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Tick-borne apicomplexan haemoparasites infect wild and domestic animals, but studies on their distribution among free-living animals are comparatively fewer. Tissues from 241 wild carnivores of eight Mustelidae, two Canidae, one Viverridae and one Felidae species were collected in Northern Spain, and analysed by real-time PCR targeting the 18S rRNA gene and sequencing. Babesia vulpes (formerly known as Theileria annae) was the only piroplasm detected in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). Badgers (Meles meles) were shown to harbour two novel Babesia sp. sequence types (A and B) that only shared 96.7% homology between them and were closely related (ca. 97–98%) to, but distinct from B. vulpes and other babesia from carnivores. Analysis of PCR-derived sequences also revealed the presence of Cystoisospora sp. and Hepatozoon sp. in badgers and showed that wild cats (Felis silvestris catus) were infected with Cytauxzoon sp. Forty-two per cent of the animals subjected to a detailed external examination were parasitized by ixodid ticks, being Ixodes hexagonus and Ixodes ricinus the most abundant species. This study provided novel data on the different haemoparasites that can infect European wild carnivores and showed that they can be hosts for a range of haemoparasites and pose a potential risk for transmission to domestic animals.
This paper deals with a fully-coupled thermoelastic problem, in a heterogeneous medium, arising from the metallurgical industry. The aim is to prove regularity properties of the solution with respect to space and time. Regularity in space is obtained by means of regularity properties for elliptic operators. In order to prove regularity in time, a mathematical induction technique, together with an existence and uniqueness result for this type of problems, is applied.
The aim of this article is to study the existence and uniqueness of solution for a quasistatic fully coupled thermoelastic problem arising from some metallurgical processes. We consider mixed boundary conditions for both submodels, and a Robin boundary condition for the thermal one. Furthermore, the reference temperature, the thermal conductivity and the Lamé's parameters are assumed to depend on the material point.
The aim of this work is to present a computationally efficient algorithm to simulate the
deformations suffered by a viscoplastic body in a solidification process. This type of
problems involves a nonlinearity due to the considered thermo-elastic-viscoplastic law. In
our previous papers, this difficulty has been solved by means of a duality method, known
as Bermúdez–Moreno algorithm, involving a multiplier which was computed with a fixed point
algorithm or a Newton method. In this paper, we will improve the former algorithms by
means of a generalized duality method with variable parameters and we will present
numerical results showing the applicability of the resultant algorithm to solidification
processes. Furthermore, we will describe a numerical procedure to choose a constant
parameter for the Bermúdez–Moreno algorithm which gives good results when it is applied to
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was isolated from post mortem specimens from 13 out of 58 patients with pneumonia diagnosed at autopsy. The results of a study undertaken in the hospital environment showed that the water plumbing system was colonized with L. pneumophila serogroup 1 which could also be isolated from respiratory devices filled with tap water. Control measures instituted are described.
Wildlife can act as reservoir of different tick-borne pathogens of veterinary and zoonotic importance. To investigate the role of wild ruminants as reservoir of piroplasm infection, 28 red deer, 69 roe deer and 38 chamois from Northern Spain were examined by reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The survey detected a prevalence of 85·7% in red deer, 62·3% in roe deer and 28·9% in chamois. Four different piroplasms were identified: Theileria sp. OT3 (previously described in sheep) as the most prevalent (85·7% in red deer, 46·4% in roe deer and 26·3% in chamois); Theileria sp. 3185/02 (previously described in a red deer in Central Spain) more abundant in red deer (53·6%) than in roe deer (10·1%) but absent from chamois; Babesia divergens detected in 6 roe deer; Theileria ovis present in 1 chamois. Mixed infections (Theileria sp. OT3 and Theileria sp. 3185/02) were only found in red and roe deer. Sequencing analysis of the 18S rRNA gene confirmed the RLB results and showed 99·7% identity between Theileria sp. 3185/02 and T. capreoli, suggesting that they are the same species. Tick distribution and contact of wild ruminants with domestic animals are discussed in terms of piroplasm infection. The results suggest that a considerable number of wildlife ruminants are asymptomatic carriers that may serve as reservoirs of the infection posing a serious concern in terms of piroplasmosis control.
The distribution of sorbed arsenic(V) among different geochemical fractions for arsenic(V)-loaded red mud, an oxide-rich residue from bauxite refining that has been proposed as an adsorbent for arsenic, was studied as a function of sorbed arsenic(V) concentration using a sequential extraction procedure. The release of previously sorbed arsenic(V) was also studied as a function of pH and arsenic(V) concentration. Most sorbed arsenic(V) (0.39–7.86 mmol kg–1) was associated with amorphous and crystalline Al and Fe oxides (24.1–43.8% and 24.7–59.0% of total sorbed arsenic, respectively). Exchangeable arsenic was the smallest fraction (0.4–5.2% of total sorbed arsenic). The distribution of sorbed arsenic(V) was related to the arsenic surface coverage. For arsenic surface coverages >∼30% the percentage of arsenic(V) associated with the amorphous Al oxide fraction increased and that associated with the crystalline oxide fraction decreased. The arsenic(V) exchangeable fraction increased from 1.4 to 756 μmol kg–1 as surface coverage increased from 388 to 7855 μmol kg–1. The release of sorbed arsenic(V) from red mud was greater at alkaline pH values (maximum release of ∼33% of previously sorbed arsenic at pH = 12), but for high arsenic(V) initial concentration (0.2 mM arsenic) considerable amounts of arsenic (6.5% of previously sorbed arsenic) were released at pH 4, in accordance with the dissolution of amorphous Al oxides in the red mud. The results obtained suggest a greater mobility of sorbed arsenic(V) as its surface concentration approaches saturation.
