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Objectives: Research has shown that analyzing intrusion errors generated on verbal learning and memory measures is helpful for distinguishing between the memory disorders associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurological disorders, including Huntington’s disease (HD). Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that certain clinical populations may be prone to exhibit different types of intrusion errors. Methods: We examined the prevalence of two new California Verbal Learning Test-3 (CVLT-3) intrusion subtypes – across-trial novel intrusions and across/within trial repeated intrusions – in individuals with AD or HD. We hypothesized that the encoding/storage impairment associated with medial-temporal involvement in AD would result in a greater number of novel intrusions on the delayed recall trials of the CVLT-3, whereas the executive dysfunction associated with subcortical-frontal involvement in HD would result in a greater number of repeated intrusions across trials. Results: The AD group generated significantly more across-trial novel intrusions than across/within trial repeated intrusions on the delayed cued-recall trials, whereas the HD group showed the opposite pattern on the delayed free-recall trials. Conclusions: These new intrusion subtypes, combined with traditional memory analyses (e.g., recall versus recognition performance), promise to enhance our ability to distinguish between the memory disorders associated with primarily medial-temporal versus subcortical-frontal involvement.
The nature of the association between child psychiatric symptoms and adolescent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and attempts (SA) remains unclear. Our objective was to assess whether child psychiatric symptoms from 6 to 10 years of age mediate the association between exposure to maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and offspring SRT and SA in adolescence.
A population-based cohort study was constructed by linking all eight cycles from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY), a nationally representative Canadian panel survey conducted from 1994 to 2009. Self-reported maternal depressive symptoms were measured when offspring were between 0 and 5 years. Maternal-reported child psychiatric symptoms and psychiatric comorbid symptoms were measured from 6 to 10 years, and offspring self-reported SRT and SA were measured between 11 and 19 years. Indirect effects, the effect proportion mediated and their corresponding bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated.
Hyperactivity and inattention significantly mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms in childhood and risk of both SRT and SA from 11 to 19 years, where approximately 60% (SRT 95% CI 23–94%; SA 95% CI 27–95%) of this association was explained by hyperactivity and inattention. Psychiatric comorbid symptoms also significantly mediated this relationship and accounted for 50% (95% CI 18–81%) of this association with SA.
Targeting hyperactivity and inattention, and co-occurring psychiatric symptoms in offspring of depressed mothers could reduce risk of SRT, eventual SA and halt progression towards suicide. However, further understanding of comorbid psychiatric symptoms in childhood that most strongly predict adolescent SA is needed.
Objectives: The third edition of the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-3) includes a new index termed List A versus Novel/Unrelated recognition discriminability (RD) on the Yes/No Recognition trial. Whereas the Total RD index incorporates false positive (FP) errors associated with all distractors (including List B and semantically related items), the new List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index incorporates only FP errors associated with novel, semantically unrelated distractors. Thus, in minimizing levels of source and semantic interference, the List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index may yield purer assessments of yes/no recognition memory independent of vulnerability to source memory difficulties or semantic confusion, both of which are often seen in individuals with primarily frontal-system dysfunction (e.g., early Huntington’s disease [HD]). Methods: We compared the performance of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and HD in mild and moderate stages of dementia on CVLT-3 indices of Total RD and List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD. Results: Although AD and HD subgroups exhibited deficits on both RD indices relative to healthy comparison groups, those with HD generally outperformed those with AD, and group differences were more robust on List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD than on Total RD. Conclusions: Our findings highlight the clinical utility of the new CVLT-3 List A versus Novel/Unrelated RD index, which (a) maximally assesses yes/no recognition memory independent of source and semantic interference; and (b) provides a greater differentiation between individuals whose memory disorder is primarily at the encoding/storage level (e.g., as in AD) versus at the retrieval level (e.g., as in early HD). (JINS, 2018, 24, 833–841)
Although dementia has been described in ancient texts over many centuries (e.g., “Be kind to your father, even if his mind fail him.” – Old Testament: Sirach 3:12), our knowledge of its underlying causes is little more than a century old. Alzheimer published his now famous case study only 110 years ago, and our modern understanding of the disease that bears his name, and its neuropsychological consequences, really only began to accelerate in the 1980s. Since then we have witnessed an explosion of basic and translational research into the causes, characterizations, and possible treatments for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other dementias. We review this lineage of work beginning with Alzheimer’s own writings and drawings, then jump to the modern era beginning in the 1970s and early 1980s and provide a sampling of neuropsychological and other contextual work from each ensuing decade. During the 1980s our field began its foundational studies of profiling the neuropsychological deficits associated with AD and its differentiation from other dementias (e.g., cortical vs. subcortical dementias). The 1990s continued these efforts and began to identify the specific cognitive mechanisms affected by various neuropathologic substrates. The 2000s ushered in a focus on the study of prodromal stages of neurodegenerative disease before the full-blown dementia syndrome (i.e., mild cognitive impairment). The current decade has seen the rise of imaging and other biomarkers to characterize preclinical disease before the development of significant cognitive decline. Finally, we suggest future directions and predictions for dementia-related research and potential therapeutic interventions. (JINS, 2017, 23, 818–831)
The primary objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesise analytic studies examining the association between exposure to parental psychopathology in childhood and the nature of subsequent suicide-related thoughts (SRT) and suicide-related behaviour (SRB) (severity of ideation, planned/unplanned attempts/lethality) and to describe the direction, and magnitude of associations. The secondary objective was to determine if the associations from the primary objective differ by the type(s) and timing of parental psychopathology, sex/gender of the parent and child and is mediated by child psychiatric symptoms and family functioning.
