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In the present study, we examined the association between maternal education and unhealthy eating behaviour (the consumption of snack and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)) and explored environmental factors that might mediate this association in 11-year-old children. These environmental factors include home availability of snacks and SSB, parental rules about snack and SSB consumption, parental intake of snacks and SSB, peer sensitivity and children's snack-purchasing behaviour. Data were obtained from the fourth wave of the INPACT (IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT) study (2011), in which 1318 parent–child dyads completed a questionnaire. Data were analysed using multivariate regression models. Children of mothers with an intermediate educational level were found to consume more snacks than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 1·22, P= 0·02). This association was not mediated by environmental factors. Children of mothers with a low educational level were found to consume more SSB than those of mothers with a high educational level (B= 0·63, P< 0·01). The association between maternal educational level and children's SSB consumption was found to be mediated by parental intake of snacks and SSB and home availability of SSB. The home environment seems to be a promising setting for interventions on reducing socio-economic inequalities in children's SSB consumption.
The English HCV lookback programme has identified some individuals with transfusion-transmitted HCV infection. The path from the collection of donations from HCV-infected donors to the identification of infected recipients was constructed. The probability of different outcomes at each branch was derived from data collected during this programme. This path of probabilities was then used to produce a complete estimate of the number of recipients infected by blood transfusions (dead and alive at the end of 1995) by re-entry of blood components that fell out of the lookback at various steps prior to recipient testing, and entry of components from HCV-infected donations that were never identified for lookback. Less than 14 000 recipients were estimated to have been infected with HCV during the decade prior to the start of donation testing. Over 60% of these were expected to have died by the end of 1995. Transfusion has infected a large group of individuals. However, this group constitutes a very small, and declining, proportion of all HCV infections in the population.
A status report is given on a comprehensive modeling project aimed at predicting failure time distributions of interconnect lines. We discuss our novel approach to calculate the evolution of stresses in lines using elastic response functions. It is argued that this approach makes it possible to model the stress and damage evolution in a large ensemble of lines efficiently so that statistically meaningful failure time distributions can be generated.
The elastic response functions enable us also to derive a generalized Korhonen equation which includes the effects of mass transport at remote locations. Basic features of this equation are demonstrated with a one-dimensional implementation and its results are compared with the classical Korhonen [8, 9, 10] model.
We examine the distribution of failure times in a simple and computationally efficient, yet reasonably authentic, model of interconnect reliability that allows consideration of statistically significant samples. The model includes an approximate description of the distribution of grain sizes and texture in narrow interconnects, an effective treatment of stress evolution associated with mass transport along grain boundaries, and local relaxation of stresses due to void formation. Failure time distributions for populations of idealized structures are analyzed to aid in interpretation of model behavior.
The fine structure of the trifoliate process of three species of Atherigona were studied. The outer surface of the lateral lobe of the process for the three species, A. bedfordi, A. hyalinipennis and A. secrecauda is covered with a dense mat of hairs. There are spine-like outgrowths on their inner surface referred to as “commasets” as well as some unusual sensilla on the rim of the lateral lobe and the section connecting the lobes to the stem. These structures showed inter-specific variation. The stem of the process is glabrous and granulate in A. bedfordi and A. secrecauda, but sparsely pilose in A. hyalinipennis.
A key for the identification of males of all Afrotropical species of the subgenus Atherigona of Atherigona described to date is presented. Four new species, A. alaotrana sp. n. from Madagascar, A. bowdeni sp. n. from Uganda, A. dentifolia sp. n. from Kenya and A. palpalis sp. n. from Nigeria, are described.
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