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Indigenous women and children experience some of the most profound health disparities globally. These disparities are grounded in historical and contemporary trauma secondary to colonial atrocities perpetuated by settler society. The health disparities that exist for chronic diseases may have their origins in early-life exposures that Indigenous women and children face. Mechanistically, there is evidence that these adverse exposures epigenetically modify genes associated with cardiometabolic disease risk. Interventions designed to support a resilient pregnancy and first 1000 days of life should abrogate disparities in early-life socioeconomic status. Breastfeeding, prenatal care and early child education are key targets for governments and health care providers to start addressing current health disparities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous youth. Programmes grounded in cultural safety and co-developed with communities have successfully reduced health disparities. More works of this kind are needed to reduce inequities in cardiometabolic diseases among Indigenous women and children worldwide.
Widespread concerns regarding the detrimental effects of fat consumption on human health (Department of Health, 1994), have led to a decline in the demand for sheep meat. Concerns are mainly centred around the high saturated fatty acid (FA) content and consequent low polyunsaturated:saturated fatty acid ratio (Enser et al., 1996). This ratio may partly be influenced by diet composition, genetic variation or an interaction of these factors. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effect of different sources of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on performance and muscle fatty acid composition and to determine whether breeds differ in their ability to incorporate n-3 PUFA into muscle lipids.
Background: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) accounts for approximately 20% of pediatric epilepsy cases. Of those, many are considered medically intractable and require surgical interventions. In this study, we hypothesized that mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) was less common in patients who had undergone surgery for intractable pediatric TLE than in adult series. We further hypothesized that there was a radiological and pathological discordance in identifying the cause of pediatric TLE. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of pediatric patients with TLE who had undergone surgical treatments as part of the University of Alberta’s Comprehensive Epilepsy Program between 1988 and 2018. Along with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, post-surgical pathology results and seizure outcomes were studied Results: Of the 83 pediatric patients who had undergone temporal lobe epilepsy surgery, 28% had tumors, 22% had dual pathologies, 18% had MTS, 11% had focal cortical dysplasia, and 22% had other pathologies. In addition, for 36% of these patients, discordance between their pre-surgical MRI reports and post-surgical pathology reports were found. Conclusions: This was one of the largest retrospective cohort studies of pediatric patients who had undergone surgery for intractable TLE. This study showed that tumors, and not MTS, were the most common pathology in surgical pediatric TLE.
Prolonged periods of stress have been associated with impaired immune function; the experiment reported here investigates a potential link between level of metabolic load and immune function in lactating dairy cattle. A group of 111 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows was used. The cows belonged to one of two genetic lines: a selection line (S) with high genetic merit for fat plus protein yield and an unselected control line (C). The cows were offered one of two silage-based total mixed diets containing either 200 g (LC) or 450 g (HC) of concentrate per kg dry matter. Combination of genetic selection and food gave four groups: S-LC, S-HC, C-LC and C-HC. All cows were inoculated with a live attenuated BHV-1 vaccine soon after parturition and the primary antibody response in whey monitored. The number of BHV-1 antibody positive cows was not significantly different between the four groups; but, the initial antibody response was lower in cows of high genetic merit which were given a low concentrate diet. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the contribution of diet to this effect was highly significant. One year later, again after parturition, the experiment was repeated, this time using serum as the test sample. The average antibody response of the BHV-1 antibody positive cows was not significantly different between the four groups but the number of antibody positive cows was group-dependent. In conclusion, diet type but not genetic merit for high fat plus protein yield made a highly significant contribution to the antibody response of dairy cows to BHV-1 vaccination, both initially and a year later.
Trans-10, cis-12 CLA is produced as an intermediary during the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6) in the rumen and has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis in ruminants. The production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in the rumen is affected by dietary concentrate: forage ratio (Kucuk et al., 2001), rumen pH and the amount and source of linoleic acid in the diet. However, the interaction between oil source, carbohydrate source and pH on the production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA is unclear (Beam et al., 2000). The objectives of the current study were to determine the effects of oil source, carbohydrate source and pH on the biohydrogenation of linoleic acid and production of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in vitro.
