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Cahokia is the largest documented urban settlement in the pre-Columbian United States. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city, located near what is now East St. Louis, Illinois, began to rapidly expand starting around AD 1050. At its height, Cahokia extended across 1000 ha and included large plazas, timber palisade walls, and hundreds of monumental earthen mounds. Following several centuries of occupation, the city experienced a period of gradual abandonment from about AD 1200 to 1400. Here, we present geochemical data from a 1500-year-old sediment core from nearby Horseshoe Lake that records watershed impacts associated with the growth and decline of Cahokia. Sedimentary analysis shows a distinctive 24-cm-thick, gray, fine-grained layer formed between AD 1150 and 1220 and characterized by low carbonate δ13C, elevated sorbed metal concentrations, and higher organic matter δ15N. The deposition of this layer is contemporaneous with archaeological evidence of increased agricultural activity, earthen mound construction, and higher populations surrounding the lake. We hypothesize that these human impacts increased soil erosion, producing new sediment sources from deeper soil horizons, and shifted dissolved transport to the lake, producing lower carbonate δ13C values, higher concentrations of lead, copper, potassium, and aluminum, and increased δ15N, likely due to contributions of enriched nitrogen from sewage.
This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn’s polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al. (2009), written after Cassini’s primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we extensively review observational and theoretical investigations to date of both features. We also review the seasonal evolution of the polar regions using the observational data accumulated during the Cassini mission since 2004 (shortly after the northern winter solstice in 2002), through the equinox in 2009, and approaching the next solstice in 2017. We conclude the current review by listing unanswered questions and describing the observations of the polar regions planned for the Grand Finale phase of the Cassini mission between 2016 and 2017.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
A survey of about 100 lines of sight was made using the coudé auxiliary telescope and the coudé spectrograph of the Shane 3m telescope of the Lick Observatory. the data acquisition required 7 observing seasons. the spectra were recorded photographically at 17Ao/mm using a Varo tube intensifier. Each plate was separately calibrated for intensity and wavelength. the plates were measured using the PDS microdensitometer of the Royal Greenwich Observatory, Herstmonceux, and that data reduced on STARLINK using procedures developed by D.W.T. Baines. Care was taken to treat all photographic material in a consistent manner throughout the duration of the survey. the reduced data may therefore be considered self-consistent. the emulsion types used were (principally) Kodak IIIaF and (more rarely) 103aD.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
Icing measurements were carried out in natural winter clouds with an instrumented wind tunnel set up at the summit of Puy de Dome (1 500 m a.s.l.). The microphysical data (liquid water content, droplet spectra) were obtained by using the particle measuring system PMS ASSP 100. The ice density was measured on a rotating cylinder and the ice deposit of the cross-section was photographed on a fixed cylinder. The density measurements ranged from 300 to 900 kg m–3 during the experioment and are in agreement with Macklin’s results (1962). The profile of the ice deposit is comparedto the profile predicted by the model of Lozowski and others (19791, which considers a fixed density.
We propose to improve this model by talking into account the variation of ice density with the angle of impact on the cylinder. This calculation is based on Macklin’s results and on the determination of the local impact speed by using the result of Langrature, air speed, liquid wter content, and, especially, the droplet distribution. The improvement is not sufficiemuir and Blodgett (1960). The variation o fice density with the angle depends on various parameters: pressure, tempen to explain some observed profiles; this may be attributed to the fact that the model is not time-dependent.
In several experiments carried out in France, the Republic of the Ivory Coast, and Spain, icing clouds were penetrated at different heights by instrumented research aircraft. This paper describes the range and the frequencies of occurrence of the relevant icing parameters computed on the cloud scale and for different cloud types. Comparisons between micro-physical parameters and meteorolagical radar signatures show the limitations of these radars when used as a means of locating icing clouds.
