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inhaled loxapine has shown efficiency in the treatment of the mild-moderate agitation syndrome of schyzophrenia and mania patients. Its rapid response and calming effect non-sedative allow to hypothesize reasonable efficiency and tolerability in borderline personality disorder diagnosed patients.
analyze the efficiency and tolerability of inhaled loxapine as a pharmacological approach in the treatment of agitation in borderline personality disorder (BPD) clinical diagnosed patients.
Materials and method
an application was administered for every agitation episode in BPD patients treated with inhaled loxapine in the emergency room or the psychiatric ward, which included B aRS and CGI-S scales for the evaluation of each episode and its severity, before and after its use. Other secondary measures of efficiency were taken into account, such as requirement of physical restrain.
in the majority of evaluated episodes inhaled loxapine decreased notably initial B aRS and CGI-S values and no serious clinical side effects attributable to this medication were observed.
in our sample, inhaled loxapine was efficiency and well tolerated pharmacological intervention for agitation in BPD patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Short-term peripheral venous catheter–related bloodstream infection (PVCR-BSI) rates have not been systematically studied in resource-limited countries, and data on their incidence by number of device days are not available.
Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
Interpersonal transgressions often threaten the stability of the relationship. Within the scope of romantic relationships, physical violence and sexual infidelity have been considered the most difficult transgressions to forgive. Similarly, two variables considered relevant for forgiveness within the context of the couple are partner-specific dependency and the guilt experienced by the offended person. In that way, this research aims to approach the understanding of the forgiveness process of such transgressions. To this end, an experimental study was designed (N = 173 university women; Mage = 21.36, SD = 2.83), by which three indicators of forgiveness corresponding to the Transgression-Related Interpersonal Motivations Scale–18–Item Form (TRIM–18; “Revenge”, “Avoidance” and “Benevolence”), partner-specific dependency and sense of guilt of the offended person were examined in the face of the transgressions of physical violence and sexual infidelity. Results revealed that violence (vs. infidelity) is less forgiven (higher “Revenge”, p = .017, ηp2 = .034). In addition, the results showed that high partner-specific dependency leads to further guilt which, in turn, leads to greater forgiveness towards the partner (less “Avoidance”, CIE = –.094, SE = .042, 95% CI [–.201, –.029]; and higher “Benevolence”, CIE = .080, SE = .037, 95% CI [.024, .173]) in light of violence (vs. infidelity). Last but not least, the previous findings and their possible implications for romantic relationships are discussed.
There is a growing evidence that our Sun was born in a rich cluster that also contained massive stars. Therefore, the study of high-mass star-forming regions is key to understand our chemical heritage. In fact, molecules found in comets, in other pristine Solar System bodies and in protoplanetary disks, are enriched in 15N, because they show a lower 14N/15N ratio (100-150) with respect to the value representative of the Proto-Solar Nebula (PSN, 441 ± 6), but the reasons of this enrichment cannot be explained by current chemical models. Moreover, the 14N/15N ratio is important because from it we can learn more about the stellar nucleosynthesis processes that produces both the elements. In this sense observations of star-forming regions are useful to constrain Galactic chemical evolution (GCE) models.
Two experiments were carried out to investigate how milking in mid-line (ML) affects the lipolysis level and milk composition in goat livestock, in comparison with low-line (LL) milking. The first experiment took place, in triplicate, on an experimental farm. For each replicate, a crossover design (62 goats, two treatments, ML and LL, in two periods each lasting 4 days) was used. Milk samples were taken daily at 0 and 24 h after milking. In the first experimental replicate, some enzymatic coagulation cheeses were made, which were assessed by a panel of tasters at 50 and 100 days of maturation. In the second experiment, the lipolysis level and composition of tank milk from 55 commercial dairy goat farms (25 ML and 30 LL) were analysed, in milk samples taken in three different weeks. The results of the first experiment showed that ML milking increased free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in raw goat's milk significantly (0.71 v. 0.40 mmol/l, respectively). However, in the milk samples taken from commercial farms the FFA concentration remained unaffected by the milking pipeline height (0.59 v. 0.58 mmol/l for ML and LL, respectively). No significant differences were found in the milk composition, nor in the sensory characteristics in the cured cheeses, which suggests that factors other than the milkline height are able to influence the level of lipolysis under commercial conditions. Therefore, ML milking should not be discouraged, provided that the correct functioning and management of the milking operation and milk storage on the farm is guaranteed.
Despite the fact that literature regarding the implications of envy in the work environment has generated growing interest in recent years, the role of malicious and benign envy in the workplace has scarcely been studied. Therefore, the present study, using an experimental design, N = 213 (140 female and 73 male; Mage = 31.05, SD = 10.01; range from 18 to 68), aims to examine the effects of malicious (vs. benign) envy on perceived injustice, negative emotions, and the individual tendency to express counterproductive work behaviors. The results obtained showed that the mere activation of malicious envy (vs. benign envy) leads to an increased perceived injustice (p < .001, ηp2= .15), and to higher levels of negative emotions (p < .001, ηp2= .18) and counterproductive (harmful) behaviors toward the envied co-worker (p < .001, ηp2= .16). Additionally, we found that perceptions of injustice and negative emotions mediated the effect of malicious (vs. benign) envy on the inclination to express counterproductive work behaviors (Indirect Effect (IE) = .227, SE = .064, 95% CI [.127, .386]. Finally, these findings and their possible implications are discussed.
