The localization and distribution of SALMFamide immunoreactivity (IR), SI(GFNSALMFamide), in the nervous system of both the adult and larval stages of the trematode Schistosoma mansoni has been determined by an indirect immunofluorescent technique in conjunction with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Immunostaining was widespread in the nervous system of adult male and female S. mansoni. In the central nervous system (CNS), IR was evident in nerve cells and fibres in the anterior ganglia, cerebral commissure and dorsal and ventral nerve cords. In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), IR was apparent in nerve plexuses associated with the subtegmental musculature, oral and ventral suckers, the lining of the gynaecophoric canal, and in fine nerve fibres innervating the dorsal tubercles of the male worm. In the reproductive system of male and female worms, Sl-IR was only observed around the ootype/Mehlis' gland complex in the female. Immunostaining was also evident in the nervous system of both miracidium and cercarial larval stages. A post-embedding, IgG-conjugated colloidal gold immunostaining technique was employed to examine the subcellular distribution of SALMFamide-IR in the CNS of S. mansoni. Gold labelling of peptide was localized over dense-cored vesicles within nerve cell bodies and fibres constituting the neuropile of the anterior ganglia, cerebral commissure and nerve cords of the CNS. Antigen pre-absorption studies indicated that the results obtained do suggest S1-like immunostaining and not cross-reactivity with other peptides, in particular FMRFamide.