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Livestock farming is an essential activity in many rural areas, where it contributes to the maintenance of soil fertility and farmland biodiversity, as well as to a set of social public goods including food security, rural vitality and culture. However, livestock sustainability assessments tend to focus primarily on environmental and economic dimensions; therefore, these valuations might be limited because they do not consider the complete set of associated goods and services (GS). Hence, a need exists to recognise the multiple contributions provided by livestock to human well-being and society. The objective of this study was to analyse the provision of multiple GS derived from livestock across regions in France and empirically demonstrate sets of GS that repeatedly appeared together. We designated these multiple GS provided by livestock as contributions to productive, environmental, rural vitality and cultural benefits that human populations derive directly or indirectly from livestock agroecosystems. First, we combined expert knowledge with results of a literature review to define a bundle of GS provided by livestock. We then described indicators that quantified each good or service and screened national databases to determine the availability of supporting data. Finally, we assessed the GS and their relationships (synergies or trade-offs) on a nation-wide gradient in France at the department level (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics 3). Four main categories of GS were considered: provisioning (e.g. food quantity and quality), environmental quality (e.g. biodiversity, landscape heterogeneity, water quality), rural vitality (e.g. employment, rural dynamism) and culture (e.g. gastronomy and landscape heritage). Four major types of GS bundles were identified, which suggested strong contrasts among French rural areas in terms of the nature of the GS that occurred together and their levels of provision. GS bundles in France had a non-random spatial distribution. This study represents an initial step towards developing a methodology to consider GS bundles provided by livestock. Nonetheless, further research is needed to understand socio-economic, environmental, political and geographic determinants of the composition of GS bundles.
Irradiation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels causes the formation of nanoscale microstructural features (termed radiation damage), which affect the mechanical properties of the vessel. A key tool for characterizing these nanoscale features is atom probe tomography (APT), due to its high spatial resolution and the ability to identify different chemical species in three dimensions. Microstructural observations using APT can underpin development of a mechanistic understanding of defect formation. However, with atom probe analyses there are currently multiple methods for analyzing the data. This can result in inconsistencies between results obtained from different researchers and unnecessary scatter when combining data from multiple sources. This makes interpretation of results more complex and calibration of radiation damage models challenging. In this work simulations of a range of different microstructures are used to directly compare different cluster analysis algorithms and identify their strengths and weaknesses.
Poor effortful control is a key temperamental factor underlying behavioral problems. The bidirectional association of child effortful control with both positive parenting and negative discipline was examined from ages approximately 3 to 13–14 years, involving five time points, and using data from parents and children in the Oregon Youth Study—Three Generational Study (N = 318 children from 150 families). Based on a dynamic developmental systems approach, it was hypothesized that there would be concurrent associations between parenting and child effortful control and bidirectional effects across time from each aspect of parenting to effortful control and from effortful control to each aspect of parenting. It was also hypothesized that associations would be more robust in early childhood, from ages 3 to 7 years, and would diminish as indicated by significantly weaker effects at the older ages, 11–12 to 13–14 years. Longitudinal feedback or mediated effects were also tested. The findings supported (a) stability in each construct over multiple developmental periods; (b) concurrent associations, which were significantly weaker at the older ages; (c) bidirectional effects, consistent with the interpretation that at younger ages children's effortful control influenced parenting, whereas at older child ages, parenting influenced effortful control; and (d) a transactional effect, such that maternal parenting in late childhood was a mechanism explaining children's development of effortful control from middle childhood to early adolescence.
This paper presents an innovative design of an Ultra Wide-Band (UWB) impulse radiation source. The transmitting system is composed of an UWB antenna with an integrated optoelectronic generator, which is able to feed the system with appropriate waveforms, a pulsed high voltage source, and an optical command system. The radiation source is the elementary part of a forthcoming short-range UWB Radar with autonomous scanning capability. In this paper, we present in detail the necessary subsystems required to design the elementary radiation source. Measurements have been performed to validate the proposed radiation source and this offers a mathematical method of calculation to trace back to the radiated field at 1 m.
