Book chapters will be unavailable on Saturday 24th August between 8am-12pm BST. This is for essential maintenance which will provide improved performance going forwards. Please accept our apologies for any inconvenience caused.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Interpersonal transgressions often threaten the stability of the relationship. Within the scope of romantic relationships, physical violence and sexual infidelity have been considered the most difficult transgressions to forgive. Similarly, two variables considered relevant for forgiveness within the context of the couple are partner-specific dependency and the guilt experienced by the offended person. In that way, this research aims to approach the understanding of the forgiveness process of such transgressions. To this end, an experimental study was designed (N = 173 university women; Mage = 21.36, SD = 2.83), by which three indicators of forgiveness corresponding to the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale–18–Item Form (TRIM–18; “Revenge”, “Avoidance” and “Benevolence”), partner-specific dependency and sense of guilt of the offended person were examined in the face of the transgressions of physical violence and sexual infidelity. Results revealed that violence (vs. infidelity) is less forgiven (higher “Revenge”, p = .017, ηp2 = .034). In addition, the results showed that high partner-specific dependency leads to further guilt which, in turn, leads to greater forgiveness towards the partner (less “Avoidance”, CIE = –.094, SE = .042, 95% CI [–.201, –.029]; and higher “Benevolence”, CIE = .080, SE = .037, 95% CI [.024, .173]) in light of violence (vs. infidelity). Last but not least, the previous findings and their possible implications for romantic relationships are discussed.
Despite the fact that literature regarding the implications of envy in the work environment has generated growing interest in recent years, the role of malicious and benign envy in the workplace has scarcely been studied. Therefore, the present study, using an experimental design, N = 213 (140 female and 73 male; Mage = 31.05, SD = 10.01; range from 18 to 68), aims to examine the effects of malicious (vs. benign) envy on perceived injustice, negative emotions, and the individual tendency to express counterproductive work behaviors. The results obtained showed that the mere activation of malicious envy (vs. benign envy) leads to an increased perceived injustice (p < .001, ηp2= .15), and to higher levels of negative emotions (p < .001, ηp2= .18) and counterproductive (harmful) behaviors toward the envied co-worker (p < .001, ηp2= .16). Additionally, we found that perceptions of injustice and negative emotions mediated the effect of malicious (vs. benign) envy on the inclination to express counterproductive work behaviors (Indirect Effect (IE) = .227, SE = .064, 95% CI [.127, .386]. Finally, these findings and their possible implications are discussed.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate how milking in mid-line (ML) affects the lipolysis level and milk composition in goat livestock, in comparison with low-line (LL) milking. The first experiment took place, in triplicate, on an experimental farm. For each replicate, a crossover design (62 goats, two treatments, ML and LL, in two periods each lasting 4 days) was used. Milk samples were taken daily at 0 and 24 h after milking. In the first experimental replicate, some enzymatic coagulation cheeses were made, which were assessed by a panel of tasters at 50 and 100 days of maturation. In the second experiment, the lipolysis level and composition of tank milk from 55 commercial dairy goat farms (25 ML and 30 LL) were analysed, in milk samples taken in three different weeks. The results of the first experiment showed that ML milking increased free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in raw goat's milk significantly (0.71 v. 0.40 mmol/l, respectively). However, in the milk samples taken from commercial farms the FFA concentration remained unaffected by the milking pipeline height (0.59 v. 0.58 mmol/l for ML and LL, respectively). No significant differences were found in the milk composition, nor in the sensory characteristics in the cured cheeses, which suggests that factors other than the milkline height are able to influence the level of lipolysis under commercial conditions. Therefore, ML milking should not be discouraged, provided that the correct functioning and management of the milking operation and milk storage on the farm is guaranteed.
Phosphorus is a crucial element in prebiotic chemistry, especially the P−O bond, which is key for the formation of the backbone of the deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO had only been detected towards the envelope of evolved stars, and never towards star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO towards two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30m telescope. PN has also been detected towards the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during the cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ~35 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10−10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5× 10−9 of initial phosphorus is assumed.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
Habit has been defined as the automatic performance of a usual behaviour. The present paper reports the relationships of variables from a Model of Goal Directed Behavior to four scales in regard to parents’ habits when feeding their children: habit of (i) actively involving child in selection of vegetables; (ii) maintaining a positive vegetable environment; (iii) positive communications about vegetables; and (iv) controlling vegetable practices. We tested the hypothesis that the primary predictor of each habit variable would be the measure of the corresponding parenting practice.
Internet survey data from a mostly female sample. Primary analyses employed regression modelling with backward deletion, controlling for demographics and parenting practices behaviour.
Houston, Texas, USA.
Parents of 307 pre-school (3–5-year-old) children.
Three of the four models accounted for about 50 % of the variance in the parenting practices habit scales. Each habit scale was primarily predicted by the corresponding parenting practices scale (suggesting validity). The habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection was also most strongly predicted by two barriers and rudimentary self-efficacy; the habit of maintaining a positive vegetable environment by one barrier; the habit of maintaining positive communications about vegetables by an emotional scale; and the habit of controlling vegetable practices by a perceived behavioural control scale.
The predictiveness of the psychosocial variables beyond parenting practices behaviour was modest. Discontinuing the habit of ineffective controlling parenting practices may require increasing the parent’s perceived control of parenting practices, perhaps through simulated parent–child interactions.
Selection of Quarter Horses for different purposes has led to the formation of lines, including racing and cutting horses. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line applying relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis, an extension of extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) analysis, and the fixation index (FST) statistic. A total of 188 horses of both sexes, born between 1985 and 2009 and registered at the Brazilian Association of Quarter Horse Breeders, including 120 of the racing line and 68 of the cutting line, were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. On the basis of 27 genomic regions identified as selection signatures by REHH and FST statistics, functional annotations of genes were made in order to identify those that could have been important during formation of the racing line and that could be used subsequently for the development of selection tools. Genes involved in muscle growth (n=8), skeletal growth (n=10), muscle energy metabolism (n=15), cardiovascular system (n=14) and nervous system (n=23) were identified, including the FKTN, INSR, GYS1, CLCN1, MYLK, SYK, ANG, CNTFR and HTR2B.
Multiferroic BFO/SRO/Si trilayers have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition in the form of thin films. As a function of the BFO layer thickness, magnetic and magneto-transport properties have been investigated at room temperature and down to 5 K. At low BFO layer thickness, a residual γ-Fe2O3 phase, which interacts interfacially with the SRO and BFO layers, is responsible for moderately hard magnetic properties of the film. On increasing BFO layer thickness, more homogeneous deposits are obtained with uniform magnetic and magneto-resistive properties.