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Recent proposals suggest early adversity sets in motion particularly chronic and neurobiologically distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms. However, few prospective studies in high-risk samples delineate distinct trajectories of internalizing symptoms from preschool age onward. We examined trajectories in a high-risk cohort, oversampled for internalizing symptoms, several preschool risk/maintenance factors, and school-age outcomes. Parents of 325 children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire on up to four waves of data collection from preschool (3–5 years) to school age (8–9 years) and Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment interviews at both ages. Multi-informant data were collected on risk factors and symptoms. Growth mixture modelling identified four trajectory classes of internalizing symptoms with stable low, rising low-to-moderate, stable moderate, and stable high symptoms. Children in the stable high symptom trajectory manifested clinically relevant internalizing symptoms, mainly diagnosed with anxiety disorders/depression at preschool and school age. Trajectories differed regarding loss/separation experience, maltreatment, maternal psychopathology, temperament, and stress-hormone regulation with loss/separation, temperament, maternal psychopathology, and stress-hormone regulation (trend) significantly contributing to explained variance. At school age, trajectories continued to differ on symptoms, disorders, and impairment. Our study is among the first to show that severe early adversity may trigger a chronic and neurobiologically distinct internalizing trajectory from preschool age onward.
Depression and obesity are highly prevalent, and major impacts on public health frequently co-occur. Recently, we reported that having depression moderates the effect of the FTO gene, suggesting its implication in the association between depression and obesity.
To confirm these findings by investigating the FTO polymorphism rs9939609 in new cohorts, and subsequently in a meta-analysis.
The sample consists of 6902 individuals with depression and 6799 controls from three replication cohorts and two original discovery cohorts. Linear regression models were performed to test for association between rs9939609 and body mass index (BMI), and for the interaction between rs9939609 and depression status for an effect on BMI. Fixed and random effects meta-analyses were performed using METASOFT.
In the replication cohorts, we observed a significant interaction between FTO, BMI and depression with fixed effects meta-analysis (β=0.12, P = 2.7 × 10−4) and with the Han/Eskin random effects method (P = 1.4 × 10−7) but not with traditional random effects (β = 0.1, P = 0.35). When combined with the discovery cohorts, random effects meta-analysis also supports the interaction (β = 0.12, P = 0.027) being highly significant based on the Han/Eskin model (P = 6.9 × 10−8). On average, carriers of the risk allele who have depression have a 2.2% higher BMI for each risk allele, over and above the main effect of FTO.
This meta-analysis provides additional support for a significant interaction between FTO, depression and BMI, indicating that depression increases the effect of FTO on BMI. The findings provide a useful starting point in understanding the biological mechanism involved in the association between obesity and depression.
New oral treatments are needed for all forms of leishmaniasis. Here, the improved oral efficacy of quercetin (Qc) and its penta-acetylated derivative (PQc) was evaluated in cutaneous leishmaniasis after encapsulation in lipid-core nanocapsules (LNCs) of poly(ε-caprolactone). Leishmania amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice were given 51 daily oral doses of free drugs (16 mg kg−1) or LNC-loaded drugs (0·4 mg kg−1). While treatment with free Qc reduced the lesion sizes and parasite loads by 38 and 71%, respectively, LNC-Qc produced 64 and 91% reduction, respectively. The antileishmanial efficacy of PQc was similar but not as potently improved by encapsulation as Qc. None of the treatments increased aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or creatinine serum levels. These findings indicate that when encapsulated in LNC, Qc and, to a lesser extent, PQc can safely produce an enhanced antileishmanial effect even at a 40-fold lower dose, with implications for the development of a new oral drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
The cubic polytype of silicon carbide is a stimulating candidate for Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) applications due to its interesting physical and chemical properties. Recently, we demonstrated the possibility to elaborate 3C-SiC membranes on 3C-SiC pseudo-substrates, using a silicon epilayer grown by Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition as a sacrificial layer. Such structures could be the starting point for the elaboration of new MEMS devices. However, the roughness still represents a major concern. Therefore, in this contribution, we investigate the influence of an excimer laser irradiation on the Si epilayer surface prior to the 3C-SiC epilayer growth. We compare these results with the 3C-SiC epilayer grown directly on the as-grown Si epilayer.
An accurate cartesian method is devised to simulate incompressible viscous flows past an arbitrary moving body. The Navier-Stokes equations are spatially discretized onto a fixed Cartesian mesh. The body is taken into account via the ghost-cell method and the so-called penalty method, resulting in second-order accuracy in velocity. The accuracy and the efficiency of the solver are tested through two-dimensional reference simulations. To show the versatility of this scheme we simulate a three-dimensional self propelled jellyfish prototype.