This paper briefly describes the principle of operation and science goals of the AMANDA high energy neutrino telescope located at the South Pole, Antarctica. Results from an earlier phase of the telescope, called AMANDA-BIO, demonstrate both reliable operation and the broad astrophysical reach of this device, which includes searches for a variety of sources of ultrahigh energy neutrinos: generic point sources, Gamma-Ray Bursts and diffuse sources. The predicted sensitivity and angular resolution of the telescope were confirmed by studies of atmospheric muon and neutrino backgrounds. We also report on the status of the analysis from AMANDA-II, a larger version with far greater capabilities. At this stage of analysis, details of the ice properties and other systematic uncertainties of the AMANDA-II telescope are under study, but we have made progress toward critical science objectives. In particular, we present the first preliminary flux limits from AMANDA-II on the search for continuous emission from astrophysical point sources, and report on the search for correlated neutrino emission from Gamma Ray Bursts detected by BATSE before decommissioning in May 2000. During the next two years, we expect to exploit the full potential of AMANDA-II with the installation of a new data acquisition system that records full waveforms from the in-ice optical sensors.
The Teff (effective temperature) scale for M dwarfs is very uncertain. One method which can be used to establish this scale is to compare observed spectra to synthetic ones derived from appropriate model atmospheres. With this method the adequacy of the model atmosphere is of great importance and simple models can give incorrect results. Alternatively if the Teff scale is known with some accuracy then this comparison is a good test of the adequacy of the models. We have computed some new and preliminary model atmospheres for late type dwarfs which accurately treat the line opacity with the opacity sampling technique and employ laboratory values for the transition strengths of molecular bands. With the above two considerations in mind we compare the fluxes of these models to observed fluxes of late K and early M dwarfs. This preliminary analysis indicates a discrepancy with the currently accepted Teff scale for early M dwarfs with the models suggesting values some 200 K hotter.
It has long been assumed that radiocarbon (Δ14C) content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is equal to that of particulate organic carbon (POC) in surface seawater; however, little research has been conducted to explicitly test this assumption. Here, we report Δ14C measurements of surface POC samples and compare them with contemporaneous DIC Δ14C measurements from the northeast Pacific Ocean (Hwang et al. 2004; Druffel et al. 2010). Samples were collected from surface waters at Station M off California between 1995 and 2004. The POC Δ14C values decreased 3.2% per year from 1995 to 2004, similar to the decline observed in the DIC Δ14C values during the same period. Overall, our results show no statistical difference between POC and DIC Δ14C—consistent with the assumption that DIC and POC Δ14C values can generally be considered equivalent. However, significant variability was observed for POC Δ14C values during several fall/summer events, where POC Δ14C signatures were lower than DIC Δ14C values. An evaluation of 2 sample pretreatments also suggests that non-homogenized POC samples deviated less from average POC Δ14C values and more closely matched the DIC Δ14C average for the time series. The presence of seasonal POC/DIC Δ14C disagreements, combined with sample processing effects, suggest that infrequent contributions of allochthonous, older carbon may have originated from deeper in the water column, especially during periods when upwelling in this area was prominent.
Breed risk status assessment methods are key components of country-based early warning and response systems. In this study, a multi-indicator method was developed to assess the risk status of livestock populations. Six indicators were used: (i) the current number of breeding females; (ii) the change in the number of breeding females over the last 5 years or generations (depending on the species); (iii) percentage of cross-breeding; (iv) effective population size; (v) breeders organization and technical support; and (vi) socio-economic context. To make these indicators comparable, observed values were converted into scores on a six-point scale (from 0 = no threat to 5 = maximum threat); a specific conversion method was used for each indicator. For each breed, the different scores were analysed graphically and an overall score was calculated by averaging the six separate indicator scores. This approach was applied to 178 French local breeds, belonging to ten different species: horse, donkey, goat, pig, chicken, turkey, goose and Pekin duck. A large percentage of local breeds were found to be at risk to be lost for farming, although the results were species dependent. All local equine and pig breeds, as well as almost all local poultry breeds appeared to be endangered. About 80 percent of local goat and cattle breeds, and half local sheep breeds were also found to be at risk. The usefulness of this method with regards to conservation strategies and public policy is discussed.
Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher fraction of carbon-enhanced stars, but we are also finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-rich. These are compared with yields from a variety of supernova predictions.
Expose is a multi-user instrument for astrobiological and astrochemical experiments in space. Installed at the outer surface of the International Space Station, it enables investigators to study the impact of the open space environment on biological and biochemical test samples. Two Expose missions have been completed so far, designated as Expose-E (Rabbow et al. 2012) and Expose-R (Rabbow et al. this issue). One of the space-unique environmental factors offered by Expose is full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV)-rich electromagnetic radiation from the Sun. This paper describes and analyses how on Expose-R, access of the test samples to Solar radiation degraded during space exposure in an unpredicted way. Several windows in front of the Sun-exposed test samples acquired a brown shade, resulting in a reduced transparency in visible light, UV and vacuum UV (VUV). Post-flight investigations revealed the discolouration to be caused by a homogenous film of cross-linked organic polymers at the inside of the windows. The chemical signature varied per sample carrier. No such films were found on windows from sealed, pressurized compartments, or on windows that had been kept out of the Sun. This suggests that volatile compounds originating from the interior of the Expose facility were cross-linked and photo-fixed by Solar irradiation at the rear side of the windows. The origin of the volatiles was not fully identified; most probably there was a variety of sources involved including the biological test samples, adhesives, plastics and printed circuit boards. The outer surface of the windows (pointing into space) was chemically impacted as well, with a probable effect on the transparency in VUV. The reported analysis of the window contamination on Expose-R is expected to help the interpretation of the scientific results and offers possibilities to mitigate this problem on future missions – in particular Expose-R2, the direct successor of Expose-R.
The study of the evolution of organic matter subjected to space conditions, and more specifically to Solar photons in the vacuum ultraviolet range (120–200 nm) has been undertaken in low-Earth orbit since the 1990s, and implemented on various space platforms. This paper describes a photochemistry experiment called AMINO, conducted during 22 months between 2009 and 2011 on the EXPOSE-R ESA facility, outside the International Space Station. Samples with relevance to astrobiology (connected to comets, carbonaceous meteorites and micrometeorites, the atmosphere of Titan and RNA world hypothesis) have been selected and exposed to space environment. They have been analysed after return to the Earth. This paper is not discussing the results of the experiment, but rather gives a general overview of the project, the details of the hardware used, its configuration and recent developments to enable long-duration exposure of gaseous samples in tight closed cells enabling for the first time to derive quantitative results from gaseous phase samples exposed in space.
Interventional cardiologists (ICs) are repeatedly exposed to scattered ionising radiation
during the cardiac procedures they perform, and radiation protection is an important issue
for these medical professionals. The use of radiation protection tools is particularly
relevant to this population. SISERI (Système d’Information de la Surveillance de
l’Exposition aux Rayonnement Ionisants, that is, an information system for monitoring
exposure to ionising radiation) is a register that stores personal dosimeter readings for
dosimetric monitoring. This paper, based on data for a sample of French ICs from the
O’CLOC epidemiological study, aims to provide an overview of the use of radiation
protection equipment and dosimetric devices reported by ICs in a specific questionnaire as
well as the dosimetric information found in the SISERI database for this population.
Material and Methods − Annual information on interventional cardiology activity for the
period from 01/01/2005 to 31/12/2009 was collected in an occupational questionnaire. ICs
were asked to report the frequency in which they used individual dosimeter and radiation
protection tools (lead apron, thyroid shield, eyewear or face shield, ceiling-suspended
shield) as follows: never (0% of the time), occasionally (<50%), regularly (>50%), always (100%). We retrieved their
medical radiation exposure information (monitored status and monthly effective doses) from
the SISERI database for the period 2005−2009. Results – Information for 132 ICs (mean age in
2005 = 46 ± 7 years) was
available. All ICs reported routine use of lead aprons, in contrast to their occasional
use of lead eyewear or face shields. During the study period, 49% reported systematic use
of personal dosimeters, and 21% more regular use. On the other hand, 18% never used a
dosimeter during this period. The SISTERI database included 92% of our population, 73% of
whom had complete annual dose monitoring in SISERI (corresponding to at least 11 months
per year of recorded data). Conclusion − ICs must improve their regular use of
radiation protection tools and systematic use of personal dosimeters. The SISERI database
is an appropriate tool for flagging those medical professionals exposed to ionising
radiation. Better awareness of the importance of radiation protection rules in this
population, in particular, systematic dosimeter use, remains an important issue.
