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Introduction: 9-1-1 telecommunicators receive minimal education on agonal breathing, often resulting in unrecognized out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We successfully piloted an educational intervention that significantly improved telecommunicators’ OHCA recognition and bystander CPR rates in Ottawa. We sought to better understand the operations of Canadian 9-1-1 communications centers (CC) in preparation for a multi-centre study of this intervention. Methods: We conducted a National survey of all Canadian CCs. Survey domains included information on organizational structure, dispatch system used, education curriculum, and performance monitoring. It was peer-reviewed, translated in French, pilot-tested, and distributed electronically using a modified Dillman method. We designated respondents in each CC before distribution and used targeted follow-up and small incentives to increase response rate. Respondents also described functioning of neighboring CCs if known. Results: We received information from 51/51 provincial and 1/25 territorial CCs, representing 99.7% of the Canadian population. CCs largely utilize the Medical Dispatch Priority System (MPDS) platform (93%), many are Province/Ministry regulated (50%) and most require a High School diploma as minimum entry level education (78%). Telecommunicators receive initial in-class training (median 1.3 months, IQR 0.3-1.9; range 0.1-2.2), often followed by a preceptorship (84.4%) (median 1.0 months, IQR 0.7-1.7; range 0.4-6.0). Educational curriculum includes information on agonal breathing in 41% of CC, without audio examples in 34%. Among responding CCs, over 39,000 suspected OHCA 9-1-1 calls are received annually. Few CCs maintain local performance statistics on OHCA recognition (25%), bystander CPR rates (25%) or survival rates (50%). Most (97%) expressed interest in future research collaborations. Conclusion: Most Canadian telecommunicators receive no or minimal education in recognizing agonal breathing. Further training and improved OHCA monitoring may assist recognition and enhance outcomes.
A significant number of X-ray binaries are now known to exhibit long-term periodicities on timescales of ~10 - 100 days. Several physical mechanisms have been proposed that give rise to such periodicities, one of which is radiation-driven warping and precession of the accretion disk. Recent theoretical work predicts the stability to disk warping as a, function of the mass ratio, binary radius, viscosity and accretion efficiency. We investigate the stability of the superorbital periodicities in the neutron star X-ray binaries Cyg X-2, LMC X-4, SMC X-l and Her X-l, and thereby confront stability predictions with observation. We find that the period and nature of the superorbital variations in these sources is consistent with the predictions of warping theory.
The objective of the present study was to investigate live weight (LW) gain, urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion and urination behaviour of dairy heifers grazing pasture, chicory and plantain in autumn and spring. The study comprised a 35-day autumn trial (with a 7-day acclimation period) and a 28-days spring trial (with a 7-day acclimation period). For each trial, 56 Friesian × Jersey heifers were blocked into five dietary treatments balanced for their LW and breeding worth (i.e. genetic merit of a cow for production and reproduction): 1·00 perennial ryegrass–white clover pasture (PA); 1·00 chicory (CH); 1·00 plantain (PL); 0·50 pasture + 0·50 chicory (PA + CH); and 0·50 pasture + 0·50 plantain (PA + PL). A fresh allocation of the herbage was offered every 3 days with allowance calculated according to feed requirement for maintenance plus gain of 1·0 kg LW/day. In both trials, LW gain was lower on CH than other treatments. In the spring trial, UN concentration and UN excretion were lower in CH and PL than other treatments. In autumn, a higher urination frequency was observed over the first 6 h after forage allocation in CH and PA + CH than other treatments. Data from the present study indicate that feeding CH alone limited heifer LW gain. However, heifers grazing swards containing chicory (CH and PA + CH) and plantain (PL and PA + PL) had the potential to lower nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching from soil compared with heifers grazing PA, by reducing N loading in urine patches.
The present Report covers the period 1982-1984. As with previous Reports, it has not been possible to cover all publications or even every field of research. Some subsections of this Report, the Magellanic Clouds for example, report a body of work as extensive as that in some commissions.
To evaluate the reliability and validity of the FFQ administered to participants in the follow-up of the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS), and to provide calibration coefficients.
A random sample stratified by country of birth, age, sex and BMI was selected from MCCS participants. Participants completed two FFQ and three 24 h recalls over 1 year. Reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Validity coefficients (VC) were estimated from structural equation models and calibration coefficients obtained from regression calibration models.
Adults born in Australia, Greece or Italy.
Nine hundred and sixty-five participants consented to the study; of these, 459 participants were included in the reliability analyses and 615 in the validity and calibration analyses.
The FFQ showed good repeatability for twenty-three nutrients with ICC ranging from 0·66 to 0·80 for absolute nutrient intakes for Australian-born and from 0·51 to 0·74 for Greek/Italian-born. For Australian-born, VC ranged from 0·46 (monounsaturated fat) to 0·83 (Ca) for nutrient densities, comparing well with other studies. For Greek/Italian-born, VC were between 0·21 (Na) and 0·64 (riboflavin). Calibration coefficients for nutrient densities ranged from 0·39 (retinol) to 0·74 (Mg) for Australian-born and from 0·18 (Zn) to 0·54 (riboflavin) for Greek/Italian-born.