A systematic review was conducted using guidelines from the PRISMA statement. MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, psycINFO, Web of Science and grey literature sources were searched by two reviewers to March, 2017. Studies were included if they examined any parental psychopathology (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria or equivalent) or SRT or SRB and offspring SRT or SRB occurring from birth <25 years of age.
Out of 10 231 studies identified, 54 were included for review. Studies were clinically and methodologically heterogeneous with none at low risk of bias (ROB). Nine studies with moderate ROB indicated a significantly increased risk of offspring SRT, suicide attempts (SA) and suicide among those exposed to maternal SA and suicide in childhood or adolescence. In the remaining 45 studies with higher ROB this association persisted. Several studies (67%) did not confirm that the exposure occurred in the offspring's childhood or adolescence. Findings were suggestive of a mediating effect of offspring psychiatric symptoms, however, few studies examined mediation and effect modification of contextual variables.
Offspring exposed to maternal SA are at an increased risk of these same behaviours early in life. Prospective attention to the types and timing of maternal and paternal psychopathology and the intermediate pathways to offspring SRT and SRB onset is needed and could have implications for informing modifiable targets for early intervention and prevention.
The VIMOS VLT Deep Survey (VVDS) is underway to study the evolution of galaxies, large scale structures and AGNs, from the measurement of more than 100 000 spectra of faint objects. We present here the results from the first epoch observations of more than 20000 spectra. The main challenge of the program, the redshift measurements, is described, in particular entering the “redshift desert” in the range 1.5 < z < 3 for which only very weak features are detected in the observed wavelength range. The redshift distribution of a magnitude limited sample brighter than IAB = 24 is presented for the first time, showing a peak at a low redshift z ∼ 0.7, and a tail extending all the way above z = 4. The evolution of the luminosity function out to z = 1.5 is presented, with the LF of blue star forming galaxies carrying most of the evolution, with L* changing by more than two magnitudes for this sub-sample.
Snapshot VLBI observations at 18 cm have been obtained with a global array at three epochs (1980.1, 1981.8, 1987.9) in order to investigate flux density and/or structural variations for a sample of 21 low frequency variable sources (Padrielli et al. 1987 Astron Astrophys. Suppl. Ser., 67, 63; Bondi et al. 1993 in preparation).
BL Lac objects are an enigmatic class of active galactic nuclei. They are characterized by high luminosity, a flat radio spectrum that steepens at higher energies, relatively high optical and radio polarization, rapid variability and an optical continuum with weak or absent emission lines (see Urry and Padovani, 1995 for a recent review).
These properties have been interpreted in terms of a relativistic jet closely aligned to the line of sight (Blandford and Rees, 1978, Ghisellini et al., 1993). This model, known as the beaming model, implies that there must be a so called “parent population” of radio sources intrinsically identical to BL Lac objects, but with the jets oriented at large angles to the line of sight. Browne (1983) was the first to propose the low luminosity FR I radio galaxies as the most likely candidates for the “parent population” of the core dominated BL Lac objects. An outcome of the beaming model is that all the properties not depending on orientation should be shared by the BL Lac objects and the FR I radio galaxies.