The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) includes several pathogens of veterinary and human medical importance. An understanding of the diversity of Anaplasma major surface proteins (MSPs), including those MSPs that modulate infection, development of persistent infections, and transmission of pathogens by ticks, is derived in part, by characterization and phylogenetic analyses of geographic strains. Information concerning the genetic diversity of Anaplasma spp. MSPs will likely influence the development of serodiagnostic assays and vaccine strategies for the control of anaplasmosis.
The adsorption and desorption of Hg(II) by humic acid (HA) previously adsorbed on kaolin was studied. In the range of HA concentration investigated (0.0 –26.9 mg g–1), the Hg(II) adsorption capacity of kaolin at pH 4 is enhanced by the presence of HA. For the complexes with the highest HA concentration and for low Hg(II) initial concentrations, adsorption was lower, i.e. as HA concentration on the complexes increases, Hg(II) equilibrium concentration also increases. This behaviour is due to the increasing presence of dissolved organic matter as the HA concentration on the complexes increases. The dissolved organic matter is able to form a soluble complex with Hg, thus decreasing adsorption. Hg(II) adsorption from a 2.5×10–5 MHg(II) solution was influenced by pH. For kaolin, a pHmax (pH where maximum adsorption occurs) of 4.5 was observed. At pH values >pHmax retention decreased with increasing pH. This same behaviour was observed for the kaolin- HA complex containing the lowest HA concentration (6.6 mg g –1). For the other kaolin-HA complexes there was little effect of pH on Hg(II) adsorption between pH 2.5 and pH 6.5. The presence of HA increased the adsorption of Hg(II) on kaolin all along the pH range studied. Desorption experiments showed that the amount of Hg(II) desorbed was quite low (<1%) for all the HA and Hg(II) concentration range studied, except for the kaolin at acid pH (pH 2.5) where the Hg(II) released was >50% of Hg(II) previously adsorbed. The presence of HA dramatically reduced this percentage of desorption to values of <3%, indicating reduced risk of toxicity problems in surface and subsurface waters. The addition of Cu(II) did not favour any Hg(II) desorption, even though Cu exhibits a strong affinity for organic matter.
In order to estimate the risks of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) in an endemic area for Lyme disease in the North of Spain (La Rioja), we collected and investigated by PCR specific to the E. phagocytophila group DNA, a total of 6870 Ixodes ricinus ticks. We also used an indirect immunofluorescence (IFI) test to study the presence of antibodies to the HGE agent in 147 human serum samples including patients with Lyme disease (LD), forestry workers, and persons with history of previous tick bite. Fifty serum samples from healthy people resident in urban areas and with no history of tick-bite disorder and without tick exposure were used as controls. Four of 76 adults and 49 of 203 nymphs pools carried E. phagocytophila DNA. This result, and the finding of 1·4% of sera reacting in the IFI test confirms that this tick-borne agent is present in La Rioja, and that humans show evidence of contact with it. HGE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flu-like syndromes in the study area in the north of Spain.
Although it is generally agreed that Fe and Al can act to bind soil particles, their relative efficiencies as aggregants are still disputed. In this work, the aggregating efficiencies of both aged and non-aged Fe and Al oxides precipitated on kaolin or quartz substrates were characterized by comparing their effects on particle size distributions (PSD). To facilitate comparison of PSD data, these were parameterized by fitting them with five different probability density functions (the normal, lognormal, Jaky, fractal and Rosin-Rammler functions). The best fits were given by the Rosin-Rammler function (R2 = 0.997), whose α parameter was used to compare the aggregating efficiency of Fe and Al oxides: in order of decreasing efficiency, non-aged Al > non-aged Fe ≈ aged Fe > aged Al-precipitates.
Among the limitations of the classical methods for measuring stresses by X-ray diffraction, the existence of stress gradients constitutes a particularly delicate problem. On the theoretical plane, this problem has been tackled by Dölle, Hauk and Cohen. These authors showed that whilst the gradients of the shear stresses σ13 and σ23+ are relatively easy to bring to the fore, as their presence is reflected in an opening out of the curves for 2θ ϕ ψ =f (sin2ψ), those of the direct stresses σ11, σ22 an σ33 are very difficult to detect. In the latter case it is demonstrated that even when the gradients attain very high values, the curves of 2θ ϕ ψ =f (sin2ψ) remain practically linear. This may invite one to apply the classical sin2ψ law, with the result that the stress values so determined do not correspond with the real mechanical state of the surface of the specimen.
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