We characterized 14 trypanosome isolates from sylvatic mammals (9 from primates, 1 from sloth, 2 from anteaters and 2 from opossum) plus 2 human isolates of Brazilian Amazon. These isolates were proven to be Trypanosoma rangeli by detection of metacyclic trypomastigotes in the salivary glands of triatomines and by a specific PCR assay. Polymorphism determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) revealed that most (12) of the Brazilian T. rangeli isolates from the Amazon differed from those of other geographical regions, thus constituting a new group of T. rangeli. Four Brazilian isolates clustered together with a previously described group (A) that was described as being composed of being isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. Isolates from Panama and El Salvador form another group. The isolate from Southern Brazil did not cluster to any of the above-mentioned groups. This is the first study that assesses the genetic relationship of a large number of isolates from wild mammals, especially from non-human primates. A randomly-amplified DNA fragment (Tra625) exclusive to T. rangeli was used to develop a PCR assay able to detect all T. rangeli groups.