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Low protein intake may accelerate age-related loss of lean mass and physical function. We investigated the prevalence of low protein intake (<1·0 g/kg/day) and the associations between dietary patterns, modifiable risk factors and low protein intake in self-reliant community-dwelling adults ≥ 80 years. This cross-sectional study consisted of two home visits. Data collection consisted of physical measurements (e.g. physical function, physical activity) and self-report of nutritional intake (4-d food records), appetite, eating symptoms and medical conditions. Binary analyses were performed to compare participants with low and normal protein intake. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between low protein intake, dietary patterns and modifiable risk factors adjusted for age, sex, BMI categories and diseases. One hundred twenty-six were included in the study. Prevalence of low protein intake was 54 %. A greater day-to-day variation in protein intake was associated with low protein intake (adjusted OR 2·5; 95 % CI 1·14, 5·48). Participants with low protein intake had a higher prevalence of nausea, diarrhoea and mouth dryness. Reduced appetite, mouth dryness and pain increased odds of low protein intake (adjusted OR 3·06, 95 % CI 1·23, 7·63; OR 3·41, 95 % CI 1·51, 7·7; OR 1·54, 95 % CI 1·00, 2·36, respectively). There was a high prevalence of low protein intake in community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 80 years. Day-to-day variability, appetite, mouth dryness and pain may be potentially modifiable risk factors. Targeting dietary patterns and risk factors in primary prevention strategies may potentially improve intake of protein and minimise risk of physical frailty.
Prehospital use of lung ultrasound (LUS) by paramedics to guide the diagnoses and treatment of patients has expanded over the past several years. However, almost all of this education has occurred in a classroom or hospital setting. No published prehospital use of LUS simulation software within an ambulance currently exists.
The objective of this study was to determine if various ambulance driving conditions (stationary, constant acceleration, serpentine, and start-stop) would impact paramedics’ abilities to perform LUS on a standardized patient (SP) using breath-holding to simulate lung pathology, or to perform LUS using ultrasound (US) simulation software. Primary endpoints included the participating paramedics’: (1) time to acquiring a satisfactory simulated LUS image; and (2) accuracy of image recognition and interpretation. Secondary endpoints for the breath-holding portion included: (1) the agreement between image interpretation by paramedic versus blinded expert reviewers; and (2) the quality of captured LUS image as determined by two blinded expert reviewers. Finally, a paramedic LUS training session was evaluated by comparing pre-test to post-test scores on a 25-item assessment requiring the recognition of a clinical interpretation of prerecorded LUS images.
Seventeen paramedics received a 45-minute LUS lecture. They then performed 25 LUS exams on both SPs and using simulation software, in each case looking for lung sliding, A and B lines, and seashore or barcode signs. Pre- and post-training, they completed a 25-question test consisting of still images and videos requiring pathology recognition and formulation of a clinical diagnosis. Sixteen paramedics performed the same exams in an ambulance during different driving conditions (stationary, constant acceleration, serpentines, and abrupt start-stops). Lung pathology was block randomized based on driving condition.
Paramedics demonstrated improved post-test scores compared to pre-test scores (P <.001). No significant difference existed across driving conditions for: time needed to obtain a simulated image; clinical interpretation of simulated LUS images; quality of saved images; or agreement of image interpretation between paramedics and blinded emergency physicians (EPs). Image acquisition time while parked was significantly greater than while the ambulance was driving in serpentines (Z = -2.898; P = .008). Technical challenges for both simulation techniques were noted.
Paramedics can correctly acquire and interpret simulated LUS images during different ambulance driving conditions. However, simulation techniques better adapted to this unique work environment are needed.
