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The German Twin Family Panel (TwinLife) is a German longitudinal study of monozygotic and dizygotic same-sex twin pairs and their families that was designed to investigate the development of social inequalities over the life course. The study covers an observation period from approximately 2014 to 2023. The target population of the sample are reared-together twins of four different age cohorts that were born in 2009/2010 (cohort 1), in 2003/2004 (cohort 2), in 1997/1998 (cohort 3) and between 1990 and 1993 (cohort 4). In the first wave, the study included data on 4097 twin families. Families were recruited in all parts of Germany so that the sample comprises the whole range of the educational, occupational and income structure. As of 2019, two face-to-face, at-home interviews and two telephone interviews have been conducted. Data from the first home and telephone interviews are already available free of charge as a scientific use-file from the GESIS data archive. This report aims to provide an overview of the study sample and design as well as constructs that are unique in TwinLife in comparison with previous twin studies — such as an assessment of cognitive abilities or information based on the children’s medical records and report cards. In addition, major findings based on the data already released are displayed, and future directions of the study are presented and discussed.
The purpose of this work was to develop accurate calibration standards which were fully characterized in terms of uniformity and concentration using fundamental measuring methods. Three similar sets of vacuum deposits were commercially made, each set containing the single deposits CuS, KCl, CaF2, Cr, Fe, Cu, RbNO3, SrF2, MoO3 , BaF2, and Pb. Thickness variations in each deposit were measured with PIXEA (proton induced x-ray excitation analysis) measurements taken at 6 to 8 positions along the deposit diameters. Relative elemental concentrations on corresponding deposits from each set were measured using multiple XRF intercomparisons. One set of deposits was destructively analyzed at the National Bureau of Standards with isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (IDMS) in order to calibrate the remaining sets of vacuum deposits. The calibrated deposits were compared with standards from two commercial sources. For seven elements heavier than chlorine there was an average deviation of 13.5% between the calibrated deposits and the commercial standards. Disagreements as large as 15% were observed between standards from the two commercial suppliers.
The objective was to compare the performance of the updated Charlson comorbidity index (uCCI) and classical CCI (cCCI) in predicting 30-day mortality in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). All cases of SAB in patients aged ⩾14 years identified at the Microbiology Unit were included prospectively and followed. Comorbidity was evaluated using the cCCI and uCCI. Relevant variables associated with SAB-related mortality, along with cCCI or uCCI scores, were entered into multivariate logistic regression models. Global model fit, model calibration and predictive validity of each model were evaluated and compared. In total, 257 episodes of SAB in 239 patients were included (mean age 74 years; 65% were male). The mean cCCI and uCCI scores were 3.6 (standard deviation, 2.4) and 2.9 (2.3), respectively; 161 (63%) cases had cCCI score ⩾3 and 89 (35%) cases had uCCI score ⩾4. Sixty-five (25%) patients died within 30 days. The cCCI score was not related to mortality in any model, but uCCI score ⩾4 was an independent factor of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.05–3.74). The uCCI is a more up-to-date, refined and parsimonious prognostic mortality score than the cCCI; it may thus serve better than the latter in the identification of patients with SAB with worse prognoses.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a significant cause of gastrointestinal infection and the haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). STEC outbreaks are commonly associated with food but animal contact is increasingly being implicated in its transmission. We report an outbreak of STEC affecting young infants at a nursery in a rural community (three HUS cases, one definite case, one probable case, three possible cases and five carriers, based on the combination of clinical, epidemiological and laboratory data) identified using culture-based and molecular techniques. The investigation identified repeated animal contact (animal farming and petting) as a likely source of STEC introduction followed by horizontal transmission. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used for real-time investigation of the incident and revealed a unique strain of STEC O26:H11 carrying stx2a and intimin. Following a public health intervention, no additional cases have occurred. This is the first STEC outbreak reported from Israel. WGS proved as a useful tool for rapid laboratory characterization and typing of the outbreak strain and informed the public health response at an early stage of this unusual outbreak.
This is a status report on a continuing program using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide–Field Camera (WFC) to probe the stellar population of the Galactic bulge to fainter magnitudes. We seek the mean age of the stars and the initial mass function (IMF). Galactic bulge stars offer the only opportunity to investigate the IMF of a super metal–rich population. They are 100 times closer than the next nearest sample.