The study of the extended emission and polarization properties of BL Lacs is an important step for the identification of their parent population. FRI radio sources, the supposed parent population of BL Lacs, have weaker extended radio luminosity and a dominant inferred magnetic field perpendicular to the jet, while FRII radio sources, the supposed parent population of quasars, have stronger extended radio power and an inferred magnetic field parallel to the jet. The only complete sample of radio selected BL Lacs (1 Jy sample, Stickel et al. 1991, ApJ, 374, 431) contains 34 objects. Unfortunately, about half of 1 Jy BL Lacs do not have very high dynamic range images, necessary to detect the low emissivity radio emission surrounding the bright compact source, either because the object was never observed, or because the observation was carried out at the beginning of 1980s with low sensitivity. In 1994 we started a programme using the VLA (A, B, and D configuration, see Table 1) and the WSRT (W in Table 1) to complete the high sensitivity radio imaging of the 1 Jy sample. We aim to investigate morphology and polarization properties, as well as the luminosity of the extended emission. This contribution presents the L band observations. The results are very preliminary, some of the data reduction is still in progress as well as the statistical analysis. The sources in Table 1 have been roughly classified as extended (E), or point-like (P) if no extended feature was detected. Among the 15 sources observed at the highest resolution 13 were classified as extended. In many sources we detect significantly much more extended flux than previously reported from earlier observations. Almost all the BL Lac objects we observed at the highest resolution show some extended features; furthermore, in a few cases, we detected emission on the arcminute scale. The power of the extended luminosity covers 3 orders of magnitude, 3 objects (0537–441, 0820+225, and 2240–260) have values typical of a FRII radio source. These new data will be used for an updated statistical analysis of the properties of the extended emission in the 1 Jy sample of BL Lac objects.
Compact Steep-Spectrum (CSS) and GHz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources are intrinsically small objects (Fanti et al. 1990) with high frequency steep spectra (α > 0.5 with S∝ v–α), found at moderate or high redshifts (z>0.2 but many objects have z>1.5). Their characteristics have been interpreted in terms of youth (e.g. Fanti et al. 1995) or “frustration” (e.g. van Breugel et al. 1984). Their radio spectra turn over at tens or a few hundreds of MHz (CSS) or at higher frequencies (GPS), interpreted as due to synchrotron self-absorption. They represent a significant fraction of flux limited catalogues (15–30 %, depending on the frequency).
Recently we focussed our attention on a sample of Compact Steep-spectrum Sources (CSSs) selected because of the large bent radio jets seen in the inner region of emission. The largest distortions are often seen in sources dominated by jets, and there are suggestions that this might to some extent be due to projection effects. However, superluminal motion is rare in CSSs. The only case we know of so far is 3C147 (Alef at al. 1990) with a mildly superluminal speed of ≃ 1.3v/c. Moreover, the core fractional luminosity in CSSs is ≃ 3% and ≤ 0.4% for quasars and radio galaxies respectively. Similar values are found for large size radio sources i.e. both boosting and orientations in the sky are similar for the two classes of objects. An alternative possibility is that these bent-jet sources might also be brightened by interactions with the ambient media. There are clear indications that intrinsic distortions due to interactions with a dense inhomogeneous gaseous environment play an important role. Observational support comes from the large RMs found in CSSs (Taylor et al. 1992; Mantovani et al. 1994; Junor et al. these proc.) and often associated with strong depolarization (Garrington & Akujor, t.p.). The CSSs also have very luminous Narrow Line Regions emission, with exceptional velocity structure (Gelderman, t.p.).
PKS 1117+146 is a high power radio source (L327MHz=5.4 × 1026 W/Hz) identified with a galaxy of 20.1 red magnitude at z=0.362 (de Vries et al. 1995). At this redshift 1 mas ≃ 2.9 pc (H0 = 100 km/s–1Mpc–1). Based on the properties of the radio spectra, PKS 1117+146 is classified as a GigaHertz Peaked Spectrum source (GPS) (Stanghellini et al. 1990). The GPS are powerful but physically small (sub-galactic sizes) radio sources with turnovers in their radio spectra at v ≃ 1 GHz. They are supposed to be isotropically emitting radio sources confined by exceptional dense circumnuclear gas (O'Dea et al. 1991) or still relatively young (Fanti et al. 1990). PKS 1117+146 is also a low frequency variable (LFV) with no sign of variability at v > 1 GHz (Padrielli et al. 1987, Mitchell et al. 1994). The low frequency variability is caused by propagation effects in the interstellar medium of our Galaxy (Mantovani et al. 1990, Spangler et al. 1993). PKS 1117+146 was observed with VLBI global arrays at 608 MHz (Padrielli et al. 1991), at 327 MHz (Altschuler et al. 1995), and at 1667 MHz (Bondi et al. 1996). All the maps are in agreement showing a compact double structure with components separated by about 70 mas. Flux densities and separation of the two components derived from VLBI and MERLIN (see below) maps are listed in Table 1. The flux ratios of the two components from the VLBI observations are very similar, and the spectral index is relatively flat (α ≃ 0.3–0.4), even if the strong low frequency variability can introduce uncertainties. The similarity of the VLBI morphology and spectral properties of the two components suggested that 1117+146 could be a possible gravitational lens candidate prompting for higher frequency observations. We observed PKS 1117+146 with MERLIN at 22 GHz in March 1993. MERLIN observations reveal for the first time a weak central component with a total flux density of about 20 mJy (Fig.1). From Table 1 we can note that the P.A. between the components is constant at all the frequencies while the separation between the peak flux densities significantly increases at higher frequencies. This is the expected behaviour if the 2 components are 2 lobes with hot-spot at the outer edges. The MERLIN map at 22 GHz seems to rule out the possibility that the morphology of PKS 1117+146 is caused by gravitational lensing.
