Field experiments were conducted to investigate the attractiveness of fish bones to predatory ants in a maize agroecosystem. The fish bones were applied crushed in shallow furrows together with dry maize stalks, or broadcast on the soil surface at 3 application rates: 0, 40 and 80 kg/ha; subsequent reduction in termite attack on maize plants was then assessed. Burying the fish bone powder caused higher ant nesting (10–78 %) than surface broadcasting (12–39 %). Attractiveness of the fish bones and the predatory efficiency of the ants against termites in maize was also highest with a dose of 80 kg/ha (1.0 kg/plot) causing higher nesting of ants (>90 %) and 54 % lower termite damage to maize plants compared to control plots. Dose responses indicated significant relationships between amount of fish bone powder applied and termite activity and also between termite damage and maize yield. The mechanism by which the ants are able to protect maize against termite damage may be twofold: direct kill as a result of their predatory action and termite avoidance of maize plants with ant nests. Further studies are required to assess the potential benefits of an integrated use of this technique with other non-chemical options for termite control in maize, such as intercropping.