Objectives: The present study examined differences in neurocognitive outcomes among non-Hispanic Black and White stroke survivors using the NIH Toolbox-Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB), and investigated the roles of healthcare variables in explaining racial differences in neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke. Methods: One-hundred seventy adults (91 Black; 79 White), who participated in a multisite study were included (age: M=56.4; SD=12.6; education: M=13.7; SD=2.5; 50% male; years post-stroke: 1–18; stroke type: 72% ischemic, 28% hemorrhagic). Neurocognitive function was assessed with the NIHTB-CB, using demographically corrected norms. Participants completed measures of socio-demographic characteristics, health literacy, and healthcare use and access. Stroke severity was assessed with the Modified Rankin Scale. Results: An independent samples t test indicated Blacks showed more neurocognitive impairment (NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite T-score: M=37.63; SD=11.67) than Whites (Fluid T-score: M=42.59, SD=11.54; p=.006). This difference remained significant after adjusting for reading level (NIHTB-CB Oral Reading), and when stratified by stroke severity. Blacks also scored lower on health literacy, reported differences in insurance type, and reported decreased confidence in the doctors treating them. Multivariable models adjusting for reading level and injury severity showed that health literacy and insurance type were statistically significant predictors of the Fluid cognitive composite (p<.001 and p=.02, respectively) and significantly mediated racial differences on neurocognitive impairment. Conclusions: We replicated prior work showing that Blacks are at increased risk for poorer neurocognitive outcomes post-stroke than Whites. Health literacy and insurance type might be important modifiable factors influencing these differences. (JINS, 2017, 23, 640–652)
Matériaux. La fabrication de grands disques de quartz a été poursuivie aux États-Unis; mais aucun résultat n’a encore été communiqué à la Commission.
Mlle Clavier, de l’Observatoire de Paris, a étudié des miroirs en acier inoxydable, taillés, polis optiquement et argentés. Deux points d’ordre chimique restaient à élucider pour rendre pratique l’emploi de cette matière: (a) l’argenture, qui ne donnait jamais de couches bien régulières et adhérentes; (b) l’enlèvement de l’argent terni, en vue d’une argenture nouvelle.
La commission vient de perdre l’un de ses membres les plus actifs dans l’élaboration et la construction des instruments. Le Dr F. G. Pease est décédé le 7 février 1938, après une très courte maladie qui l’emporta en quelques jours.
Mme Ed. Chandon suggère que la commission étudie systématiquement, aux divers points de vues des observations astronomiques, l’œil, cet instrument auquel tous les autres aboutissent et aux imperfections duquel ils doivent remédier.
L’œil est un instrument multiple. Ses qualités photométriques et colorimétriques jouent un rôle fondamental dans les observations des étoiles variables. Comme instrument de coïncidences, l’astigmatisme qu’il peut présenter n’intervient pas de la même manière dans les observations des passages, dans les mesures des hauteurs, etc.
La Commission n’a pas été informée de travaux particuliers importants concernant les matières d’optique. Il convient toutefois de mentionner dans cet ordre d’idées les résultats intéressants obtenus par application d’une pellicule d’aluminium comme surface réfléchissante, pour les miroirs astronomiques.
Le dépôt est fait par évaporation dans le vide et s’applique immédiatement aux miroirs en verre de petites dimensions. Pour les grandes surfaces, l’installation capable de résister à la pression atmosphérique peut présenter de grandes difficultés. Cependant, il a été possible de traiter ainsi, par exemple, le miroir de 90 cm. de diamètre de l’Observatoire de Lick. Plusieurs observatoires américains ont mis en service des miroirs aluminisés.
Since the date of the 1935 Paris meeting two total eclipses have been successfully observed. Throughout the long path crossing Siberia and Japan the weather on June 19, 1936 on the whole about lived up to predictions. On account of widely scattered clouds neighbouring expeditions had quite different luck with the weather. In contrast, the June 8, 1937 eclipse was seen throughout the whole track under universally clear skies, which is all the more surprising for the reason that eclipse expeditions to the tropics usually fare badly with the weather. Stewart and Stokley in a ship at sea were able to observe the eclipse with a measured duration of 7 min. 6 sec., the longest period of totality in 1200 years.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
(i) 1936, June 19. The Eclipse Committees of Japan and the U.S.S.R. have been making preliminary meteorological studies of the weather conditions along the belt of totality in their respective countries. The Japanese Committee report (Bulldin, Kwasan Observatory, 283, 1934) that, while at the extreme east and west of their totality zone the weather prospects are unfavourable, for the central part, along the north-east coast of the island of Hokkaido, from Esasi to Monpetu and in a region round Syari the weather conditions are as good as in the best seasons of Tokyo and Kyoto in an ordinary year. A pamphlet giving all information is being prepared and will shortly be circulated in astronomical circles, but it may be mentioned that Monpetu and Syari are accessible by rail from the port of Otaru. There is electric current, 100 V, A.c., labour is readily available and accommodation will be possible for small parties.
At the Paris congress in 1935, Messrs Dittrich, Brasch and Pogo had proposed that Commission 5 should undertake the publication of classical works of astronomy (such as Ptolemy’s Almagest, the works of Copernicus, etc.) which were untranslated or for other reasons difficult of access. The commission decided to form a sub-commission, consisting of Mr Stroobant and the gentlemen named above, to study this question, especially the means for its realization. Mr Stroobant had announced his desire to take this work in hand personally. Prof. Stroobant, however, having deceased in July 1936, and his health having been deficient during several months in advance, the sub-commission has not been able to continue its work. This is a question that ought to be taken up at the Stockholm meeting.