The FFQ used in the MCCS follow-up study is suitable for estimating energy-adjusted nutrients for Australian-born participants. However, its performance for estimating intakes is poorer for southern European migrants and alternative dietary assessment methods ought to be considered if dietary data are to be measured in similar demographic groups.
Approximately 25% of people with bulimia nervosa (BN) who undertake therapy are treated in groups. National guidelines do not discriminate between group and individual therapy, yet each has potential advantages and disadvantages and it is unclear how their effects compare. We therefore evaluated how group therapy for BN compares with individual therapy, no treatment, or other therapies, in terms of remission from binges and binge frequency.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of group therapies for BN, following standard guidelines.
A total of 10 studies were included. Studies were generally small with unclear risk of bias. There was low-quality evidence of a clinically relevant advantage for group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) over no treatment at therapy end. Remission was more likely with group CBT versus no treatment [relative risk (RR) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62–0.96]. Mean weekly binges were lower with group CBT versus no treatment (2.9 v. 6.9, standardized mean difference = −0.56, 95% CI −0.96 to −0.15). One study provided low-quality evidence that group CBT was inferior compared with individual CBT to a clinically relevant degree for remission at therapy end (RR 1.24, 95% CI 1.03–1.50); there was insufficient evidence regarding frequency of binges.
Conclusions could only be reached for CBT. Low-quality evidence suggests that group CBT is effective compared with no treatment, but there was insufficient or very limited evidence about how group and individual CBT compared. The risk of bias and imprecise estimates of effect invite further research to refine and increase confidence in these findings.
Cognitive remediation (CR) is an effective treatment for several psychiatric disorders. To date, there have been no published studies examining solely first-episode psychiatric cohorts, despite the merits demonstrated by early intervention CR studies. The current study aimed to assess the effectiveness of CR in patients with a first-episode of either major depression or psychosis.
Fifty-five patients (mean age = 22.8 years, s.d. = 4.3) were randomly assigned to either CR (n = 28) or treatment as usual (TAU; n = 27). CR involved once-weekly 2-h sessions for a total of 10 weeks. Patients were comprehensively assessed before and after treatment. Thirty-six patients completed the study, and analyses were conducted using an intent-to-treat (ITT) approach with all available data.
In comparison to TAU, CR was associated with improved immediate learning and memory controlling for diagnosis and baseline differences. Similarly, CR patients demonstrated greater improvements than TAU patients in psychosocial functioning irrespective of diagnosis. Delayed learning and memory improvements mediated the effect of treatment on psychosocial functioning at a marginal level.
CR improves memory and psychosocial outcome in first-episode psychiatric out-patients for both depression and psychosis. Memory potentially mediated the functional gains observed. Future studies need to build on the current findings in larger samples using blinded allocation and should incorporate longitudinal follow-up and assessment of potential moderators (e.g. social cognition, self-efficacy) to examine sustainability and the precise mechanisms of CR effects respectively.
Single crystal silicon wafers have been oxidised by exposure to an oxygen ambient at atmospheric pressure during RTP using an A G Associates Heatpulse 2101 Rapid Thermal Annealer. Wafers of the standard orientations used in silicon device processing <100>, <111> and <110> were studied. Oxidation was carried out in the temperature range 900 to 1250°C for times of RTP from 4 to 25U seconds producing oxides up to 60nm in thickness. Oxidation rates and their orientation and temperature dependence were derived from ellipsometric measurements of oxide thickness. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infra-red absorption spectrophotometry were also employed in the oxide characterisation. Preliminary electrical characterisation of the oxides, investigated using MOS C-V analyses, showed that the interface state densities were comparable to those in conventional furnace grown oxides.
In 1965 Griggs and Blacic [1,2] proposed that there is a “hydrolytic weakening” process in quartz and silicates whereby the breaking of Si-O bonds, involved in the movement of dislocations, is facilitated by the presence of water. This proposal aimed to explain the observed dramatic weakening of quartz crystals when they are exposed to water in tests at high temperature, as well as the observed strong contrast in creep strength between dry natural quartz crystals and rapidly-grown synthetic quartz crystals containing traces of water. Such a “hydrolytic” process may also underlie the observed effects of water in accelerating other phenomena such as self-diffusion of oxygen in quartz, aluminium-silicon ordering in feldspars, slow crack propagation in silicates, and recrystallization in quartz. A review of this field is given in Reference 3.
Polymer thin films (less than 20 ltm) are widely used as coatings and inter-level dielectrics in microelectronic applications. In multi-layer structures, stresses generated in the films due to interaction with adjacent layers and solvent evaporation induced shrinkage, cause the polymer chains to orient in the plane of the film resulting in anisotropic film properties. Characterization of properties in all directions is essential for accurate electrical and mechanical design and modeling.
A new technique has been developed to measure, in-situ, the through-plane (z) properties of thin polymer films. A parallel plate capacitor device and an interdigitated electrode structure were used as sensors to detect changes in dielectric constant and thickness of thin polymer films under thermal or mechanical loading. The through-plane compression modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion were calculated and results are reported for benzocyclobutene (BCB) films.
