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With the aim to elucidate gonococcal antimicrobial resistance (AMR)–risk factors, we undertook a retrospective analysis of the molecular epidemiology and AMR of 104 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates from clinical samples (urethra, rectum, pharynx and cervix) of 94 individuals attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Madrid (Spain) from July to October 2016, and explored potential links with socio-demographic, behavioural and clinical factors of patients. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by E-tests, and isolates were characterised by N. gonorrhoeae multi-antigen sequence typing. Penicillin resistance was recorded for 15.4% of isolates, and most were susceptible to tetracycline, cefixime and azithromycin; a high incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance (~40%) was found. Isolates were grouped into 51 different sequence types (STs) and 10 genogroups (G), with G2400, ST5441, ST2318, ST12547 and G2992 being the most prevalent. A significant association (P = 0.015) was evident between HIV-positive MSM individuals and having a ciprofloxacin-resistant strain. Likewise, a strong association (P = 0.047) was found between patient age of MSM and carriage of isolates expressing decreased susceptibility to azithromycin. A decrease in the incidence of AMR gonococcal strains and a change in the strain populations previously reported from other parts of Spain were observed. Of note, the prevalent multi-drug resistant genogroup G1407 was represented by only three strains in our study, while the pan-susceptible clones such as ST5441, and ST2318, associated with extragenital body sites were the most prevalent.
Overweight/obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and factors such as a sedentary lifestyle and inadequate eating habits directly contribute to the development of this condition. Studies indicate that rapid weight gain at critical development stages, such as the lactation period, is associated with the development of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes in the long term. In addition to metabolic changes during adulthood, overweight/obesity may influence reproductive function of the population. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluate postnatal overfeeding effects on male and female Wistar rat reproductive parameters. Postnatal overfeeding was induced by applying the litter reduction method for both sexes. Forty animals were used, divided into four groups: two with normal litters (NL♂ and NL♀) and two with small litters (SL♂ and SL♀). The males were euthanized at 90 days of age, on the same date the females were mated. Females were also euthanized after the 20-day gestation. Metabolic and reproductive variables were analyzed. Regarding males, SL animals showed increased body weight, adiposity, and decreased relative weight of the seminal vesicle, prostate, and epididymis as well as changes in the ITT and OGTT glycemic tests. Concerning females, SL animals presented increased body weight, relative perigonadal fat weight, glucose intolerance as well as modify the vaginal opening and increased weight of female pup. The litter reduction method was efficient in leading to metabolic and reproductive alterations in male and female Wistar rat.
Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions – particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost–benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation.
The aim of our article was to review the current literature on the effects of metabolic (re) programming on childhood obesity. PubMed/MEDLINE was the data source used to track the studies. Descriptors applied: children obesity, epigenetic, metabolic programming, exercise and nutrition. The focus was to analyze and discuss the international findings on the theme. The gathering of the papers was performed between June and August 2014. The search of articles with the descriptors used found 33.054 studies. In all, 5.709 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. Among these, after careful reading of the titles, 712 papers were considered potential as references. After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, 50 studies were selected from 132 eligible abstracts. Most studies linked the development and treatment of obesity from epigenetically stimulated metabolic programming during the early stages of pregnancy and life. This review provides theoretical basis to the understanding that the programmed development of childhood obesity may be linked to early exposure to environmental factors, such as (nutrition and regular practice of exercise) and stimulus can epigenetically alter the modulation of the obesogenic metabolic behavior during pregnancy and the developmental stages of children and/or postpone the pathophysiologic disease stage to adulthood.
We explore the general astrobiological significance of F-type main-sequence stars with masses between 1.2 and 1.5 M⊙. Special consideration is given to stellar evolutionary aspects due to nuclear main-sequence evolution. DNA is taken as a proxy for carbon-based macromolecules following the paradigm that extraterrestrial biology may be most likely based on hydrocarbons. Consequently, the DNA action spectrum is utilized to represent the impact of the stellar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Planetary atmospheric attenuation is taken into account based on parameterized attenuation functions. We found that the damage inflicted on DNA for planets at Earth-equivalent positions is between a factor of 2.5 and 7.1 higher than for solar-like stars, and there are intricate relations for the time-dependence of damage during stellar main-sequence evolution. If attenuation is considered, smaller factors of damage are obtained in alignment to the attenuation parameters. This work is motivated by earlier studies indicating that the UV environment of solar-type stars is one of the most decisive factors in determining the suitability of exosolar planets and exomoons for biological evolution and sustainability.