An obesity paradox has been proposed in many conditions including HIV. Studies conducted to investigate obesity and its effect on HIV disease progression have been inconclusive and are lacking for African settings. This study investigated the relationship between overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) and HIV disease progression in HIV+ asymptomatic adults not on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Botswana over 18 months. A cohort study in asymptomatic, ART-naïve, HIV+ adults included 217 participants, 139 with BMI of 18·0–24·9 kg/m2 and seventy-eight participants with BMI≥25 kg/m2. The primary outcome was time to event (≥25 % decrease in cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell count) during 18 months of follow-up; secondary outcomes were time to event of CD4 cell count<250 cells/µl and AIDS-defining conditions. Proportional survival hazard models were used to compare hazard ratios (HR) on time to events of HIV disease progression over 18 months. Higher baseline BMI was associated with significantly lower risk of an AIDS-defining condition during the follow-up (HR 0·218; 95 % CI 0·068, 0·701; P=0·011). Higher fat mass at baseline was also significantly associated with decreased risk of AIDS-defining conditions during the follow-up (HR 0·855; 95 % CI 0·741, 0·987; P=0·033) and the combined outcome of having CD4 cell count≤250/µl and AIDS-defining conditions, whichever occurred earlier (HR 0·918; 95 % CI 0·847, 0·994; P=0·036). All models were adjusted for covariates. Higher BMI and fat mass among the HIV-infected, ART-naïve participants were associated with slower disease progression. Mechanistic research is needed to evaluate the association between BMI, fat mass and HIV disease progression.
In orthodox dynamo theory (Stix, 1976), the two basic processes, generation of toroidal from poloidal field and conversion of toroidal into reversed poloidal field, are both located in the high β regime convection zone. Generation requires that regime, since its function demands it be driven by mechanical forces. But the function and therefore the operating requirements of conversion are entirely different, and there seems to be no à priori reason, other than historical tradition coupled with failure to recognize those differences, for the assumption that conversion must also operate there. Conversion transforms the topological structure of generated flux by altering the field line connectivity, so that the principal task performed is reconnection. Reconnection is a spontaneous process which must compress and accelerate plasma if any is present. Obviously it must perform much more work in the high β convection zone than in the low β solar atmosphere. It seems natural, therefore, to expect the reconnection aspect of conversion to be located there, where the least work needs to be performed. To transfer the generated flux there, we may add to conversion another spontaneous process: eruption of bipolar structure (Parker, 1955). To transfer the reconnected flux back down, we add to generation another mechanically driven process called topological pumping (Drobyshevski and Yuferev, 1974). Topological pumping depends on the diamagnetic effect of eddy-motion (Wiess, 1966), the kind possessed by supergranulation: 3-dimensional arrangement of isolated rising plumes, surrounded by a continuous network of descending sheet-like flow. In the two-level dynamo presented here, conversion may be observed directly, since we expect it to express itself in terms of all forms of solar activity: sunspots, flares, faculae, filaments, coronal structures including coronal holes, etc., and their organization and evolution in a “solar meteorology”. It is clearly important to investigate a model that thus unites the two disciplines of solar activity and dynamo theory. Each strengthens the other and brings a greater unity to solar physics.
To prospectively examine whether negative life events (NLE) and low perceived coping efficacy (CE) increase the risk for the onset of various forms of psychopathology and low CE mediates the associations between NLE and incident mental disorders.
A representative community sample of adolescents and young adults (N = 3017, aged 14–24 at baseline) was prospectively followed up in up to three assessment waves over 10 years. Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders were assessed at each wave using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. NLE and CE were assessed at baseline with the Munich Event List and the Scale for Self-Control and Coping Skills. Associations (odds ratios, OR) of NLE and CE at baseline with incident mental disorders at follow-up were estimated using logistic regressions adjusted for sex and age.
NLE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.02–1.09 per one NLE more). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, merely the associations of NLE with any anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia and any substance use disorder remained significant (OR 1.02–1.07). Low CE at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, generalised anxiety disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs at follow-up (OR 1.16–1.72 per standard deviation). When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, only the associations of low CE with any depression, major depressive episodes, dysthymia, any substance use disorder, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs remained significant (OR 1.15–1.64). Low CE explained 9.46, 13.39, 12.65 and 17.31% of the associations between NLE and any disorder, any depression, major depressive episodes and dysthymia, respectively. When adjusting for any other lifetime disorder prior to baseline, the reductions in associations for any depression (9.77%) and major depressive episodes (9.40%) remained significant, while the reduction in association for dysthymia was attenuated to non-significance (p-value > 0.05).
Our findings suggest that NLE and low perceived CE elevate the risk for various incident mental disorders and that low CE partially mediates the association between NLE and incident depression. Subjects with NLE might thus profit from targeted early interventions strengthening CE to prevent the onset of depression.