Praziquantel (PZQ) is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis. The potential drug resistance necessitates the search for adjunct or alternative therapies to PZQ. Previous functional genomics has shown that RNAi inhibition of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) gene in Schistosoma adult worms significantly improved the effectiveness of PZQ. Here we tested the in vitro efficacy of 15 selective and non-selective CaMK inhibitors against Schistosoma mansoni and showed that PZQ efficacy was improved against refractory juvenile parasites when combined with these CaMK inhibitors. By measuring CaMK activity and the mobility of adult S. mansoni, we identified two non-selective CaMK inhibitors, Staurosporine (STSP) and 1Naphthyl PP1 (1NAPP1), as promising candidates for further study. The impact of STSP and 1NAPP1 was investigated in mice infected with S. mansoni in the presence or absence of a sub-lethal dose of PZQ against 2- and 7-day-old schistosomula and adults. Treatment with STSP/PZQ induced a significant (47–68%) liver egg burden reduction compared with mice treated with PZQ alone. The findings indicate that the combination of STSP and PZQ dosages significantly improved anti-schistosomal activity compared to PZQ alone, demonstrating the potential of selective and non-selective CaMK/kinase inhibitors as a combination therapy with PZQ in treating schistosomiasis.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: In 2016, more than 3,100 children died, and an estimated 17,000 children had non-fatal injuries, from firearms in the United States. In this study, we used hospital charges as a proxy for medical resource utilization, and compared differences in charges by intent of firearm injury among children. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this cross-sectional study of the 2016 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample, we identified firearm injury cases among children aged 19 years or younger using ICD-10-CM external cause of morbidity codes. Injury intent was characterized as unintentional, assault, self-inflicted, undetermined, or due to legal intervention. We included patients treated and released from the emergency department (ED) or admitted alive to the hospital, and excluded those who were transferred or died in the ED. We used linear regressions with survey weighting to compare differences in mean healthcare charges by firearm injury intent, with and without adjustment for ED disposition. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 12,469 cases in the weighted sample, mean age was 16.5 years, a majority were male (88.2%) and Medicaid-insured (57.8%), and 64% were discharged from the ED and 36% admitted. Injuries were 49.0% unintentional, 45.1% assault-related, and 1.8% self-inflicted. Compared to children with self-inflicted injuries (charges $115,224), children with assault-related injuries (charges $55,052; p<0.007) and unintentional injuries (charges $38,643; p<0.001) had lower mean charges per visit. Differences in charges were no longer significant after adjusting for ED disposition, as 85.8% of self-inflicted injuries were admitted, compared to 46.5% of assault-related and 24.3% of unintentional injuries. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Although the majority of pediatric firearm-related injuries resulting in emergency department care are unintentional or assault-related, self-inflicted injuries result in greater per visit hospital charges, attributable to higher hospitalization rates, and likely due to more severe injuries.
The majority of self-management interventions are designed with a narrow focus on patient skills and fail to consider their potential as “catalysts” for improving care delivery. A project was undertaken to develop a patient self-management resource to support evidence-based, person-centered care for cancer pain and overcome barriers at the levels of the patient, provider, and health system.
The project used a mixed-method design with concurrent triangulation, including the following: a national online survey of current practice; two systematic reviews of cancer pain needs and education; a desktop review of online patient pain diaries and other related resources; consultation with stakeholders; and interviews with patients regarding acceptability and usefulness of a draft resource.
Findings suggested that an optimal self-management resource should encourage pain reporting, build patients’ sense of control, and support communication with providers and coordination between services. Each of these characteristics was identified as important in overcoming established barriers to cancer pain care. A pain self-management resource was developed to include: (1) a template for setting specific, measureable, achievable, relevant and time-bound goals of care, as well as identifying potential obstacles and ways to overcome these; and (2) a pain management plan detailing exacerbating and alleviating factors, current strategies for management, and contacts for support.
Significance of results
Self-management resources have the potential for addressing barriers not only at the patient level, but also at provider and health system levels. A cluster randomized controlled trial is under way to test effectiveness of the resource designed in this project in combination with pain screening, audit and feedback, and provider education. More research of this kind is needed to understand how interventions at different levels can be optimally combined to overcome barriers and improve care.
