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A national need is to prepare for and respond to accidental or intentional disasters categorized as chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or explosive (CBRNE). These incidents require specific subject-matter expertise, yet have commonalities. We identify 7 core elements comprising CBRNE science that require integration for effective preparedness planning and public health and medical response and recovery. These core elements are (1) basic and clinical sciences, (2) modeling and systems management, (3) planning, (4) response and incident management, (5) recovery and resilience, (6) lessons learned, and (7) continuous improvement. A key feature is the ability of relevant subject matter experts to integrate information into response operations. We propose the CBRNE medical operations science support expert as a professional who (1) understands that CBRNE incidents require an integrated systems approach, (2) understands the key functions and contributions of CBRNE science practitioners, (3) helps direct strategic and tactical CBRNE planning and responses through first-hand experience, and (4) provides advice to senior decision-makers managing response activities. Recognition of both CBRNE science as a distinct competency and the establishment of the CBRNE medical operations science support expert informs the public of the enormous progress made, broadcasts opportunities for new talent, and enhances the sophistication and analytic expertise of senior managers planning for and responding to CBRNE incidents.
A physics-based snow model has been calibrated using data collected at Halley Bay, Antarctica, during the International Geophysical Year. Variations in snow temperature and density are well-simulated using values for the model parameters within the range reported from other polar field experiments. The effect of uncertainty in the parameter values on the accuracy of the predictions is no greater than the effect of instrumental error in the input data. Thus, this model can be used with parameters determined a priori rather than by optimization. The model has been validated using an independent data set from Halley Bay and then used to estimate 10 m temperatures on the Antarctic Peninsula plateau over the last half-century.
Introduction: Although tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) is key to tobacco control, there continues to be a shortage of services in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). Barriers to offering services include the lack of training and education.
Aims: To create a network of healthcare providers (HCPs) capable of advancing TDT, King Hussein Cancer Center – the regional host for Global Bridges in the EMR – developed, implemented, and evaluated a regional TDT training programme.
Methods: The programme employed a predisposing–enabling–reinforcing framework, and utilised a combination of learning techniques. The evidence-informed curriculum aimed to influence knowledge, confidence, and competence, and the evaluation mechanism was aligned with these aims.
Results and discussion: Training produced a 37% and 23% gain in knowledge and TDT-specific competencies, respectively. The majority of participants reported that the workshops enhanced confidence, and 72% reported intentions for positive change. Participants rated the workshops highly, and anticipated value from joining Global Bridges network. Immediate outcomes indicate success in advancing participants’ self-efficacy and readiness to treat. Intentions for positive change may potentially be the first step in modifying practice.
Conclusion: Capacity building in TDT could be the first step in meeting the need for trained HCPs through positively influencing knowledge, confidence, competence, and intentions.
We present our findings on structural features and trends observed in single crystal structural studies for a series of oligothiophene and ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) molecules substituted with bromo and tricyanovinyl groups. The presence of a C=C bridge as well as the introduction of n-butyl solubilizing groups are also addressed. Focus of the work will be on how these structural modifications, in particular, how inter- and intra- molecular interactions impact planarity and packing of molecules in the observed crystal structures.
Existing literature on aggression within psychiatric hospitals suggests that treating an aggressive patient’s symptoms could be complemented by (a) milieu environments that mitigate violence and (b) hospital-wide policies and procedures that focus on creating a safe environment. Described as an ecological approach, examples of how this broader, situational approach can reduce inpatient violence in psychiatric settings are provided throughout. The authors identify potential barriers to focusing on wards and institutional rules as well as patient treatment. Last, details of how this ecological approach has been implemented at one state hospital in California are provided.
Here we provide comprehensive guidelines for the assessment and treatment of violence and aggression of various etiologies, including psychotic aggression and impulsive aggression due to schizophrenia, mood disorders, ADHD, or trauma, and predatory aggression due to psychopathy and other personality disorders. These guidelines have been developed from a collection of prescribing recommendations, clinical trial results, and years of clinical experience in treating patients who are persistently violent or aggressive in the California Department of State Hospital System. Many of the recommendations provided in these guidelines employ off-label prescribing practices; thus, sound clinical judgment based on individual patient needs and according to institution formularies must be considered when applying these guidelines in clinical practice.
In this work, we report the results of solid state structural study of a series of oligothiophenes and ethylenedioxythiophenes (EDOT) endowed with bromine atoms at different positions and in the presence/absence of the strong electron acceptor, the tricyanovinyl group (TCV). Five new compounds were synthesized, crystallized and their single crystal structures were determined by X-ray diffraction. The impact of bromine atom(s) on solid state packing as viewed through analysis of intermolecular interactions is presented. Comparative study using experimental, computed and published data of closely related structures shows intra-molecular interactions involving Br in the presence of TCV and EDOT. Distances shorter that the summation of the Van der Waals radii were observed which indicate the role of Br…NC, S…S and Br…Br interactions in addition to pi stack formation and planarity of these compounds due to the presence of strong electron acceptors. Possible implications of how these structural features may impact charge transport in oligothiophenes will be discussed.
Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974) is recognized as a classic of modern political philosophy. In tandem with John Rawls's A Theory of Justice (1971), it is widely credited with breathing new life into political philosophy in the second half of the twentieth century. It effectively moved libertarianism from a relatively unimportant subset of political philosophy to the center of the discipline.
Anarchy, State, and Utopia (ASU) was written whilst Nozick was a fellow at the Center for the Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences in Stanford during the academic year of 1971-972. It constitutes the combination of three separate projects that Nozick was working on at that time. Part I is based on a talk concerned with how a state would arise out of the state of nature that Nozick presented to a student group at Stanford, whilst also incorporating some of the ideas developed in his 1971 paper “On the Randian Argument.” Part II primarily results from his engagement with John Rawls's theory of justice, which led to the formulation of the entitlement theory of justice, much of which Nozick developed whilst co-teaching a course on capitalism and socialism at Harvard with Michael Walzer. Part III , in turn, derives from Nozick's contribution to a panel on utopia at a meeting of the American Philosophical Association. Although Nozick initially wanted to work on the problem of free will whilst at Stanford, he instead ended up combining these three projects, yielding ASU.
Having argued in Parts I and II of Anarchy, State, and Utopia (ASU) that a minimal state is justified and that no state more extensive than the minimal state is legitimate, Nozick attempts to establish in Part III that the minimal state is an inspiring meta-utopia which we should strive to realize. Nozick's discussion of utopia and his argument to the effect that the minimal state is a framework for utopia is important for three overarching reasons. First, it constitutes a fascinating and underappreciated investigation into utopian theorizing. Second, it provides us with an account of the features that a Nozickian society is likely to exhibit, thereby enhancing our understanding of the positive vision underlying Nozick's project. Third, it is meant to constitute an independent argument for the minimal state that does not rely on any moral considerations, in particular an argument that does not rely on Nozick's controversial theory of individual rights (see p. 309 fn. and p. 333). The results of the different parts of ASU are meant to converge from different starting points on the same end point, namely a minimal state. This means that even if Nozick’s libertarianism should turn out to be lacking a solid moral foundation, as has frequently been raised as an objection, his argument that the minimal state is a meta-utopia would still have to be reckoned with, which means that it is not possible to circumvent Nozick’s defense of the minimal state by simply rejecting his theory of individual rights.
Robert Nozick's Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974) is recognised as a classic of modern political philosophy. Along with John Rawls's A Theory of Justice (1971), it is widely credited with breathing new life into the discipline in the second half of the twentieth century. This Companion presents a balanced and comprehensive assessment of Nozick's contribution to political philosophy. In engaging and accessible chapters, the contributors analyse Nozick's ideas from a variety of perspectives and explore neglected areas of the work such as his discussion of anarchism and his theory of utopia. Their detailed and illuminating picture of Anarchy, State, and Utopia, its impact and its enduring influence will be invaluable to students and scholars in both political philosophy and political theory.