Trans- 10, cis- 12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a biohydrogenation intermediate produced in the rumen, is a potent inhibitor of milk fat synthesis. Data from a number of studies where various doses of trans -10, cis -12 CLA have been abomasally infused demonstrate a curvilinear relationship between the percent reduction in milk fat yield and both the dose of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA infused and the milk fat content of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA. In addition to a reduction in milk fat output, under some circumstances an increase in milk yield and milk protein output are observed. To date, there has been no examination of the effects of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA on milk fat synthesis in lactating sheep. The current study was therefore designed to determine if trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA would inhibit milk fat synthesis in lactating sheep. In order to test the effectiveness of trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA in inhibiting milk fat synthesis we used a lipid-encapsulated trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA supplement (LE-CLA) as a means to provide the trans- 10, cis- 12 CLA isomer post-ruminally.
Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is a debilitating disorder (1). Based on neuromotor impairments it is divided to spastic, dyskinetic and ataxic types (2). Inborn Errors of Metabolism (IEMs), monogenic and chromosomal disorders mimic CP (3). We aimed to identify causal genetic variants in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP in whom known IEMs were ruled out. Timely diagnosis is essential for proper management, especially in conditions that mimic CP and are treatable. Methods: We enrolled 23 patients with unexplained atypical dyskinetic CP, for whole exome sequencing. Variants were filtered against public and in-house databases to identify variants predicted as damaging (in silico tools and ACMG criteria). We applied a virtual gene panel of known and suspected CP and movement disorder genes and investigated each sample. Results: The participants presented with symptoms including: spasticity, dystonia, choera-athetosis, ataxia and cognitive delays. We identified 23 diagnoses: 13 dominant,6 recessive and 4 X-linked. 12 patients had movement disorders. In 4, the diagnoses enabled targeted treatment (neurotransmitter supplements in Unverricht Lundborg diseases (CSTB) and PAK3 deficiency, deep brain stimulation in GNAO1 deficiency, medical diet in Glutaric Aciduria (GCDH). Conclusions: Whole Exome Sequencing contributes to establishing diagnosis in patients with atypical dyskinetic CP resulting in precision medicine and improved health outcomes.
Considered as a less hazardous piezoelectric material, potassium sodium niobate (KNN) has been in the fore of the search for replacement of lead (Pb) zirconate titanate for piezoelectrics applications. Here, we challenge the environmental credentials of KNN due to the presence of ~60 wt% Nb2O5, a substance much less toxic to humans than Pb oxide, but whose mining and extraction cause significant environmental damage.
The Southern Hemisphere VLBI Experiment (SHEVE) program is aimed at producing high-resolution images of southern radio sources. The radio telescopes of the present SHEVE array are described below and some recent results presented.
In the aftermath of the global financial crisis, competing measures of the trend in macroeconomic variables such as U.S. real GDP have featured prominently in policy debates. A key question is whether large shocks to macroeconomic variables will have permanent effects—i.e., in econometric terms, do the data contain stochastic trends? Unobserved-components models provide a convenient way to estimate stochastic trends for time series data, with their existence typically motivated by stationarity tests that allow at most a deterministic trend under the null hypothesis. However, given the small sample sizes available for most macroeconomic variables, standard Lagrange multiplier tests of stationarity will perform poorly when the data are highly persistent. To address this problem, we propose the use of a likelihood ratio test of stationarity based directly on the unobserved-components models used in estimation of stochastic trends. We demonstrate that a bootstrap version of this test has far better small-sample properties for empirically relevant data-generating processes than bootstrap versions of the standard Lagrange multiplier tests. An application to U.S. real GDP produces stronger support for the presence of large permanent shocks using the likelihood ratio test than using the standard tests.