A few compact steep-spectrum sources (CSSs) have been observed with the VLBA at 8.4 GHz and MERLIN at 5 GHz to study the possible dynamical interaction between jets and the ambient media suggested by previous measurements of the rotation measures.
Introduction: Common short screening measures of dependence that use number of cigarettes per day may not be appropriate for use in populations of occasional smokers.
Aims: In this study, we investigate whether perceived addiction (PA) predicts quit attempts and successful cessation among occasional smokers.
Methods: Current occasional smokers (18+) in the Ontario Tobacco Survey (OTS) longitudinal cohort study followed up every six months for up to three years. Respondents rated their self-perceived level of addiction (very vs. somewhat or not very addicted). Generalised Estimating Equation models and proportional hazard models were used to test the predictive ability of PA.
Results/Findings: Occasional smokers with very high PA had a higher likelihood of reporting a quit attempt (RR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.88, 3.30) after adjusting for demographics. Given an incident quit attempt, occasional smokers who reported being very addicted were 2.93 times more likely to relapse (95%: 2.01, 4.28). The effect of PA was independent of other predictors of smoking behaviour.
Conclusions: For some, occasional smokers, smoking cessation is a difficult process that may require significant support. Asking occasional smokers about PA is an effective way to predict likely success in quitting smokers that may be easily assessed in population based, as well as in community and clinical, settings.
Epidemiological evidence regarding the association between carbohydrate intake, glycaemic load (GL) and glycaemic index (GI) and risk of ovarian cancer has been mixed. Little is known about their impact on ovarian cancer risk in African-American women. Associations between carbohydrate quantity and quality and ovarian cancer risk were investigated among 406 cases and 609 controls using data from the African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES). AACES is an ongoing population-based case–control study of ovarian cancer in African-Americans in the USA. Cases were identified through rapid case ascertainment and age- and site-matched controls were identified by random-digit dialling. Dietary information over the year preceding diagnosis or the reference date was obtained using a FFQ. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95 % CI adjusted for covariates. The OR comparing the highest quartile of total carbohydrate intake and total sugar intake v. the lowest quartile were 1·57 (95 % CI 1·08, 2·28; Ptrend=0·03) and 1·61 (95 % CI 1·12, 2·30; Ptrend<0·01), respectively. A suggestion of an inverse association was found for fibre intake. Higher GL was positively associated with the risk of ovarian cancer (OR 1·18 for each 10 units/4184 kJ (1000 kcal); 95 % CI 1·04, 1·33). No associations were observed for starch or GI. Our findings suggest that high intake of total sugars and GL are associated with greater risk of ovarian cancer in African-American women.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection represents a serious global health problem and persistent HBV infection is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and liver failure. Recently, the study of the role of microRNA (miRNA) in the pathogenesis of HBV has gained considerable interest as well as new treatments against this pathogen have been approved. A few studies have investigated the antiviral activity of vitamin E (VE) in chronic HBV carriers. Herein, we review the possible role of tocopherols in the modulation of host miRNA with potential anti-HBV activity. A systematic research of the scientific literature was performed by searching the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases. The keywords used were ‘HBV therapy’, ‘HBV treatment’, ‘VE antiviral effects’, ‘tocopherol antiviral activity’, ‘miRNA antiviral activity’ and ‘VE microRNA’. Reports describing the role of miRNA in the regulation of HBV life cycle, in vitro and in vivo available studies reporting the effects of VE on miRNA expression profiles and epigenetic networks, and clinical trials reporting the use of VE in patients with HBV-related chronic hepatitis were identified and examined. Based on the clinical results obtained in VE-treated chronic HBV carriers, we provide a reliable hypothesis for the possible role of this vitamin in the modulation of host miRNA profiles perturbed by this viral pathogen and in the regulation of some cellular miRNA with a suggested potential anti-HBV activity. This approach may contribute to the improvement of our understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms involved in HBV infection and increase the possibility of its management and treatment.