The medium-band Vilnius photometric system with the mean wavelengths at 345 (U), 374 (P), 405 (X), 466 (Y), 516 (Z), 544 (V), and 656 (S) nm for many years was an important tool to determine interstellar reddenings and distances of single stars due to its ability to classify stars of all temperatures in spectral classes and luminosity classes in the presence of different interstellar reddenings. At present, Gaia DR2 presents distances to stars with an unprecedented accuracy at least up to 3 kpc. However, multicolor photometry, which allows the classification of stars as well as the preliminary determination of stellar temperatures, gravities, metallicities and interstellar reddenings, remains an important method for distant stars. Here we present an empirical calibration of the intrinsic color indices of the Vilnius system in terms of physical parameters of stars for dwarf and giant stars of spectral classes F-G-K-M. In any attempted photometric determination of physical parameters of stars it is important to have an extensive and homogeneous sample of spectroscopically determined parameters for stars for which there are also accurate photometric data. As a source catalogue for the Vilnius photometry the latest updated version of the Catalogue of Photoelectric Observations in the Vilnius System was used, which contains compilations from the published photometry for about 11 000 stars. The stars which had both the Gaia DR2 parallaxes and the determinations of stellar parameters from high-dispersion spectra were extracted from this catalogue. The final sample contains more than 1500 stars of spectral classes F-M. The majority of these stars (ca 70%) are not reddened, for others the values of interstellar reddening AV were determined using the regular techniques of photometric classification in the Vilnius system. The absolute magnitudes MV and consequently the luminosity classes were determined using Gaia DR2 parallaxes. We present the analytical expressions for the effective temperature Teff and surface gravity logg and evaluate the errors of solutions for dwarf and giant stars. To test the accuracy of the proposed method, we have compared our results with the stars observed by Gaia and with the stellar parameters available from the large spectroscopic surveys: APOGEE, Gaia-ESO, GALAH, LAMOST, RAVE and SEGUE. The results of comparison contain 5-6 % outliers.
The proposed method allows the fast and straightforward evaluation of stellar physical parameters for the stars observed in the Vilnius photometric system. Despite the fact, that the accuracy of determination is significantly lower than in the case of spectroscopic methods, the method described may be useful for distant faint stars, which are still inaccessible for spectroscopic observations.
Nurse sow strategies are used to manage large litters on commercial pig farms. However, new-born piglets transferred to nurse sows in late lactation might be compromised in terms of growth and survival. We investigated the effects of two nurse sow strategies on piglet growth, suckling behaviour and sow nursing behaviour. At 1-day post-farrowing, the four heaviest piglets from large litters were transferred to a nurse sow either 21 (1STEP21, n=9 litters) or 7 (2STEP7, n=10 litters) days into lactation. The remainder of the litter remained with their mother and was either kept intact (remain intact (RI), n=10 litters) or had some piglets cross-fostered to equalise birth weights (remain equalised (RE), n=9 litters). The 7-day-old piglets from 2STEP7 were transferred onto a sow 21 days into lactation (2STEP21, n=10 litters). The growth of new-born piglets on 1STEP21 and 2STEP7 nurse sows was initially lower than in RI litters (F3,33.8=4.61; P<0.01), but weaning weights did not significantly differ (F4,32.7=0.78; P>0.5). After the 1st week of lactation, the weights and growth rates did not differ between treatments. Fighting behaviour during nursing bouts decreased over time. The frequency of fights was higher in 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 litters compared with RI litters (t122=3.06 and t123=3.00, respectively, P<0.05). The 2STEP21 litters had shorter nursing bouts than RI and 1STEP21 litters (t107=−2.81 and t81.7=2.8, respectively, P<0.05), which were more frequently terminated by 2STEP21 than RI sows (t595=2.93; P<0.05). Transferring heaviest piglets from RI and RE litters to nurse sows reduced the percentage of teat changes during nursing bouts (RI: F1,275=16.61; RE: F1,308=43.59; P<0.001). In conclusion, nurse sow strategies do not appear to compromise piglet growth. However, new-born piglets transferred onto sows in late lactation experienced more competition at the udder, suggesting that the sows’ stage of lactation is of importance to how achievable nurse sow strategies are. Thus, the two-step nurse sow strategy is likely the best option (in relation to growth and suckling behaviour), as it minimises the difference between piglet age and sow stage of lactation.