We used MERLIN to observe RT Vir at 22 GHz at six epochs during 10 weeks. The water maser emission comes from a thick expanding shell with an elliptical velocity field. MERLIN has a velocity resolution of 0.1 km s−1 and milli-arcsecond angular resolution, revealing details within the individual maser clouds, typically 12 mas in diameter spanning 15 velocity channels. The brightest peak doubles in intensity to 800 Jy/beam. Features at velocities close to the stellar velocity show the largest proper motions of ∼ 3 mas away from the centre of emission. Some features are seen near the outer limits to the maser shell at early epochs only, but new masers appear close to the inner rim. The variability of individual maser features is not a simple function of the stellar luminosity.
We have made multi-wavelength observations of the young planetary nebula NGC 7027. The C-band continuum radio map shown in Figure 1 was obtained from the combination of MERLIN and VLA1 observations (M. Bryce et al., 1996). This map has the highest spatial resolution of any radio images of this object to date and has been compared with the HST archive picture of NGC7027, taken using WFPC2 with a 400 å wide F547N filter, to reveal the differences in the emission at the disparate wavelengths. The two maps, while being superficially different, show emission regions that are similar in size. The contours of radio brightness often coincide with prominent optical features.
We determine the age of 7 stars in the Ursa Major moving group using a novel method that models the fundamental parameters of rapidly rotating A-stars based on interferometric observations and literature photometry and compares these parameters (namely, radius, luminosity, and rotation velocity) with evolution models that account for rotation. We find these stars to be coeval, thus providing an age estimate for the moving group and validating this technique. With this technique validated, we determine the age of the rapidly rotating, directly imaged planet host star, κ Andromedae.
The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) obtains spectral images in the wavelength range 0.7 to 5.2 μm with a spectral resolving power of approximately 200. This spectral range allows NIMS to sense cloud-reflected solar radiation, thermal emission produced in the deep atmosphere, and auroral emission from the thermosphere of Jupiter. Using 5 μm thermal emission spectroscopy, the amount of water vapor in the deep atmosphere, at approximately the (i to 8 bar level, is found to vary by a factor > 100. Deep atmosphere ammonia was also found to vary, with a spatial behavior different from that of water vapor. No evidence is found for a massive water cloud. Using reflected solar radiation in conjunction with thermal emission, two cloud layers are found, the upper at 0.5 bars and a lower one at 1-1.3 bars. The inferred absorption properties of these clouds are consistent with ammonia crystals (the upper cloud) and ammonium hydrosulfide particles (the lower cloud).
The Anglezarke/Rivington uplands of central Lancashire have, in recent years, suffered severe erosion. In response a programme of field survey was undertaken during 1983 and 1985, supplemented by palynological investigation, modern vegetation survey, and sample excavation. Two sites were investigated in detail, a cairn of likely Bronze Age date and a flint scatter of earlier Mesolithic type. The field survey demonstrated human activity on the upland throughout the prehistoric period and emphasised the heavy post-medieval exploitation of the moorland. Sample excavation confirmed the prehistoric activity and, in the case of the Mesolithic site at Rushy Brow, demonstrated the possibility of recognising and reconstructing periods of prehistoric activity of very short duration — perhaps only a few hours.
Background: Individuals with bipolar disorder often endorse dysfunctional beliefs consistent with cognitive models of bipolar disorder (Beck, 1976; Mansell, 2007). Aims: The present study sought to assess whether young adult offspring of those with bipolar disorder would also endorse these beliefs, independent of their own mood episode history. Method: Participants (N = 89) were young adult college students with a parent with bipolar disorder (n = 27), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30), or no mood disorder (n = 32). Semi-structured interviews of the offspring were used to assess diagnoses. Dysfunctional beliefs related to Beck and colleagues’ (2006) and Mansell's (2007) cognitive models were assessed. Results: Unlike offspring of parents with MDD or no mood disorder, those with a parent with bipolar disorder endorsed significantly more dysfunctional cognitions associated with extreme appraisal of mood states, even after controlling for their own mood diagnosis. Once affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder, offspring endorsed dysfunctional cognitions across measures. Conclusions: Dysfunctional cognitions, particularly those related to appraisals of mood states and their potential consequences, are evident in young adults with a parent who has bipolar disorder and may represent targets for psychotherapeutic intervention.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.