The nature of the intermetallic layer which forms on the steel surface during immersion
in typical galvanizing baths for galvannealed (GA) sheets production has been investigated
on two commercial Titanium-stabilized Interstitial-Free (Ti-IF) steel substrates
galvanized in baths with different Al contents. Results from this study show that in both
cases the inhibition layer is biphasic and composed of a very thin Al-rich phase layer,
identified as Fe2Al5Znx, and a thicker Zn-rich phase layer
on top of it, identified as δ. Experimental results also show that the
Fe2Al5Znx phase layer becomes discontinuous
when decreasing the bath Al content. Discussions about the mechanisms of formation and the
final microstructure of this inhibiting layer are also tackled in this paper by means of
the Al-Fe-Zn ternary phase diagram at 460 °C and assumptions to justify any deviation from
thermodynamic equilibrium are as well proposed.
To evaluate the clinical course and pathological characteristics of basaloid head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Retrospective study of 18 cases of basaloid head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Epidemiological, clinical and histological data were analysed and the Kaplan–Meier test used to estimate survival rates.
The majority of lesions were at an advanced stage. These lesions were primarily localised in the larynx, hypopharynx and oropharynx. Routine pre-therapeutic assessment of squamous cell carcinoma was performed. Pathological diagnosis was difficult, although immunostaining was extremely useful. Positive staining for KL1, MNF 116 and 34βE12 and negative immunostaining for chromogranin and synaptophysin were also important factors in obtaining a definitive diagnosis. In the majority of cases, treatment involved surgery and radiotherapy. The five-year survival rate was 5 per cent.
Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon head and neck lesion, with a challenging histological diagnosis. These lesions must be carefully monitored due to their aggressive course, and require multimodality treatment.
Plotting defect locations in insulating SiC presents a challenge because the total number of locations on a wafer is so large. We scan the wafer with visible light at an appropriate resolution and sort out transmissions appropriate for the defects we are looking for. Under these conditions, we find that voids and micropipes reduce the pixel transmission to 0.3 to 0.5. Sorting for this transmission reduces the number of pixels of interest to a manageable number, especially with recent progress in growing lower defect SiC. Now a commercial plotting program can easily display defect locations within a circle representing the wafer boundary. We verify the defect locations by scanning electron microscope secondary electron images and scanning optical microscope visible-light images at several resolutions.
Amorphous LaAlO3 high-k oxide was grown in a molecular beam epitaxy reactor on p-Si(001) using a thin γ-Al2O3 epitaxied buffer layer. Interfaces were free of SiO2 or silicates and remained abrupt despite the high temperature used for annealing, as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed. Electrical measurements performed on as-deposited samples revealed a dielectric constant value close to that of the bulk, small equivalent oxide thickness and low density of interface states. But some negative charges were present, leading to a flat band voltage shift. Post deposition annealing with forming gas can correct this effect.
On 13 November 2009, the authorities of Flemish Brabant, Belgium, received an alert concerning a potential outbreak of Shigella sonnei at a public institution. A study was conducted to assess the extent, discover the source and to implement further measures. We performed a matched case-control study to test an association between shigellosis and canteen-food consumption. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples were tested. The reference laboratory characterized the retrospectively collected Shigella specimens. We found 52 cases distributed over space (25/35 departments) and time (2 months). We found a matched odds ratio of 3·84 (95% confidence interval 1·02–14·44) for canteen-food consumption. A food handler had travelled to Morocco shortly before detection of the first laboratory-confirmed case. Water samples and food handlers' faecal samples tested negative for Shigella. Confirmed cases presented PFGE profiles, highly similar to archived isolates from Morocco. Foodborne transmission associated with the canteen was strongly suspected.