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Cahokia is the largest documented urban settlement in the pre-Columbian United States. Archaeological evidence suggests that the city, located near what is now East St. Louis, Illinois, began to rapidly expand starting around AD 1050. At its height, Cahokia extended across 1000 ha and included large plazas, timber palisade walls, and hundreds of monumental earthen mounds. Following several centuries of occupation, the city experienced a period of gradual abandonment from about AD 1200 to 1400. Here, we present geochemical data from a 1500-year-old sediment core from nearby Horseshoe Lake that records watershed impacts associated with the growth and decline of Cahokia. Sedimentary analysis shows a distinctive 24-cm-thick, gray, fine-grained layer formed between AD 1150 and 1220 and characterized by low carbonate δ13C, elevated sorbed metal concentrations, and higher organic matter δ15N. The deposition of this layer is contemporaneous with archaeological evidence of increased agricultural activity, earthen mound construction, and higher populations surrounding the lake. We hypothesize that these human impacts increased soil erosion, producing new sediment sources from deeper soil horizons, and shifted dissolved transport to the lake, producing lower carbonate δ13C values, higher concentrations of lead, copper, potassium, and aluminum, and increased δ15N, likely due to contributions of enriched nitrogen from sewage.
This chapter reviews the state of our knowledge about Saturn’s polar atmosphere that has been revealed through Earth- and space-based observation as well as theoretical and numerical modeling. In particular, the Cassini mission to Saturn, which has been in orbit around the ringed planet since 2004, has revolutionized our understanding of the planet. The current review updates a previous review by Del Genio et al. (2009), written after Cassini’s primary mission phase that ended in 2008, by focusing on the north polar region of Saturn and comparing it to the southern high latitudes. Two prominent features in the northern high latitudes are the northern hexagon and the north polar vortex; we extensively review observational and theoretical investigations to date of both features. We also review the seasonal evolution of the polar regions using the observational data accumulated during the Cassini mission since 2004 (shortly after the northern winter solstice in 2002), through the equinox in 2009, and approaching the next solstice in 2017. We conclude the current review by listing unanswered questions and describing the observations of the polar regions planned for the Grand Finale phase of the Cassini mission between 2016 and 2017.
Two new species of Oreocharis, O. tribracteata and O. rufescens, are described and a key to the species in Vietnam is provided. The new species have distinct features not previously, or rarely, observed in the genus, both showing the partial fusion of the calyx lobes into a tube, and the presence of three bracts in Oreocharis tribracteata.
Children with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.
Materials and methods
We sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry. The primary outcome was the occurrence of any tracheal-intubation-associated event. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events, multiple intubation attempts, and oxygen desaturation.
A total of 8851 intubations were reported between July, 2012 and March, 2016. Cardiac patients were younger, more likely to have haemodynamic instability, and less likely to have respiratory failure as an indication. The overall frequency of tracheal-intubation-associated events was not different (cardiac: 17% versus non-cardiac: 16%, p=0.13), nor was the rate of severe tracheal-intubation-associated events (cardiac: 7% versus non-cardiac: 6%, p=0.11). Tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest occurred more often in cardiac patients (2.80 versus 1.28%; p<0.001), even after adjusting for patient and provider differences (adjusted odds ratio 1.79; p=0.03). Multiple intubation attempts occurred less often in cardiac patients (p=0.04), and oxygen desaturations occurred more often, even after excluding patients with cyanotic heart disease.
The overall incidence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in cardiac patients was not different from that in non-cardiac patients. However, the presence of a cardiac diagnosis was associated with a higher occurrence of both tracheal-intubation-associated cardiac arrest and oxygen desaturation.
One view of major Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is that these (proton-dominated) fluxes are accelerated in heliospheric shock sources created by Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), and then travel mainly along interplanetary magnetic field lines connecting the shock(s) to the observer(s). This places a particular emphasis on the role of the heliospheric conditions during the event, requiring a realistic description of the latter to interpret and/or model SEP events. The well-known ENLIL heliospheric simulation with cone model generated ICME shocks is used together with the SEPMOD particle event modeling scheme to demonstrate the value of applying these concepts at multiple inner heliosphere sites.
We determine the age of 7 stars in the Ursa Major moving group using a novel method that models the fundamental parameters of rapidly rotating A-stars based on interferometric observations and literature photometry and compares these parameters (namely, radius, luminosity, and rotation velocity) with evolution models that account for rotation. We find these stars to be coeval, thus providing an age estimate for the moving group and validating this technique. With this technique validated, we determine the age of the rapidly rotating, directly imaged planet host star, κ Andromedae.
Background: Individuals with bipolar disorder often endorse dysfunctional beliefs consistent with cognitive models of bipolar disorder (Beck, 1976; Mansell, 2007). Aims: The present study sought to assess whether young adult offspring of those with bipolar disorder would also endorse these beliefs, independent of their own mood episode history. Method: Participants (N = 89) were young adult college students with a parent with bipolar disorder (n = 27), major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 30), or no mood disorder (n = 32). Semi-structured interviews of the offspring were used to assess diagnoses. Dysfunctional beliefs related to Beck and colleagues’ (2006) and Mansell's (2007) cognitive models were assessed. Results: Unlike offspring of parents with MDD or no mood disorder, those with a parent with bipolar disorder endorsed significantly more dysfunctional cognitions associated with extreme appraisal of mood states, even after controlling for their own mood diagnosis. Once affected by a bipolar or depressive disorder, offspring endorsed dysfunctional cognitions across measures. Conclusions: Dysfunctional cognitions, particularly those related to appraisals of mood states and their potential consequences, are evident in young adults with a parent who has bipolar disorder and may represent targets for psychotherapeutic intervention.