We have synthesized polyester systems containing pendant iptycene units and compared their mechanical/structural properties to a homologous reference polymer wherein benzene replaces iptycene units. Iptycenes have unique structural properties called internal molecular free volume (IMFV). The incorporation of iptycene into polyester backbones results in a polymer chain contour resembling “molecular barbed wire.” The contribution of iptycene to the mechanical properties of polyesters is significant and robust across concentration and processing conditions. The triptycene polyester films displayed a nearly 3-fold increase in Young's modulus, an approximately 3-fold increase in strength, and a more than 20-fold increase in strain to failure. We proposed that the presence of triptycene introduces two mechanisms for the enhancement of tensile mechanical properties: molecular threading and molecular interlocking.
Our recent progress in elevated temperature nanoindentation is reviewed, with an emphasis on the study of discrete events (i.e., pop-in phenomena) observed during nanoindentation. For crystalline materials the incipient plasticity problem is associated with the nucleation of dislocations, an effect which we show to be significantly temperature dependent. For metallic glasses it is the operation of individual shear bands beneath the indenter that gives rise to pop-in events; here we also show this to be a temperature dependent phenomenon. Approaches to extract the activation volume and energy of defects involved in plastic flow beneath the indenter are also briefly described.
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a leading thin film photovoltaic (PV) material due to its near ideal band gap of 1.45 eV and its high optical absorption coefficient. The typical CdTe thin film solar cell is of the superstrate configuration where a window layer (CdS), the absorber (CdTe), and a back contact are deposited onto a glass slide coated with a transparent electrode. Substrate CdTe solar cells where the above listed films are deposited in reverse order are not common. In this study, the growth of CdTe thin films deposited on foil substrates by the close-spaced sublimation (CSS) has been investigated for the purpose of fabricating substrate based CdTe solar cells. The CdTe films were deposited at substrate temperatures (TSUB) in the range of 300 to 600°C, and source temperatures (TSRC) in the 600 to 650°C range. The effect of the substrate-source temperature variations on the growth rate, film structure and morphology were studied using XRD and SEM. It was found that for low substrate temperature and as the growth rate increases, grain size was the same but the films appeared to be more uniform and more densely packed with less or no pinholes. The growth rate increased as the source temperature increased. The substrate temperature clearly influences the grain growth and the preferred orientation. As the substrate temperature increased the growth rate decreased and the grain size varied from 2 to 6 μm. XRD analysis showed that with the increase in substrate temperature film orientation changes from preferential along the (111) direction to a mix of (111) (220) and (311).
Cadmium telluride (CdTe) is a leading thin film photovoltaic (PV) material due to its near ideal band gap of 1.45 eV, its high optical absorption coefficient and availability of various device fabrication methods. Superstrate CdTe solar cells fabricated on glass have to-date exhibited efficiencies of 16.5%. Work on substrate devices has been limited due to difficulties associated with the formation of an ohmic contact with CdTe. Foil substrate curvature, flaking, delamination and adhesion as a result of compressive strain due to the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch between the flexible foil substrate and the solar cell films has been studied. Thin films have been characterized by AFM, XRD, SEM, ASTM D3359-08 tape test, and solar cells have been characterized using J-V and spectral measurements. Adhesion improves by minimizing the mismatch of the CTE . A CdCl2 treatment is important for high efficiency solar cells. The treatment influences the microstructure and interface properties of the layers. The effect of the current CdCl2 chemical treatment increases flaking and has to be optimized for the CdTe substrate cell on foil. We have also fabricated solar cells on tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten foils, all with lower CTEs than SS430. We are currently producing solar cells with a VOC of 630mV, a 50% fill factor and over 6.0% efficiency.
Nanoporous metals prepared by the corrosion of an alloy can take the form of monolithic, millimeter-sized bodies containing approximately 1015 nanoscale ligaments per cubic millimeter. The ligament size can reach down to the very limits of stability of nanoscale objects. The processes by which nanoporous metals are formed have continued to be fascinating, even though their study in relation to surface treatment, metal refinement, and failure mechanisms can be traced back to ancient times. In fact, the prospect of using alloy corrosion as a means of making nanomaterials for fundamental studies and functional applications has led to a revived interest in the process. The quite distinct mechanical properties of nanoporous metals are one of the focus points of this interest, as relevant studies probe the deformation behavior of crystals at the lower end of the size scale. Furthermore, the coupling of bulk stress and strain to the forces acting along the surface of nanoporous metals provide unique opportunities for controlling the mechanical behavior through external variables such as the electrical or chemical potentials.
Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody encephalopathy, a rare cause of
limbic encephalopathy, typically presents with memory impairment and
seizures. Psychiatric symptoms have not been emphasised in the literature.
Here we describe a 58-year-old man who presented with panic attacks and
psychogenic non-epileptic seizures and, later on, developed delusions and
hallucinations and then confusion. He was found to have antibodies to
voltage-gated potassium channels. Treatment with immuno-modulatory therapy
resulted in almost complete recovery.