serum metabolites concentration. The hot carcass weight and dressing percentage were recorded at slaughter. The feedlot performance and carcass traits were not affected by genetic potential. The HG animals had a lower glucose (P = 0.039), glutamate (P = 0.038), glutamine (P = 0.004), greater betaine (P = 0.039) and pyruvate (P = 0.039) compared to the LG group at the beginning of feedlot. In addition, higher creatine phosphate concentrations were observed at the beginning of feeding period, compared to final, for both groups (P = 0.039). In conclusion, the genetic potential for post-weaning growth does not affect performance and carcass traits during the finishing period. Differences in metabolite concentrations can be better found at the beginning of feedlot, providing a footprint of growth metabolism, but similar metabolite concentration at the end of finishing period.
Light competition increases and plants’ growth pattern change to optimize light utilization when the leaf area index increases. It has been previously shown that using 95% canopy light interception (LI) as a grazing frequency criterion resulted in a greater proportion of leaves and a lower proportion of stem. The objective of the study was to characterize the forage production, morphological composition and nutritive value of Panicum maximum cv Mombaça. The experiment was carried out during summer, autumn–winter and spring. Treatments corresponded to combinations of two pre-grazing conditions (95% and maximum LI at pre-grazing; LI95% and LIMax, respectively) and two post-grazing heights (PGHs; 30 and 50 cm). The statistical design was a randomized complete block, with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Swards managed with LI95% had greater proportions of leaves and lower proportions of stems compared to LIMax. Leaf proportion was lower during autumn–winter compared to summer and spring. The LI95% had greater crude protein (CP) and digestibility (IVOMD), and lower acid detergent fibre (ADF) concentrations than LIMax. The 50 cm PGH pastures had greater CP content and IVOMD, and lower ADF content than 30 cm PGH pastures. Lower IVOMD was observed during autumn–winter than summer and spring. The variability observed on morphological characteristics was primarily associated with seasonality, whilst the nutritive value was primarily affected by grazing management. The pre-grazing target of LI95% combined with 50 cm PGH was the combination that resulted in an increased proportion of leaves, decreased stems in basal stratum and the greatest nutritive value of the produced forage.
Chagas disease (CD) is a neglected parasitic condition endemic in the Americas caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Patients present an acute phase that may or not be symptomatic, followed by lifelong chronic stage, mostly indeterminate, or with cardiac and/or digestive progressive lesions. Benznidazole (BZ) and nifurtimox are the only drugs approved for treatment but not effective in the late chronic phase and many strains of the parasite are naturally resistant. New alternative therapy is required to address this serious public health issue. Repositioning and combination represent faster, and cheaper trial strategies encouraged for neglected diseases. The effect of imatinib (IMB), a tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed for use in neoplasias, was assessed in vitro on T. cruzi and mammalian host cells. In comparison with BZ, IMB was moderately active against different strains and forms of the parasite. The combination IMB + BZ in fixed-ratio proportions was additive. Novel 14 derivatives of IMB were screened and a 3,2-difluoro-2-phenylacetamide (3e) was as potent as BZ on T. cruzi but had low selectivity index. The results demonstrate the importance of phenotypic assays, encourage the improvement of IMB derivatives to reach selectivity and testify to the use of repurposing and combination in drug screening for CD.
Graded exercises tests are performed in adult populations; nonetheless, the use of this type of assessment is greatly understudied in overweight and obese adolescents.
To investigate heart rate autonomic responses to submaximal aerobic exercise in obese and overweight adolescents.
We recruited 40 adolescents divided into two groups: (1) overweight group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls between Z-score +1 and +2 and (2) obese group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls above Z-score >+2. Heart rate variability was analysed before (T1) and after exercise (T2–T4) on treadmill at a slope of 0%, with 70% of the maximal estimated heart rate (220 – age) for 20 minutes.
Heart rate in the overweight group was: 93.2±10.52 bpm versus 120.8±13.49 bpm versus 94.6±11.65 bpm versus 93.0±9.23 bpm, and in the obese group was: 92.0±15.41 bpm versus 117.6±16.31 bpm versus 92.1±12.9 bpm versus 91.8±14.33 bpm. High frequency in the overweight group was: 640±633.1 ms2 versus 84±174.66 ms2 versus 603.5±655.31 ms2 versus 762.6±807.21 ms2, and in the obese group was: 628.4±779.81 ms2 versus 65.4±119.34 ms2 versus 506.2±482.70 ms2 versus 677.9±939.05 ms2; and root mean square of successive differences in the overweight group was: 37.9±18.81 ms versus 10.9±8.41 ms versus 32.8±24.07 ms versus 36.7±21.86 ms, and in the obese group was: 38.7±23.17 ms versus 11.5±8.62 ms versus 32.3±16.74 ms versus 37.3±24.21 ms. These values significantly changed during exercise compared with resting values in overweight and obese groups. Moreover, we also reported no significant difference of resting parasympathetic control of heart rate between obese and overweight adolescents.
There was no significant difference of autonomic responses elicited by submaximal aerobic exercise between overweight and obese adolescents.
The increase of sheep meat competitiveness in international markets can be attributed to the rise of the quantity and the improvement of the quality of the edible portion of sheep carcasses. Usually, carcass yield is established after the slaughter of the animals. Yet, when carcass yield is determined in vivo, it can be both a costly and subjective method. This study proposes models for predicting the physical characteristics of lamb carcass using bioimpedance analysis (BIA) in live animals. Thirty-one Texel × Ile de France crossbreed ram lambs were slaughtered at 20, 26, 32 or 38 kg of BW. Before the slaughter, values of resistance (Rs) and reactance (Xc) were collected using a single-frequency BIA equipment (Model RJL Quantum II Bioelectrical Body Composition Analyzer). Then, BIA main variables such as body bioelectrical volume (V), phase angle (PA), resistive density (RsD) and reactive density (XcD) were calculated. After slaughter, cold carcass weight (CCW), cold carcass yield (CCY), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), soft tissue weight (STW) and soft tissue yield (STY) were also measured. Multiple regression analyses were carried out using the physical characteristics as dependent variables and the bioimpedance values as independent variables. Predictive performance of the models was assessed using leave-one-out cross-validation. The prediction model of CCW was obtained using the V, PA and RsD (R2 = 0.97), STW through the V, RsD and XcD (R2 = 0.97), CCY by Rs, Z and XcD (R2 = 0.69), STY by V and XcD (R2 = 0.67), and SFT only for XcD (R2 = 0.84). The results indicated that BIA has the potential to predict carcass characteristics of lambs at different body masses.