The Millimetre Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz (MALT90) survey aims to characterise the physical and chemical evolution of high-mass star-forming clumps. Exploiting the unique broad frequency range and on-the-fly mapping capabilities of the Australia Telescope National Facility Mopra 22 m single-dish telescope1, MALT90 has obtained 3′ × 3′ maps towards ~2 000 dense molecular clumps identified in the ATLASGAL 870 μm Galactic plane survey. The clumps were selected to host the early stages of high-mass star formation and to span the complete range in their evolutionary states (from prestellar, to protostellar, and on to
regions and photodissociation regions). Because MALT90 mapped 16 lines simultaneously with excellent spatial (38 arcsec) and spectral (0.11 km s−1) resolution, the data reveal a wealth of information about the clumps’ morphologies, chemistry, and kinematics. In this paper we outline the survey strategy, observing mode, data reduction procedure, and highlight some early science results. All MALT90 raw and processed data products are available to the community. With its unprecedented large sample of clumps, MALT90 is the largest survey of its type ever conducted and an excellent resource for identifying interesting candidates for high-resolution studies with ALMA.
The hen's egg, in the form of table eggs and egg products, forms a staple part of the world's total protein consumption. In the last century, there has been considerable research effort focusing on ways of improving egg production and enhancing the quality of eggs. More recently, and with the development and application of new molecular technologies, our understanding and knowledge of how an egg is formed, what it actually consists of, in terms of its major versus minor components, and what the functional roles of each of these components might be, have been greatly enhanced. For example, new previously unknown molecules with specific activity or functional properties have been discovered in the egg albumen and yolk, some of which have potential uses in pharmaceutical and other food related applications. This review paper, which is the collaborative effort of members of Working Group 4 - Quality of Eggs and Egg Products - of the European Federation of WPSA, describes the scientific research behind a number of these major advances and provides some insight to the focus of current research in this area.
Since the recent upgrades to the Australia Telescope National Facility (ATNF) Mopra telescope back-end and receiver system, it has risen from an under-subscribed facility to a sought-after instrument with heavy international competition to gain time. Furthermore, the introduction of the on-the-fly mapping capability in 2004 has made this technique one of Mopra's most popular observing modes. In addition, the recent upgrade of the NANTEN millimetre-wavelength telescope to the sub-millimetre NANTEN2 instrument, has provided a complementary, higher-frequency facility to Mopra. A two-day workshop was held at Swinburne University in June 2008 to disseminate the current state of ongoing large-scale mapping projects and associated spin-offs that the telescopes' upgrades have facilitated, and to decide upon future research directions. Here, we provide a summary of the result-oriented talks as a record of the state of Australian-access single-dish millimetre science in 2008.
Cereals and legumes are staple foods in India and are limiting in lysine and sulphur amino acids, respectively. Available lysine loss, due to Maillard-type reactions that may occur during food preparation, exacerbates the problem of lysine deficiency particularly in cereals. Consequently, determining the contents of digestible essential amino acids, particularly lysine, is important. True ileal digestibilities of most amino acids (including total and reactive lysine) were determined for ten food ingredients and eleven foods commonly consumed in India. Semi-synthetic diets each containing either an ingredient or the prepared food as the sole protein source were formulated to contain 100 g kg− 1 protein (75 g kg− 1 for rice-based diets) and fed to growing rats. Titanium dioxide was included as an indigestible marker. Digesta were collected and the amino acid content (including reactive lysine) of diets and ileal digesta determined. Available (digestible reactive) lysine content ranged from 1·9–15·4 g kg− 1 and 1·8–12·7 g kg− 1 across the ingredients and prepared foods respectively. True ileal amino acid digestibility varied widely both across ingredients and prepared foods for each amino acid (on average 60–92 %) and across amino acids within each ingredient and prepared food (overall digestibility 31–96 %). Amino acid digestibility was low for many of the ingredients and prepared foods and consequently digestibility must be considered when assessing the protein quality of poorer quality foods. Given commonly encountered daily energy intakes for members of the Indian population, it is estimated that lysine is limiting for adults in many Indian diets.
This paper addresses food safety in beef cattle production, with particular emphasis on factors that affect the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in beef cattle and on control methods that have been investigated. Product recalls and foodborne diseases due to this organism continue to occur even though control measures have been under investigation for over 20 years. Most meatborne outbreaks are due to improper food handling practices and consumption of undercooked meat. However, the majority of pathogenic bacteria that can spread at slaughter by cross-contamination can be traced back to the farm rather than originating from the slaughter plant. This would ideally require the adoption of rigorous on-farm intervention strategies to mitigate risks at the farm level. On-farm strategies to control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 at the farm level will reduce the risk of carcass contamination at slaughter and processing facilities although they will not eliminate E. coli O157:H7. The most successful strategy for reducing the risk of contamination of beef and beef products will involve the implementation of both pre- and post-harvest measures.
This article describes a number of velocity-based moving mesh numerical methods for multidimensional nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations (PDEs). It consists of a short historical review followed by a detailed description of a recently developed multidimensional moving mesh finite element method based on conservation. Finite element algorithms are derived for both mass-conserving and non mass-conserving problems, and results shown for a number of multidimensional nonlinear test problems, including the second order porous medium equation and the fourth order thin film equation as well as a two-phase problem. Further applications and extensions are referenced.