To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Late-life depression, falls, and fall worry are public health problems. While previous research confirms the cross-sectional relationship between depression and fall worry, few longitudinal studies have examined whether changes in fall worry are associated with changes in depressive illness and vice versa. This study examined longitudinal relationships between probable major depression (PMD) and activity-limiting fall worry (ALW).
Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements:
This longitudinal panel observational study used data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) waves 5 (referred to as T1 in this study) and 6 (T2), conducted in 2015 and 2016, respectively (N = 6,299, aged 65 and older). We examined associations of new and continued ALW between T1 and T2 with T2 PMD, controlling for T1 PMD; and associations of new and continued PMD between T1 and T2 with T2 ALW, controlling for T1 ALW. We used χ2 and t tests for descriptive statistics and logistic regression for multivariable analysis.
Those with new ALW at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 PMD compared to those without ALW at both time points (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.98−3.51), and those with new PMD at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 ALW (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.66−3.52). Those with continued PMD also had greater odds of T2 ALW compared to those without PMD at either time point (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.62−3.29).
The findings add to knowledge about bidirectional (mutually reinforcing) relationships between depression and activity-limiting fall worry. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce both late-life depression and activity-limiting fall worry.
Stone was a critical resource for prehistoric hunter-gatherers. Archaeologists, therefore, have long argued that these groups would actively have sought out stone of ‘high quality’. Although the defining of quality can be a complicated endeavour, researchers in recent years have suggested that stone with fewer impurities would be preferred for tool production, as it can be worked and used in a more controllable way. The present study shows that prehistoric hunter-gatherers at the Holocene site of Welling, in Ohio, USA, continuously selected the ‘purest’ stone for over 9000 years.
Given the rapid increase in prescription and illicit drug poisoning deaths in the 50+ age group, we examined precipitating/risk factors and toxicology results associated with poisoning deaths classified as suicides compared to intent-undetermined death (UnD) among decedents aged 50+.
Data were from the 2005–2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 15,453). χ2 tests and multinomial logistic regression models were used to compare three groups of decedents: suicide decedent who left a suicide note, suicide decedent who did not leave a note, and UnD cases.
Compared to suicide decedents without a note (37.7% of the sample), those with a note (29.4%) were more likely to have been depressed and had physical health problems and other life stressors, while UnD cases (32.9%) were less likely to have had mental health problems and other life stressors but more likely to have had substance use and health problems. UnD cases were also more likely to be opioid (RRR = 2.65, 95% CI = 2.42–2.90) and cocaine (RRR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.09–3.21) positive but less likely to be antidepressant positive. Blacks were more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic Whites to be UnDs. Results from separate regression models in the highest UnD states (Maryland and Utah) and in states other than Maryland/Utah were similar.
Many UnDs may be more correctly classified as unintentional overdose deaths. Along with more accurate determination processes for intent/manner of death, substance use treatment and approaches to curbing opioid and other drug use problems are needed to prevent intentional and unintentional poisoning deaths.
US suicide rates among older women have substantially increased over the past decade. We examined potential differences in sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors among older female suicide decedents who died by drug overdose versus firearms, hanging/suffocation, and other means, and postmortem toxicology results by suicide means.
Data are from the 2005 to 2015 US National Violent Death Reporting System (N = 12,401 female decedents aged 50 years and over). We used three logistic regression models, with overdose versus firearms, overdose versus hanging/suffocation, and overdose versus “other” means as the dependent variables, to examine associations between suicide means and sociodemographic and risk/precipitating factors. χ2 tests were used to examine positive toxicology of prescription and illicit drugs by suicide means.
Compared to firearm users, overdose users were younger and had higher odds of having had previous suicide attempts/intent disclosures, mental disorders (e.g. depression/dysthymia: AOR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.05–1.34), and substance abuse other than alcohol, but lower odds of having had relationship problems and any crisis. Compared to hanging/suffocation, overdose declined (AOR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93–0.97) during the study period and was less prevalent among Hispanic and Asian women and those with job/finance/housing problems. Toxicology reports showed that 47%, 43%, and 45% of overdose users were antidepressant, opiate, and benzodiazepine positive, respectively. Firearm users had the lowest rates of positive toxicology results for these drugs.
Suicide prevention should include limiting access to large quantities of prescription medications and firearms for those at risk of suicide. More effective mental health/substance abuse treatment and chronic illness management support are also needed.
Highly detailed structural characterization is required to understand the discharge mechanism in order to effectively investigate α-MnO2 structured lithium battery cathode materials. This paper discusses recent findings which elucidate the lithiation mechanism of silver-hollandite, AgxMn8O16. For Ag1.2Mn8O16, the structure is not significantly perturbed during the first 2 equivalents of lithiation and the electrochemistry is highly reversible. Upon 4 equivalents of lithiation, the structure becomes highly distorted, in correlation with capacity fade observed over 40 cycles. Notably, regarding capacity fade, modifications to Ag/Mn ratio are less impactful than modifications to the α-MnO2 crystallite size. This is shown in comparisons of two materials with the same stoichiometry (Ag1.4Mn8O16) and differing crystallite size (10 and 15 nm).
Compared to their non-using age peers, older marijuana users are known to have lower marijuana risk perceptions. We examined associations of older marijuana users’ risk perceptions with their marijuana use patterns and substance use disorders.
Data are from 2013 to 2015 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (N = 24,057 respondents aged 50+ years). Bivariate logistic regression was used to compare risk perceptions among never users, former users, and past-year users aged 50+ years. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between risk perception and marijuana use status and between risk perception and marijuana use patterns.
Among the total sample, former (AOR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.27–0.32) and past-year (AOR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.04–0.06) marijuana users had significantly lower odds of moderate/great risk perception (as opposed to no/slight risk perception) than never users. Among past-year users, odds of moderate/great risk perception were lower among those who used marijuana more frequently (AOR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.07–0.28 for 300+ days of use compared to 1–11 days of use) and who reported any medical marijuana use (AOR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.14–0.51). However, those who had marijuana use disorder were 3.5 times more likely to report moderate/great risk perception (AOR = 3.50, 95% CI = 1.62–7.58). Those who had a college education, had higher incomes, and resided in states with medical marijuana laws also had lower risk perceptions.
Public health education on scientific evidence about marijuana's benefits and harms and age-appropriate treatment for older adults with substance use problems are needed. Research on risk perception formation using longitudinal data among older adults is also needed.
Bribery is perhaps the most visible and most frequently studied form of corruption. Very little research, however, examines the individual decision to offer or accept a bribe, or how understanding that decision can help to effectively control bribery. This book brings together research by scholars from a variety of disciplines studying the mind and morality, who use their research to explain how and why decisions regarding participation in bribery are made. It first examines bribery from the perspective of brain structure, then approaches the decision to engage in bribery from a cognitive perspective. It examines the psychological costs imposed on a person who engages in bribery, and studies societal and organizational norms and their impact on bribery. This is an ideal read for scholars and other interested persons studying business ethics, bribery and corruption, corruption control, and the applications of neuroscience in a business environment.