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) have been isolated from a number of livestock species and persons involved in animal production. We investigated the prevalence of LA-MRSA in fattening turkeys and people living on farms that house fattening turkeys. Eighteen (90%) of 20 investigated flocks were positive for MRSA, and on 12 of the farms 22 (37·3%) of 59 persons sampled were positive for MRSA. People with frequent access to the stables were more likely to be positive for MRSA. In most flocks MRSA that could be assigned to clonal complex (CC) 398 were detected. In five flocks MRSA of spa-type t002 that is not related to CC398 were identified. Moreover, other methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. were detected on 11 farms and in eight people working on the farms.
There is relative little information about the prevalence and risk factors of co-morbid anxiety and depression in later life. These disorders are often associated with worse response to treatment than either condition alone, and researching their epidemiology in diverse settings is vital to policy makers. We therefore investigated the co-occurrence of anxiety and depressive syndromes amongst older adults living in developing countries and measured the separate and joint effect of these two disorders on levels of associated disability.
The 10/66 study carried out cross-cultural surveys of all residents aged 65 years or over (n=15021) in 11 sites in seven countries (People's Republic of China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru). Anxiety was measured by using the Geriatric Mental State Examination and the Automated Geriatric Examination for Computer Assisted Taxonomy diagnostic system. Depression was assessed according to International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) and EURO-D criteria. Disability was measured by using the World Health Organization's Disablement Assessment Scale Version II. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to investigate the association of common mental disorders and disability.
The prevalence of co-occurring anxiety and depression (with the exclusion of subthreshold disorders) ranged between 0.9% and 4.2% across sites. Gender, socio-economic status, urbanicity and physical co-morbidities were associated with the different co-morbid states. Having both disorders was linked to higher disability scores than having anxiety or depression alone.
Given the close association of co-morbid anxiety and depression with disability, new policies to improve prevention, recognition and treatment will be needed to adapt to ageing populations and their mental health needs.
The NADPH oxidase enzyme system is the main source of superoxide anions in phagocytic and vascular cells. NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide generation has been found to be abnormally enhanced in several chronic diseases. Evidence is accumulating that polyphenols may have the potential to improve cardiovascular health, although the mechanism is not fully established. Consumption of concentrated red grape juice, rich in polyphenols, has been recently shown to reduce NADPH oxidase activity in circulating neutrophils from human subjects. In the present work we studied whether red grape juice polyphenols affected NADPH oxidase subunit expression at the transcription level. For this, we used human neutrophils and mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, HL-60-derived neutrophils and the endothelial cell line EA.hy926.Superoxide production was measured with 2′7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate or lucigenin, mRNA expression by real-time RT-PCR and protein expression by Western blot. Each experiment was performed at least three times. In all cell types tested, red grape juice, dealcoholised red wine and pure polyphenols decreased superoxide anion production. Red grape juice and dealcoholised red wine selectively reduced p47phox, p22phox and gp91phox expression at both mRNA and protein levels, without affecting the expression of p67phox. Pure polyphenols, particularly quercetin, also reduced NADPH oxidase subunit expression, especially p47phox, in all cell types tested. The present results showing that red grape juice polyphenols reduce superoxide anion production provide an alternative mechanism by which consumption of grape derivatives may account for a reduction of oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular and/or inflammatory diseases related to NADPH oxidase superoxide overproduction.
Growth of the vanadium pentoxide xerogel in the presence of the polyaniline thin film (V2O5/PANI) in different chemical treatment on substrate are presented. The in situ characterization studies revealed the presence of a lamellar structure for the V2O5/PANI hybrid material. The intercalation reaction was evidenced on the basis of the increase in the d-spacing as well as the displacement of the absorption bands toward lower energy levels. The growth of V2O5/PANI thin film, from direct reaction, on glasses substrate using pre-treated with cationic surfactant cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) presented layers with a surface homogeneous. The UV/ozone and RCA treatment showed that the film had low adhesion on substrate compared with CPC and CTAB treatment. Furthermore, these results suggests that the CTAB and CPC treatment can be used, further, for V2O5/PANI LbL films using V2O5 gel as first layer as well as a promising candidate for applications as sensor for ammonia detection in poultry shed.
