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Introduction: Point-of-Care Ultrasound (PoCUS) is being increasingly utilized during cardiac arrests for prognosis. Following the publication of recent studies, the goal of this study was to systematically review and analyze the literature to evaluate the accuracy of PoCUS in predicting return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), survival to hospital admission (SHA), and survival to hospital discharge (SHD) in adult patients with non-traumatic, non- shockable out- of-hospital or emergency department cardiac arrest. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was completed. A search of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane, CINAHL, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization Registry was completed from 1974 until August 24th 2018. Adult randomized controlled trials and observational studies were included. The QUADAS-2 tool was applied by two independent reviewers. Data analysis was completed according to PRISMA guidelines and with a random effects model for the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was assessed using I-squared statistics. Results: Ten studies (1,485 participants) were included. Cardiac activity on PoCUS had a pooled sensitivity of 59.9% (95% confidence interval 36.5%-79.4%) and specificity of 91.5% (80.8%-96.5%) for ROSC; 74.7% (58.3%-86.2%) and 80.5% (71.7%-87.4%) for SHA; and 69.4% (45.5%-86.0%) and 74.6% (59.8%-85.3%) for SHD. The sensitivity of cardiac activity on PoCUS for predicting ROSC was 24.7%(6.8%-59.4%) in the asystole subgroup compared with 77% (59.4%-88.5%) within the PEA subgroup. Cardiac activity on PoCUS, compared to an absence had an odd ratio of 15.9 (5.9-42.5) for ROSC, 9.8 (4.9-19.4) for SHA and 5.7 (2.1-15.6) for SHD. Positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 6.65 (3.16-14.0) and negative LR was 0.27 (0.12-0.61) for ROSC. Conclusion: Cardiac activity on PoCUS was associated with improved odds for ROSC, SHA, and SHD among adults with non-traumatic asystole and PEA. We report lower sensitivity and higher negative likelihood ratio, but with greater heterogeneity compared to previous systematic reviews. PoCUS may provide valuable information in the management of non-traumatic PEA or asystole, but should not be viewed as the sole predictor in determining outcomes in these patients.
A commercially available combined X-ray diffraction – differential scanning calorimetry (XRD-DSC) stage was adapted for studies of gas loading in microporous materials, including metal organic frameworks (MOFs). Insertion of a custom-built humid atmosphere swing chamber (HASC) between a humidity generator and the XRD-DSC stage facilitates both humid atmosphere and vacuum swing gas loading. The HASC is necessary to buffer between the humidity generator and the XRD-DSC stage, allowing the gas mixture to homogenize prior to sample exposure, so that both humid atmosphere and vacuum swings could be performed. The changes in XRD can be used to follow structural changes, including collapse, which is indicative of a lack of microporosity upon activation, and the flexibity of frameworks upon gas sorption–desorption cycles. Measurements of the area under the DSC curve allows for calculation of the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst; kJ molGAS−1). Vacuum-atmosphere swing experiments performed at different pressure steps allow for the reconstruction of the enthalpy of gas adsorption before and after a phase transition. These modes of operation are illustrated in three case studies from a program of exploratory MOF synthesis used to discover novel materials for selective gas sorption from humid gas streams: (1) gas binding in Stony Brook metal organic framework-1, (2) zeolitic imidazolate framework-7 response to variable pressure vacuum-atmosphere swing, and (3) high throughput evaluation of the selectivity of novel MOFs synthesized from customized linkers.
By considering the physical properties of Sun-like G stars and their exoplanets, present study examines whether presence of planets near the host stars enhances their stellar activity. In order to attain this goal, chromospheric RHK index data-a proxy for the magnetic activity-for the stars with and without planets is considered. With the reasonable constraints on the exoplanetary data, we obtained a power law decay relationship between the magnetic activity of host stars and their ages, for stars with and without planets. Both these results strongly suggest that there is no difference in magnetic activity of the sun-like stars with and without presence of planets. In order to confirm this result, further we also examine an association between the host stars RHK index that have exoplanets and their respective exoplanetary masses. We find that magnitude of RHK (hence magnetic activity) of the host stars is independent of presence of planetary mass in its vicinity.
It has been established that Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) may have significant impact on terrestrial magnetic field and lead to space weather events. In the present study, we selected several CMEs which are associated with filament eruptions on the Sun. We attempt to identify the presence of filament material within ICME at 1AU. We discuss how different ICMEs associated with filaments lead to moderate or major geomagnetic activity on their arrival at the Earth. Our study also highlights the difficulties in identifying the filament material at 1AU within isolated and in interacting CMEs.
The polarization measurement of coronal forbidden emission lines is the most promising method of determining the direction of magnetic fields in the corona. A classical theory for the forbidden lines was presented in Megha et al. (2017) for the case of arbitrary strength magnetic fields. Here we apply that theoretical formalism to study the effect of density distributions, magnetic field configurations, and velocity fields on the Stokes profiles formed in corona. For illustrations we use the atomic parameters of the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line.
In this paper we have studied space weather conditions near 53 potentially habitable exoplanets reported in literature using available information on the chromoshperic activity of their host stars and nature of dynamical interactions possible in the respective star-planetary systems.
We re-examined solar polar magnetic fields, using ground based synoptic photospheric magnetograms, during solar cycle 24. IThe signed polar magnetic fields showed an unusual hemispheric asymmetry in the polar field reversal process with a single unambigous reversal in the Southern hemisphere around late 2013 while the polar reversal in the Northern hemisphere started earlier around June 2012, but was completed only by the end of 2014. The examination of the unsigned polar magnetic fields in cycle 24 showed a continuing decline of fields in the Northern hemisphere whereas in the Southern hemisphere, it had partially recovered. However, the overall declining trend in solar polar fields, which began in the mid-1990’s, is still in progress. The continued decline seen in solar photospheric fields raises thequestion of whether we are heading towards a Grand or Maunder like solar minimum.
