The success of a pathogen depends not only on its transmission to new hosts, but also on its ability to colonize and persist within its current host. Studies of within-host dynamics have focused on only a few diseases of humans, whereas little is known about the factors that influence pathogen populations as they develop inside non-human hosts. Here, we investigate pathogen dynamics occurring within bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) infected by the gut trypanosome Crithidia bombi. Infection by C. bombi showed several features characteristic of vertebrate diseases, including a rapid initial increase in infection intensity, marked oscillations in parasitaemia, and the stimulation of a systemic immune response in infected bees. Within-host dynamics generated substantial variation in the infectiousness and flower-visiting behaviour of bumble bees. Changes in bee foraging that arise from infection may influence the probability of C. bombi transmission between bees at flowers.