Management strategies are needed to optimise the number of piglets weaned from hyper-prolific sows. Nurse sow strategies involve transferring supernumerary new-born piglets onto a sow whose own piglets are either weaned or fostered onto another sow. Such ‘nurse sows’ have extended lactations spent in farrowing crates, which could have negative implications for their welfare. This study used 47 sows, 20 of which farrowed large litters and had their biggest piglets fostered onto nurse sows which were either 1 week (2STEP7, n=9) or 3 weeks into lactation (1STEP21, n=10). Sows from which piglets were removed (R) were either left with the remainder of the litter intact (I) (remain intact (RI) sows, n=10), or had their litters equalised (E) for birth weight using piglets of the same age from non-experimental sows (remain equalised (RE) sows, n=9). Piglets from 2STEP7 were fostered onto another nurse sow which was 3 weeks into lactation (2STEP21, n=9). Back-fat thickness was measured at entry to the farrowing house, at fostering (nurse sows only) and weaning. Sows were scored for ease of locomotion and skin and claw lesions at entry to the farrowing house and weaning. Salivary cortisol samples were collected and tear staining was scored at 0900 h weekly from entry until weaning. Saliva samples were also taken at fostering. Data were analysed using GLMs with appropriate random and repeated factors, or non-parametric tests were applied where appropriate. Back-fat thickness decreased between entry and weaning for all sows (F1,42=26.59, P<0.001) and tended to differ between treatments (F4,16=2.91; P=0.06). At weaning RI sows had lower limb lesion scores than 2STEP7 and RE sows (χ24=10.8, P<0.05). No treatment effects were detected on salivary cortisol concentrations (P>0.05) and all nurse sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with the other days (F10,426=3.47; P<0.05). Acute effects of fostering differed between nurse sow treatments (F2,113=3.45, P<0.05); 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration than 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows on the day of fostering. 2STEP7 sows had a higher salivary cortisol concentration at fostering, compared with 1STEP21 and 2STEP21 sows. Tear staining scores were not influenced by treatment (P>0.05). In conclusion, no difference was detected between nurse sows and non-nurse sows in body condition or severity of lesions. Although some nurse sows experienced stress at fostering, no long-term effect of the nurse sow strategies was detected on stress levels compared with sows that raised their own litter.
The rate of antidepressant use in the United Kingdom has outpaced diagnostic increases in the prevalence of depression. Research has suggested that personal and socioeconomic risk factors may be contributing to antidepressant use. To date, few studies have addressed these possible contributions. Thus, this study aimed to assess the relative strength of personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors in predicting antidepressant use.
Data were derived from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (n=7403), a nationally representative household sample of adults residing in England in 2007. A multivariate binary logistic regression model was developed to assess the associations between personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors and current antidepressant use.
The strongest predictor of current antidepressant use was meeting the criteria for an ICD-10 depressive episode [odds ratio (OR)=9.04]. Other significant predictors of antidepressant use in this analysis included English as first language (OR=3.45), female gender (OR=1.98), unemployment (OR=1.82) and childhood sexual abuse (OR=1.53).
Several personal, socioeconomic and trauma-related factors significantly contributed to antidepressant use in the multivariate model specified. These findings aid our understanding of the broader context of antidepressant use in the United Kingdom.
Introduction: Most ambulance communication officers receive minimal education on agonal breathing, often leading to unrecognized out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We sought to evaluate the impact of an educational program on cardiac arrest recognition, and on bystander CPR and survival rates. Methods: Ambulance communication officers in Ottawa, Canada received additional training on agonal breathing, while the control site (Windsor, Canada) did not. Sites were compared to their pre-study performance (before-after design), and to each other (concurrent control). Trained investigators used a piloted-standardized data collection tool when reviewing the recordings for all potential OHCA cases submitted. OHCA was confirmed using our local OHCA registry, and we requested 9-1-1 recordings for OHCA cases not initially suspected. Two independent investigators reviewed medical records for non-OHCA cases receiving telephone-assisted CPR in Ottawa. We present descriptive and chi-square statistics. Results: There were 988 confirmed and suspected OHCA in the “before” (540 Ottawa; 448 Windsor), and 1,076 in the “after” group (689 Ottawa; 387 Windsor). Characteristics of “after” group OHCA patients were: mean age (68.1 Ottawa, 68.2 Windsor); Male (68.5% Ottawa, 64.8% Windsor); witnessed (45.0% Ottawa, 41.9% Windsor); and initial rhythm VF/VT (Ottawa 28.9, Windsor 22.5%). Before-after comparisons were: for cardiac arrest recognition (from 65.4% to 71.9% in Ottawa p=0.03; from 70.9% to 74.1% in Windsor p=0.37); for bystander CPR rates (from 23.0% to 35.9% in Ottawa p=0.0001; from 28.2% to 39.4% in Windsor p=0.001); and for survival to hospital discharge (from 4.1% to 12.5% in Ottawa p=0.001; from 3.9% to 6.9% in Windsor p=0.03). “After” group comparisons between Ottawa and Windsor (control) were not statistically different, except survival (p=0.02). Agonal breathing was common (25.6% Ottawa, 22.4% Windsor) and present in 18.5% of missed cases (15.8% Ottawa, 22.2% Windsor p=0.27). In Ottawa, 31 patients not in OHCA received chest compressions resulting from telephone-assisted CPR instructions. None suffered injury or adverse effects. Conclusion: While all OHCA outcomes improved over time, the educational intervention significantly improved OHCA recognition in Ottawa, and appeared to mitigate the impact of agonal breathing.