Recent findings have suggested that oxidative damage might contribute to the cytotoxicity and carcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Induction of oxidative stress also plays an important role in the toxicity of another mycotoxin, ochratoxin A (OTA). In the present study, the protective effect of cyanidin-3-O-β-glucopyranoside (C-3-G; an anthocyanin contained in oranges, blackberries, strawberries and cranberries) against AFB1- and OTA-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in a human hepatoma-derived cell line (Hep G2) and a human colonic adenocarcinoma cell line (CaCo-2). The ability of C-3-G to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis and the apoptosis caused by the two mycotoxins was also investigated in both cell lines. Our experiments proved the significant cytoprotective effect of C-3-G in vitro against OTA- and AFB1-induced cell damage. In particular, 24 h of pretreatment with 50 μm-C-3-G inhibited the cytotoxicity of 10 μm-AFB1 (by 35 %) and of 10 μm-OTA (by 25 %) in Hep G2 cells (P<0·001) and of 10 μm-AFB1 (by 10 %, P<0·01) and of 10 μm-OTA (by 14 %, P<0·05) in CaCo-2 cells. Moreover, 50 μm-C-3-G attenuated ROS production induced by the two toxins in both cell lines (P<0·05). Inhibition of DNA and protein synthesis induced by the mycotoxins was counteracted by pretreatment with the antioxidant at 50 μm. Similarly, apoptotic cell death was prevented as demonstrated by a reduction of DNA fragmentation and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. The in vitro free-radical scavenging capacity of the anthocyanin was tested with the Briggs–Rauscher oscillating reaction. This system works at pH approximately 2. The results showed good scavenging power, in accordance with the observed inhibition of ROS production.
To study the effects of cannabinoid, glutamate, and dopamine agonists and antagonists on the calcium current in rat sympathetic neurons.
Calcium current was recorded using the whole-cell variant of the patch-clamp technique. After expression in neuronal membranes of the cannabinoid CB1, glutamate mGluR2, or dopamine D1 receptor (by microinjection of the relevant receptor's cDNA into the neuron's nucleus) agonists' and antagonists' effects were observed.
Applications of agonists of the expressed receptor (0.1-10 µM) decreased the calcium current. The calcium current was increased after application of cannabinoid antagonists (AM251 and AM630); these compounds thus act as inverse agonists in this preparation. Glutamate and dopamine antagonists had no effects on the calcium current by themselves. Combined application of cannabinoids and dopamine, but not glutamate, agonists produced a decrement in the calcium current that was bigger than either of the effects seen when one agonist was applied alone.
These results suggest that cannabinoid with dopamine receptors have an interactive inhibitory effect on the calcium current in this preparation, indicating that within the nervous system, receptor interactions may be important in the regulation of ion-channel functions.
The present study examined the ontogeny of mitochondrial protein abundance in adipose tissue and lungs over the first month of life in the sheep and the extent to which this may be altered by maternal undernutrition during the final month of gestation. The ontogeny of uncoupling protein (UCP), voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) and cytochrome c abundance were determined in adipose tissue and lungs sampled from near-term fetuses and young sheep aged 4 h, 1, 7 and 30 d. In adipose tissue, the abundance of UCP1, VDAC and cytochrome c all peaked at 1 d of age and then decreased by 30 d of age, at which stage the brown adipose tissue-specific UCP1 was no longer detectable but UCP2 was clearly abundant. For the lungs, however, UCP2 and VDAC abundance both peaked 7 d after birth and then decreased by 30 d of age. During postnatal development, therefore, a marked change in mitochondrial protein abundance occurs within both adipose tissue and lungs. Maternal nutrient restriction had no effect on lamb growth or tissue weights at 30 d of age but was associated with increased abundance of UCP2 and VDAC but not cytochrome c in both adipose tissue and lungs. These mitochondrial adaptations within both adipose tissue and the lungs of offspring born to previously nutrient-restricted mothers may compromise adipose tissue and lung function during periods of environmental stress.
Uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1 and 2 are members of the subfamily of inner mitochondrial membrane carriers. UCP1 is specific to brown adipose tissue (BAT), where it is responsible for the rapid production of heat at birth. In fetal sheep UCP1 is first detectable at approximately 900d of gestation; its abundance increases with gestational age and peaks at the time of birth. The mRNA and protein for both the long and short form of the prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) are also highly abundant in BAT. Enhanced PRLR abundance in late gestation is associated with an increase in the abundance of UCP1. This relationship between PRLR and UCP is not only present in BAT. Similar findings are now reported in the pregnant ovine uterus, where PRLR abundance reaches a maximum just before that of UCP2. However, the role of PRLR in BAT remains undetermined. Rat studies have shown that PRL administration throughout pregnancy results in offspring with increased UCP1 at birth. Studies in newborn lambs have shown that administration of PRL (20mg/d) causes an acute response, increasing colonic temperature in the first hour by 1°. This increased colonic temperature is maintained for the first 240h of life, in conjunction with enhanced lipolysis. After 70d of treatment there is no difference in the abundance of UCP1 but an increase in UCP1 activity; this effect may be mediated by an increase in lipolysis. Taken together these findings suggest that PRL could be an important endocrine factor during pregnancy and early postnatal life.