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5·70 (95 % CI 4·35, 7·06), 2·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 4·31) and 11·12 (95 % CI 8·17, 14·08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
Studies have suggested that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and premature mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. However, history of alcohol consumption has hardly been taken into account. We investigated the association between current alcohol consumption and mortality in men and women with diabetes mellitus accounting for past alcohol consumption. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a cohort was defined of 4797 participants with a confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Men and women were assigned to categories of baseline and past alcohol consumption. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI for total mortality were estimated with multivariable Cox regression models, using light alcohol consumption (>0–6 g/d) as the reference category. Compared with light alcohol consumption, no relationship was observed between consumption of 6 g/d or more and total mortality. HR for >6–12 g/d was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·30) in men and 0·86 (95 % CI 0·46, 1·60) in women. Adjustment for past alcohol consumption did not change the estimates substantially. In individuals who at baseline reported abstaining from alcohol, mortality rates were increased relative to light consumers: HR was 1·52 (95 % CI 0·99, 2·35) in men and 1·81 (95 % CI 1·04, 3·17) in women. The present study in diabetic individuals showed no association between current alcohol consumption >6 g/d and mortality risk compared with light consumption. The increased mortality risk among non-consumers appeared to be affected by their past alcohol consumption rather than their current abstinence.
We present a study of polygons forming on the free surface of a water flow confined to a stationary cylinder and driven by a rotating bottom plate as described by Jansson et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 96, 2006, 174502). In particular, we study the case of a triangular structure, either completely ‘wet’ or with a ‘dry’ centre. For the dry structures, we present measurements of the surface shapes and the process of formation. We show experimental evidence that the formation can take place as a two-stage process: first the system approaches an almost stable rotationally symmetric state and from there the symmetry breaking proceeds like a low-dimensional linear instability. We show that the circular state and the unstable manifold connecting it with the polygon solution are universal in the sense that very different initial conditions lead to the same circular state and unstable manifold. For a wet triangle, we measure the surface flows by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and show that there are three vortices present, but that the strength of these vortices is far too weak to account for the rotation velocity of the polygon. We show that partial blocking of the surface flow destroys the polygons and re-establishes the rotational symmetry. For the rotationally symmetric state our theoretical analysis of the surface flow shows that it consists of two distinct regions: an inner, rigidly rotating centre and an outer annulus, where the surface flow is that of a point vortex with a weak secondary flow. This prediction is consistent with the experimentally determined surface flow.
Nutritional management studies to improve the performance of Mangalarga Marchador (MM) horses during the marcha test are limited. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that chelated trivalent chromium (CR) feed supplementation may reduce the suitability of the length of the interval between concentrate feeding and the marcha test among MM horses. A total of 12 healthy mares (4.25 ± 0.62 years) were randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments (0 or 10 mg Cr by concentrate, fed 0.5, 2 or 4 h before exercise), according to a completely randomized design, with a split-plot arrangement. The diet was Cynodon pasture and concentrate (50:50 ratio). The first 29 days of the trial were for diet, Cr and exercise adaptation; during the next 15 days, horses were submitted to three 50-min field marcha tests, once a week. Heart rate (HR) was measured before, during and until 25 min after the exercise. Respiratory rate and rectal temperature were measured; blood samples were collected before, at the end and 25 min after the test. There was no effect of Cr by concentrate feeding strategy on any physiological variables (P>0.05). Supplementation of Cr increased glycaemia before and soon after the second marcha test (P < 0.01). In addition, Cr reduced HR during the second marcha test and decreased the time to first post-exercise HR recovery (P < 0.05). Insulinaemia was greater when the concentrate was provided 2 h prior to the test (P < 0.05). Concentrate provided 0.5 and 2 h before the test reduced plasma triacylglycerol in the first and second tests, respectively. The interval between concentrate feeding and marcha tests should not be decreased in horses supplemented with Cr. Horses should be fed more than 2 h before that test. Cr supplementation during training may improve the cardiac performance of MM mares during the marcha test.
We present preliminary results of a 4-month campaign carried out in the framework of the Mons project, where time-resolved Hα observations are used to study the wind and circumstellar properties of a number of OB stars.
We present the results from the spectroscopic follow-up of WR140 (WC7 + O4-5) during its last periastron passage in january 2009. This object is known as the archetype of colliding wind binaries and has a relatively large period (≃8 years) and eccentricity (≃0.89). We provide updated values for the orbital parameters, new estimates for the WR and O star masses and new constraints on the mass-loss rates.