Although extinction risk has been found to have a consistent negative relationship with geographic range across wide temporal and taxonomic scales, the effect has been difficult to disentangle from factors such as sampling, ecological niche, or clade. In addition, studies of extinction risk have focused on benthic invertebrates with less work on planktic taxa. We employed a global set of 1114 planktic graptolite species from the Ordovician to lower Devonian to analyze the predictive power of species’ traits and abiotic factors on extinction risk, combining general linear models (GLMs), partial least-squares regression (PLSR), and permutation tests. Factors included measures of geographic range, sampling, and graptolite-specific factors such as clade, biofacies affiliation, shallow water tolerance, and age cohorts split at the base of the Katian and Rhuddanian stages.
The percent variance in durations explained varied substantially between taxon subsets from 12% to 45%. Overall commonness, the correlated effects of geographic range and sampling, was the strongest, most consistent factor (12–30% variance explained), with clade and age cohort adding up to 18% and other factors <10%. Surprisingly, geographic range alone contributed little explanatory power (<5%). It is likely that this is a consequence of a nonlinear relationship between geographic range and extinction risk, wherein the largest reductions in extinction risk are gained from moderate expansion of small geographic ranges. Thus, even large differences in range size between graptolite species did not lead to a proportionate difference in extinction risk because of the large average ranges of these species. Finally, we emphasize that the common practice of determining the geographic range of taxa from the union of all occurrences over their duration poses a substantial risk of overestimating the geographic scope of the realized ecological niche and, thus, of further conflating sampling effects on observed duration with the biological effects of range size on extinction risk.
Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Controversy remains as findings have been inconsistent between disparate populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin D status and pregnancy outcomes in a large, prospective pregnancy cohort. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration was analysed in serum samples collected at 15 weeks of gestation from 1710 New Zealand women participating in a large, observational study. Associations between vitamin D status and pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and gestational diabetes were investigated. The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was 72·9 nmol/l. In all, 23 % had 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <50 nmol/l, and 5 % of participants had concentrations <25 nmol/l. Women with 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations <75 nmol/l at 15 weeks of gestation were more likely to develop gestational diabetes mellitus than those with concentrations >75 nmol/l (OR 2·3; 95 % CI 1·1, 5·1). However, this effect was not significant when adjustments were made for BMI and ethnicity (OR 1·8; 95 % CI 0·8, 4·2). 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentration at 15 weeks was not associated with development of pre-eclampsia, spontaneous preterm birth or SGA infants. Pregnancy complications were low in this largely vitamin D-replete population.