It has been proposed that women had a higher migration rate than men throughout human evolutionary history. However, in a recent study of South American natives using mtDNA restriction fragment polymorphisms and Y-chromosome microsatellites we failed to detect a significant difference in estimates of migration rates between the sexes. As the high mutation rate of microsatellites might affect estimates of population structure, we now examine biallelic polymorphisms in both mtDNA and the Y-chromosome. Analyses of these markers in Amerinds from North, Central and South America agree with our previous findings in not supporting a higher migration rate for women in these populations. Furthermore, they underline the importance of genetic drift in the evolution of Amerinds and suggest the existence of a North to South gradient of increasing drift in the Americas.
Different genetic typing procedures were applied in an epidemiological study of Salmonella
serotype Ohio. Isolates that generated identical DNA fingerprints (HincII ribotypes, ERIC and
RAPD profiles) were clustered into the same lineage, and the addition of data from plasmid,
integron and resistance profiles was used to differentiate types. Results led to the determination
of the endemic and the emergent epidemic types at specific times, and to ascertain the clinical
and epidemiological impact of each type. In the series analysed (47 clinical isolates and 3 non-clinical
isolates) 11 lineages and 32 types were found. Two lineages were considered prevalent
and endemic, and during an epidemiological alert (Spain, 1998) a re-emergence and spread of
organisms mainly from the most frequent lineage had occurred. The combination of H-ribotype
with ERIC profile, as primary markers, and resistance profile with plasmid profile, as
secondary markers, was shown to be the most useful tool to trace epidemiologically Ohio.
The World Health Organization suggested that the prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni among 7- to 14-year-olds be used
to guide treatment strategies in endemic areas. This study explores how well the prevalence in that age group predicted
the overall prevalence in the community in data from stool examinations (Kato–Katz method) from 180000 people in 3
municipalities in Brazil in 1984 and 1985. The median prevalence was higher in 1984, before community treatment was
introduced. There was a strong relationship between the prevalence among 7- to 14-year-olds and the overall prevalence
in the community. We present sensitivities and positive predictive values for the use of prevalence in the indicator group
to select communities for mass treatment as recommended by WHO. For a range of assumptions sensitivity and positive
predictive value were never both above 80%. We suggest that the estimates of validity presented in this paper inform
future evaluations of strategies for S. mansoni control.
The neuroendocrine response to surgical trauma is a complex set of hormonal and metabolic changes evoked by anxiety, blood loss, tissue damage, visceral handling, and also by the anaesthetic drugs and procedures (Traynor & Hall, 1981). A useful approach to understanding the surgery-induced stress syndrome is to individualize these stressful stimuli in order to explore the specific effects of anxiety, anaesthesia or surgery itself on the endocrine and metabolic responses that are observed altogether. The relative importance of each element contributing to surgical stress should be better characterized in order to provide the rationale for improving the management of surgical patients. For instance, it remains unclear whether the physiological alterations induced by surgical stress are a single syndrome arising from the addition of several stressors or comprise parallel responses to each stressor, with some convergent end-points.
The Haseman & Elston (1972) sibling-pair regression method
been used to detect and estimate
the variance contribution to observed values of a quantitative trait
by allelic variation in specific
candidate genes. The procedure was developed under a model with a
single biallelic trait locus. This
assumption does not hold for several known systems. In this paper
we prove that for candidate gene
analysis the Haseman–Elston procedure extends to the case of
multiple trait loci, each possibly
having more than two alleles. Simulation experiments comparing single-locus
to two-locus models
show that fitting the extended regression equations maintains nominal
significance levels, but the
power to detect linkage to trait variation is not improved by including
additional loci. These results
indicate that the original proposal is statistically robust to
violations of the underlying genetic
model. Practical issues associated with quantifying the relative
variance contribution by individual
loci are also discussed. Applications of the extended regression
equations to lipoprotein(a) and high
density lipoprotein cholesterol are given for illustration.