Background: Dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs) are benign tumors of the cerebral cortex that most commonly occur in children or young adults. Seizures are a frequent presenting feature, with an incidence of 80-100%, and are often an indication for surgical resection. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of children with DNETs who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1998 and 2014. Results: A total of 12 subjects were identified (6 males, 6 females), all of whom had seizures prior to surgical resection. Of these patients, 1 had infantile spasms, 2 had simple partial seizures and 10 had complex partial seizures. Tumors were located in the temporal (n=7), frontal (n=3) or parietal (n=2) cortex. These patients went on to have surgery on average 15 months after seizure onset, 3 had incomplete resections. At an average follow up of 6 years 4 months, all patients were class 1 on Engel’s Classification. All but one subject with rare non-disabling seizures were seizure free, with only 6 on medication. Follow up MR imaging revealed tumor recurrence in 1 subject. Conclusions: Despite differing seizure seminology and tumor location, surgical resection of these low-grade tumors resulted in excellent seizure outcome even in the setting of incomplete tumor resection.
The effects of low energy ions from a biased electron cyclotron resonance plasma during growth of Al2O3 and La2O3 are used to modify the density and crystalline quality of these oxide films. The type of phase formed for Al2O3 is varied with the ion-assisted growth from amorphous to crystalline γA12O3. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of different Er-doped Al- and La-oxide phases are examined, and through comparison of the PL spectra, the local environment of Er in these oxide materials is discussed.
Recent results on the diffuse scattering from single crystals of Fe1−xO at high temperatures reveal that the defect structure is in striking agreement with embedded cluster calculations by Ellis et al. The dominant defect is an imperfect 7:2 cluster. Mixtures of this and a larger complex (13:4) can explain the electrical properties. XANES studies of this oxide are in agreement with Ellis' theoretical work. However, in both FOx and MnxO it is not possible to use the shift of the cation K absorption edge to characterize valence. In fact in the latter case the shift passes through a minimum, perhaps indicating the onset of clustering.
Evidence for a tetranuclear aluminum oxoalkoxide cluster Al4(μ4-0) (μ2OBμi)5(OBui)6 is presented, drawing on data from X-ray, NMR, MS and other spectroscopie and experimental investigations. In principle, these compounds are derived from the well-authenticated aluminum alkoxide tetramers by hydrolytic loss of only one alkoxy group. They contain a single central oxo ligand and only 5-coordinate aluminum atoms. They are the simplest discrete oxoalkoxide structures so far reported for aluminum and may be helpful in understanding the hydrolysis and condensation steps leading to hydrated aluminum oxide sols and gels.
Transmission Electron Microscopy has been used to study the morphology and defect structure of sharp superconducting transition, high (2-6 ×107 A/cm2) critical current YBa2Cu3O7−δ films on MgO substrates. These were oriented such that the unit cell axes of the film aligned with those of the substrate, with some domains obeying a second orientation relationship rotated by 45° in the plane of the film, i.e. film <110> parallel to substrate <100>. The latter is not expected from simple lattice matching considerations. A strong influence of substrate surface topography on film microstructure was noted, leading to a high density of out-of-phase, low-angle tilt, and other boundaries near the substrate-film interface, which decreased with increasing distance from the substrate. Finally, the effects on film microstructure of two variables of specific interest in our sputtering system were investigated: the thickness of the deposited film, and the temperature at which a high oxygen pressure (500 torr) is introduced after deposition is complete. Increases in film thickness resulted in longer, more widely spaced twins, whereas lower oxygenation temperatures resulted in shorter twins.
We report structural properties of PtFe and PtCo intermetallic compounds with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and a preferred c-axis orientation perpendicular to the film plane, formed from initially epitaxial multilayers. These materials represent particular cases of a more general class of anisotropic magnetic compounds with the CuAu(1) natural superlattice structure. They possess high magneto-optic Kerr rotations and magnetizations, suggesting them as likely candidates for magneto-optic and perpendicular magnetic recording media.
High resolution electron microscopy is used to investigate the effect of electron irradiation induced oxygen loss on the states of partial order in YBa2Cu3Oz. Contrast effects visible in the  zone image as a result of the degree of the out-of-plane correlation of these ordered states are investigated. Using statistical simulations to aid in the analysis of the HREM images, an interpretation based on a kinetically limited evolution of the variation of long range  ordering is proposed.