The shaping of PNe as a result of an interaction with a planet is a hypothesis that has been suggested for nearly two decades. However, exploring the idea observationally is challenging due to the lack of capabilities needed to detect any evidence of such a scenario. Nonetheless, we propose that the hypothesis can be indirectly tested via a combination of exoplanet formation and evolution theories, the star and planet formation histories of the galaxy and the tidal evolution of star-planet systems. We present a calculation of the fraction of planetary nebulae in the galaxy today which have undergone an interaction with a planet, concluding that a significant number of visible planetary nebulae may have been shaped by a planet.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
In general population samples, better childhood cognitive functioning is associated with decreased risk of depression in adulthood. However, this link has not been examined in extremely low birth weight survivors (ELBW, <1000 g), a group known to have poorer cognition and greater depression risk. This study assessed associations between cognition at age 8 and lifetime risk of major depressive disorder in 84 ELBW survivors and 90 normal birth weight (NBW, ⩾2500 g) individuals up to 29–36 years of age. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Revised (WISC-R), Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices and the Token Test assessed general, fluid, and verbal intelligence, respectively, at 8 years of age. Lifetime major depressive disorder was assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview at age 29–36 years. Associations were examined using logistic regression adjusted for childhood socioeconomic status, educational attainment, age, sex, and marital status. Neither overall intelligence quotient (IQ) [WISC-R Full-Scale IQ, odds ratios (OR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.43–1.77], fluid intelligence (WISC-R Performance IQ, OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.48–2.00), nor verbal intelligence (WISC-R Verbal IQ, OR=0.81, 95% CI=0.40–1.63) predicted lifetime major depression in ELBW survivors. However, every standard deviation increase in WISC-R Full-Scale IQ (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.20–0.92) and Performance IQ (OR=0.46, 95% CI=0.21–0.97), and each one point increase on the Token Test (OR=0.80, 95% CI=0.67–0.94) at age 8 was associated with a reduced risk of lifetime depression in NBW participants. Higher childhood IQ, better fluid intelligence, and greater verbal comprehension in childhood predicted reduced depression risk in NBW adults. Our findings suggest that ELBW survivors may be less protected by superior cognition than NBW individuals.
Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants have been exposed to stressful intrauterine and early postnatal environments. Even greater early adversity has been experienced by ELBW survivors who were also born small for gestational age (SGA; <10th percentile for GA) compared to those born appropriate for GA (AGA). ELBW survivors, particularly those born SGA, face increased risk for internalizing problems compared to normal BW (NBW; ≥2500 g) controls. Internalizing problems are related to allelic variations in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR). We followed the oldest longitudinal cohort of ELBW survivors to adulthood. Participants provided buccal cells and reported on internalizing problems, using the Young Adult Self-Report when they were in their mid-20s (ELBW/SGA, N = 28; ELBW/AGA, N = 60; NBW, N = 81) and mid-30s (ELBW/SGA, N = 27; ELBW/AGA, N = 58; NBW, N = 76). The findings indicate that ELBW/SGAs carrying the 5-HTTLPR short allele reported increased internalizing problems, particularly depression, during the third and fourth decades of life. This is the first known report on gene–environment interactions predicting psychopathology among ELBW survivors. Our findings elucidate putative neurobiological pathways that underlie risk for psychopathology.
A search for Type Ia supernovae at cosmological distances is being undertaken in an attempt to exploit their standard candle property to constrain the mass density of the universe. We describe the rationale for such a program, the observational approach and strategy taken, and the progress made to date. The science that is being generated by the project in additional to supernova detection is also discussed briefly.
Consumer health organisations (CHOs) are non-profit or voluntary sector organisations that promote and represent the interests of patients and carers affected by particular conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine, among patients with chronic disease, what differentiates those who contact CHOs from those who do not and what stops people from making contact.
CHOs can enhance people’s capacity to manage chronic disease by providing information, education and psychosocial support, but are under-utilised. Little is known about barriers to access.
Data were from a baseline telephone survey conducted as part of a randomised trial of an intervention to improve access to CHOs. Participants constituted a consecutive sample of 276 adults with diagnosed chronic disease recruited via 18 general practitioners in Brisbane, Australia. Quantitative survey items examined participants’ use and perceptions of CHOs and a single open-ended question explored barriers to CHO use. Multiple logistic regression and thematic analysis were used.
Overall, 39% of participants had ever contacted a CHO for their health and 28% had contacted a CHO specifically focussed on their diagnosed chronic condition. Diabetes, poorer self-reported physical health and greater health system contact were significantly associated with CHO contact. The view that ‘my doctor does it all’ was prevalent and, together with a belief that their health problems were ‘not serious enough’, was the primary reason patients did not make contact.
Attitudinal and system-related barriers limit use of CHOs by those for whom they are designed. Developing referral pathways to CHOs and promoting awareness about what they offer is needed to improve access.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=−0.49, P<0.001). Adjusting for maternal parity, smoking, fresh fruit and fish consumption and allergen sensitization, multiple regression model showed that IgA levels were influenced by colostrum collection time (P<0.0001) and country of collection (P<0.01). Mode of delivery influence did not appear to be significant in univariate comparisons, once adjusted for the above maternal characteristics it showed a significant influence on total IgA (P=0.01). We conclude that the concentration of IgA in colostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries.