X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis were used in combination to identify reaction phases that formed on the surfaces of low-carbon steel specimens reacted with a 75% basalt-25% bentonite mixture and anion-doped water in sealed pressure vessels at 100°C and 250°C. Reaction phases on specimen surfaces and in adhering geologic material were identified by conventional X-ray diffraction scans of entire specimens with intact reaction layers. Comparison of results from adhering geologic material and scans of selectively removed layers allowed establishment of approximate reaction gradients in the adhering packing material. Electron microprobe analysis of specimens in cross-section provided quantitative chemical analyses of adhering reaction phases, and identification of reaction layer composition gradients and thicknesses. Magnetite formed on the surface of specimens reacted at 250°C for 4 weeks. Iron-enriched clay was also observed on specimen surfaces and in the adjacent basalt-bentonite mixture. The 100°C experiments yielded surface films of a siderite-structure phase, (Fe,Ca,Mn)CO3, that were not observed in previous experiments with synthetic ground-water. Less extensive iron enrichment of the adjacent clays compared to that seen in the 250°C experiments was observed. The siderite-structure phase generally formed when no carbonate ion was present in the initial solution, implying dissolution of impurity calcite in the bentonite as the controlling factor in the reaction. The results demonstrate the utility of combining X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analysis for characterization of reaction phases on alloys reacted with complex geologic materials.