Phosphorus is a crucial element in prebiotic chemistry, especially the P−O bond, which is key for the formation of the backbone of the deoxyribonucleic acid. So far, PO had only been detected towards the envelope of evolved stars, and never towards star-forming regions. We report the first detection of PO towards two massive star-forming regions, W51 e1/e2 and W3(OH), using data from the IRAM 30m telescope. PN has also been detected towards the two regions. The abundance ratio PO/PN is 1.8 and 3 for W51 and W3(OH), respectively. Our chemical model indicates that the two molecules are chemically related and are formed via gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral-neutral reactions during the cold collapse. The molecules freeze out onto grains at the end of the collapse and desorb during the warm-up phase once the temperature reaches ~35 K. The observed molecular abundances of 10−10 are predicted by the model if a relatively high initial abundance of 5× 10−9 of initial phosphorus is assumed.
Aims were to assess the efficacy of metacognitive training (MCT) in people with a recent onset of psychosis in terms of symptoms as a primary outcome and metacognitive variables as a secondary outcome.
A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed. A total of 126 patients were randomized to an MCT or a psycho-educational intervention with cognitive-behavioral elements. The sample was composed of people with a recent onset of psychosis, recruited from nine public centers in Spain. The treatment consisted of eight weekly sessions for both groups. Patients were assessed at three time-points: baseline, post-treatment, and at 6 months follow-up. The evaluator was blinded to the condition of the patient. Symptoms were assessed with the PANSS and metacognition was assessed with a battery of questionnaires of cognitive biases and social cognition.
Both MCT and psycho-educational groups had improved symptoms post-treatment and at follow-up, with greater improvements in the MCT group. The MCT group was superior to the psycho-educational group on the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS) total (p = 0.026) and self-certainty (p = 0.035) and dependence self-subscale of irrational beliefs, comparing baseline and post-treatment. Moreover, comparing baseline and follow-up, the MCT group was better than the psycho-educational group in self-reflectiveness on the BCIS (p = 0.047), total BCIS (p = 0.045), and intolerance to frustration (p = 0.014). Jumping to Conclusions (JTC) improved more in the MCT group than the psycho-educational group (p = 0.021). Regarding the comparison within each group, Theory of Mind (ToM), Personalizing Bias, and other subscales of irrational beliefs improved in the MCT group but not the psycho-educational group (p < 0.001–0.032).
MCT could be an effective psychological intervention for people with recent onset of psychosis in order to improve cognitive insight, JTC, and tolerance to frustration. It seems that MCT could be useful to improve symptoms, ToM, and personalizing bias.
Habit has been defined as the automatic performance of a usual behaviour. The present paper reports the relationships of variables from a Model of Goal Directed Behavior to four scales in regard to parents’ habits when feeding their children: habit of (i) actively involving child in selection of vegetables; (ii) maintaining a positive vegetable environment; (iii) positive communications about vegetables; and (iv) controlling vegetable practices. We tested the hypothesis that the primary predictor of each habit variable would be the measure of the corresponding parenting practice.
Internet survey data from a mostly female sample. Primary analyses employed regression modelling with backward deletion, controlling for demographics and parenting practices behaviour.
Houston, Texas, USA.
Parents of 307 pre-school (3–5-year-old) children.
Three of the four models accounted for about 50 % of the variance in the parenting practices habit scales. Each habit scale was primarily predicted by the corresponding parenting practices scale (suggesting validity). The habit of active child involvement in vegetable selection was also most strongly predicted by two barriers and rudimentary self-efficacy; the habit of maintaining a positive vegetable environment by one barrier; the habit of maintaining positive communications about vegetables by an emotional scale; and the habit of controlling vegetable practices by a perceived behavioural control scale.
The predictiveness of the psychosocial variables beyond parenting practices behaviour was modest. Discontinuing the habit of ineffective controlling parenting practices may require increasing the parent’s perceived control of parenting practices, perhaps through simulated parent–child interactions.
Selection of Quarter Horses for different purposes has led to the formation of lines, including racing and cutting horses. The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions divergently selected in racing line of Quarter Horses in relation to cutting line applying relative extended haplotype homozygosity (REHH) analysis, an extension of extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) analysis, and the fixation index (FST) statistic. A total of 188 horses of both sexes, born between 1985 and 2009 and registered at the Brazilian Association of Quarter Horse Breeders, including 120 of the racing line and 68 of the cutting line, were genotyped using single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. On the basis of 27 genomic regions identified as selection signatures by REHH and FST statistics, functional annotations of genes were made in order to identify those that could have been important during formation of the racing line and that could be used subsequently for the development of selection tools. Genes involved in muscle growth (n=8), skeletal growth (n=10), muscle energy metabolism (n=15), cardiovascular system (n=14) and nervous system (n=23) were identified, including the FKTN, INSR, GYS1, CLCN1, MYLK, SYK, ANG, CNTFR and HTR2B.
Multiferroic BFO/SRO/Si trilayers have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition in the form of thin films. As a function of the BFO layer thickness, magnetic and magneto-transport properties have been investigated at room temperature and down to 5 K. At low BFO layer thickness, a residual γ-Fe2O3 phase, which interacts interfacially with the SRO and BFO layers, is responsible for moderately hard magnetic properties of the film. On increasing BFO layer thickness, more homogeneous deposits are obtained with uniform magnetic and magneto-resistive properties.