The effects of dietary nucleotide supplementation from 9 days of age until the end of post-weaning on piglets hormonal and immune responses and on growth performance were investigated. During lactation (days 9 to 21) and post-weaning (days 22 to 55) 10 [HBI Fomeva11 × (Large White × Landrace)] litters (n = 108 piglets) had ad libitum access to two standard diets, both supplemented with 0% (T0 group) or 0.1% (T1 group) of yeast extract nucleotides. BW of piglets at days 21 (P < 0.10), 35 and 55 (P < 0.05) was greater in T1 compared with T0. Feed intake was not different between groups (P > 0.05). Cortisol content was lower in T1 than in T0 at days 28 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas growth hormone was lower at day 35 (P < 0.05). Levels of IGF-1 were similar across groups (P > 0.05). Nucleotide-supplemented diets increased lymphocyte subpopulation CD4−CD8+high at days 21 and 35 (P < 0.05), whereas CD4+CD8− cells were higher in T1 than in T0 at day 21 (P < 0.05). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells cytokine expression was influenced by dietary nucleotide supplementation. At weaning, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β expression was lower (P < 0.05) in T1 compared with T0, whereas the expression of interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10 was higher (P < 0.05). At day 28, piglets in T1 showed higher values of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression than T0 and lower values of IL-10 expression (P < 0.05). Dietary nucleotide supplementation had a suppressive effect on IL-6 and IL-10 expression (P < 0.05) at day 35. On the contrary, the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β was enhanced (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that starting a dietary nucleotide supplementation before weaning can improve the adaptive capabilities of weaned piglets to the stressors, enhancing the growth performance.