Previously, we described the protective action of the immunomodulatory extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Kp) in murine and human cutaneous leishmaniasis. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of Kp against visceral leishmaniasis, using the BALB/c mouse model of infection with Leishmania chagasi. Mice receiving oral daily doses of Kp (400 mg/kg) for 30 days displayed significantly reduced hepatic and splenic parasite burden, when compared with untreated animals. Protectiveness was accompanied by a reduction in parasite-specific IgG serum levels, and impaired capacity of spleen cells to produce IL-4, but not IFN-γ and nitric oxide upon antigen recall in vitro. The reference drug Pentostam (72 mg/kg) given by the intra-peritoneal route on alternate days produced an anti-leishmanial effect similar to oral Kp. Our findings show that the oral efficacy of Kp, seen previously in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis, extends also to visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. chagasi, a difficult to treat and lethal disease of man.
As an essential aspect of life, food can evoke strong competition among individuals and shape a species' social system. Through a pathway of relationships we can link the competitive regime that food evokes in a population to such seemingly loosely related traits as social relationships within and between groups, ranging patterns and dispersal patterns. Food most strongly determines female relationships in many mammals because female reproductive success is mainly constrained by food acquisition. Male success, on the other hand, largely depends on access to mating partners (Trivers 1972, Emlen & Oring 1977). The competitive regime among females can be predicted based on the contestability or usurpability of their food (Wrangham 1980, van Schaik & van Hooff 1983, van Schaik 1989, 1996, Isbell 1991, Sterck et al. 1997). In most primates, food competition increases with group size (Clutton-Brock & Harvey 1977, Wrangham et al. 1993). However, folivores do not always fit into the general patterns found in such studies (Clutton-Brock & Harvey 1977, Isbell 1991, Janson & Goldsmith 1995). A comparative test of the effect of diet on social systems within a largely folivorous genus can solve some of these controversies. Since dietary category is only a proxy for a whole suite of traits that together determines the contestability of a species' food we need to look at each of these traits to investigate differences within a dietary specialization.
Our aim is to study the stellar kinematics in hosts of AGN. We do so by measuring nuclear stellar velocity dispersions (σ⋆). Our sample comprises spectra of 78 objects, 69 of which are Seyfert galaxies, in the region around the λλ8498.02, 8542.09, 8662.14 Calcium triplet (CaT). We investigate two methods to measure σ⋆: (1) the direct fitting method (DFM), which makes use of our stellar population synthesis code Starlight, and (2) the cross-correlation method (CCM), for which we use the fxcor package in IRAF. Both methods yield velocity dispersions consistent to within 19 km/s on-average. We have also measured the CaT equivalent width (WCaT) and the λ3933 CaII K equivalent width (WK) for the objects in our sample. Other studies have shown that WK is a powerful tracer of starbursts in Seyfert nuclei, so we check if WCaT can be used in the same way. We have also analysed a sub-sample of 34 spatially resolved objects with reasonably good off-nuclear signal-to-noise. We study the spatial variations of both σ⋆ and WCaT. We see no dilution in WCaT for composite starburst + Seyfert 2 galaxies, in contrast to the dilution in the WK (studied by other authors) for the same objects.
As part of its work on setting standards and establishing guidelines for nutrigenomics research, the European Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO) is developing bioethical guidelines for those engaged in human nutrigenomics studies. A NuGO working group developed a set of draft guidelines addressing four areas: (1) information and consenting prior to a nutrigenomicsstudy; (2) the generation and use of genotype information; (3) the establishment and maintenance of biobanks; (4) the exchange of samples and data. NuGO convened a workshop with a panel of invited external experts to assess the draft guidelines. The panel of experts confirmedthat these areas are important and that the development of specific bioethical guidelines for nutrigenomics research would therefore enhance the application of established international guidelines in this field of biomedical research.
Patches of a very dense tube mat biotope were found during fish habitat studies in the eastern English Channel. At three locations in the lows between linear sand banks off the French coast an un-described small Chaetopterus sp. occurred with small Lanice conchilega as an enriched sediment stabilizing biotope. This biotope was distinct though having similarities to other tide swept sub-tidal biotopes dominated by L. conchilega. Using cameras and side-scan sonar it was seen to overlay heterogeneous cobbles and shell hash with intermittent rippled sand veneer. The patchiness of this enriching biogenic feature contributed to the variability in trawl catches of fish.