The analysis of the Ca-K line spectra as a function of latitude and integrated over the visible disk obtained during the period of 1989–2011 at the Kodaikanal Solar Tower Telescope shows that the FWHM of the K1 distribution at different latitudes varies by negligible amount at about 60° latitude whereas it varies significantly at other latitudes. Findings, especially the fewer variations in mid-latitude belts as compared to polar regions and complex variation in the shift in the activity around 60° latitude belt, will have important implications on the modeling of solar dynamos. Further, we have generated a uniform set of digitized Ca-K line images by selecting images considering the intensity distribution of the images corrected for the instrumental vignetting for the data obtained at Kodaikanal during the 20th century. Then, we have determined the percentage of plage and network areas by using the intensity and area threshold values.
The properties of the acoustic modes are sensitive to magnetic activity. The unprecedented long-term Kepler photometry, thus, allows stellar magnetic cycles to be studied through asteroseismology. We search for signatures of magnetic cycles in the seismic data of Kepler solar-type stars. We find evidence for periodic variations in the acoustic properties of about half of the 87 analysed stars. In these proceedings, we highlight the results obtained for two such stars, namely KIC 8006161 and KIC 5184732.
We have studied, the relationship between monthly variations of average counting rates of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) at Moscow super neutron monitoring station with mid cut-off rigidities (~2.42 GV), and the solar radio flux at 10.7cm (F10.7) and sunspot number (SSN) during the solar cycles 22 − 24. The F10.7cm (2800 MHz) and SSN is an excellent indicator of solar activity for the study period. We have investigated the patterns of long-term and mid-term periodicities of SSN and F10.7, using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique. We have observed the time-lag between ascending phase of CRI with F10.7cm and SSN during solar cycles 22 − 24.
The recalibration of the sunspot number series has established a new standard version for sunspot time series that requires updating of prior results based on the calibration. These recent sunspot number corrections mean a change in the results of the previous correlational studies of ISSN with geomagnetic indices, such as the aa-index. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between the old and new sunspot numbers ISSN and SN and their relationship with the aa index through time series, using the methods of Echer et. al (2004), Verma & Trippathi (2016), Stamper et. al (1996), and Feynman (1982).
Solar torsional oscillations are migrating bands of slower and faster than average rotation, which are thought to be related to the Sun’s magnetic cycle. We perform the first long-term study (16 years) of hemispherical asymmetry in solar torsional oscillation velocity using helioseismic data. We explore the spatial and temporal variation of North-South asymmetry using zonal flow velocities obtained from ring diagram analysis of the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Doppler images. We find a strong correlation between the asymmetries of near-surface torsional oscillation with magnetic flux and sunspot number, with the velocity asymmetry preceding in both the cases. We speculate that the asymmetry in torsional oscillation velocity may help in predicting the hemispherical asymmetry in the sunspot cycle.
Probably, the long-term monitoring of the solar atmosphere started in Italy with the first telescopic observations of the Sun made by Galileo Galilei in the early 17th century. His recorded observations and science results, as well as the work carried out by other following outstanding Italian astronomers inspired the start of institutional programs of regular solar observations at the Arcetri, Catania, and Rome Observatories.
These programs have accumulated daily images of the solar photosphere and chromosphere taken at various spectral bands over a time span larger than 80 years. In the last two decades, regular solar observations were continued with digital cameras only at the Catania and Rome Observatories, which are now part of the INAF National Institute for Astrophysics. At the two sites, daily solar images are taken at the photospheric G-band, Blue (λ = 409.4 nm), and Red (λ = 606.9 nm) continua spectral ranges and at the chromospheric Ca II K and Hα lines, with a 2″ spatial resolution.
Solar observation in Italy, which benefits from over 2500 hours of yearly sunshine, currently aims at the operational monitoring of solar activity and long-term variability and at the continuation of the historical series as well. Existing instruments will be soon enriched by the SAMM double channel telescope equipped with magneto-optical filters that will enable the tomography of the solar atmosphere with simultaneous observations at the K I 769.9 nm and Na I D 589.0 nm lines. In this contribution, we present the available observations and outline their scientific relevance.
Massive to lobate volcanic flows and brecciated hyaloclastite units in the Abitibi greenstone belt allow investigation of Late Archæan seafloor alteration and associated incorporation into these rocks of nitrogen (N) biogeochemical signatures. In this suite (the Blake River Group), hyaloclastite units containing putative microbial ichnofossils are particularly enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (K, Rb, Ba, Cs), B, and Li, consistent with their having experienced the greatest fluid–rock interaction during subseafloor hydrothermal alteration. Similarly, silicate-δ18O and δ15N values for samples from the hyaloclastites show the greatest shifts from plausible magmatic values. The chemical and isotopic patterns in these tholeiitic igneous rocks greatly resemble those in modern altered seafloor basalts, consistent with the preservation of an Archæan seafloor alteration signature. The N enrichments and shifts in δ15N appear to reflect stabilization of illite and interaction with fluids carrying sedimentary/organic signatures. Enrichments of N (and the δ15N of this N) in altered glass volcanic rocks on Earth's modern and ancient seafloor point to the potential utility of N for tracing past and present biogeochemical processes in similar rocks at/near the Mars surface.
Management and general treatment approaches
Penny J. M. Banerjee, East Midlands Centre for Forensic Mental Health, Arnold Lodge, Leicester, UK,
Simon Gibbon, East Midlands Centre for Forensic Mental Health, Arnold Lodge, Leicester, UK,
Nick Huband, Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Nottingham, UK