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One of the major science goals of the SkyMapper survey of the Southern Hemisphere sky is the determination of the shape and extent of the halo of the Galaxy. In this paper, we quantify the likely efficiency and completeness of the survey as regards the detection of RR Lyrae variable stars, which are excellent tracers of the halo stellar population. We have accomplished this via observations of the RR Lyrae-rich globular cluster NGC 3201. We find that for single-epoch uvgri observations followed by two further epochs of g, r imaging, as per the intended three-epoch survey strategy, we recover known RR Lyraes with a completeness exceeding 90%. We also investigate boundaries in the gravity-sensitive single-epoch two-colour diagram that yield high completeness and high efficiency (i.e., minimal contamination by non-RR Lyraes) and the general usefulness of this diagram in separating populations.
HERMES is a new high-resolution multi-object spectrograph on the Anglo Australian Telescope. The primary science driver for HERMES is the GALAH survey, GALactic Archaeology with HERMES. We are planning a spectroscopic survey of about a million stars, aimed at using chemical tagging techniques to reconstruct the star-forming aggregates that built up the disk, the bulge and halo of the Galaxy. This project will benefit greatly from the stellar distances and transverse motions from the Gaia mission.
This paper presents the design and science goals for the SkyMapper telescope. SkyMapper is a 1.3-m telescope featuring a 5.7-square-degree field-of-view Cassegrain imager commissioned for the Australian National University's Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics. It is located at Siding Spring Observatory, Coonabarabran, NSW, Australia and will see first light in late 2007.
The imager possesses 16 384 × 16 384 0.5-arcsec pixels. The primary scientific goal of the facility is to perform the Southern Sky Survey, a six-colour and multi-epoch (four-hour, one-day, one-week, one-month and one-year sampling) photometric survey of the southerly 2π sr to g ∼23 mag. The survey will provide photometry to better than 3% global accuracy and astrometry to better than 50 milliarcsec. Data will be supplied to the community as part of the Virtual Observatory effort. The survey will take five years to complete.
The Dawn spacecraft orbited Asteroid (4) Vesta for a year, and returned disk-resolved images and spectra covering visible and near-infrared wavelengths at scales as high as 20 m/pix. The visible geometric albedo of Vesta is ~ 0.36. The disk-integrated phase function of Vesta in the visible wavelengths derived from Dawn approach data, previous ground-based observations, and Rosetta OSIRIS observations is consistent with an IAU H-G phase law with H=3.2 mag and G=0.28. Hapke's modeling yields a disk-averaged single-scattering albedo of 0.50, an asymmetry factor of -0.25, and a roughness parameter of ~20 deg at 700 nm wavelength. Vesta's surface displays the largest albedo variations observed so far on asteroids, ranging from ~0.10 to ~0.76 in geometric albedo in the visible wavelengths. The phase function of Vesta displays obvious systematic variations with respect to wavelength, with steeper slopes within the 1- and 2-micron pyroxene bands, consistent with previous ground-based observations and laboratory measurement of HED meteorites showing deeper bands at higher phase angles. The relatively high albedo of Vesta suggests significant contribution of multiple scattering. The non-linear effect of multiple scattering and the possible systematic variations of phase function with albedo across the surface of Vesta may invalidate the traditional algorithm of applying photometric correction on airless planetary surfaces.
The statistical distributions of cosmogenic nuclide measurements from moraine boulders contain previously unused information on moraine ages, and they help determine whether moraine degradation or inheritance is more important on individual moraines. Here, we present a method for extracting this information by fitting geomorphic process models to observed exposure ages from single moraines. We also apply this method to 94 10Be apparent exposure ages from 11 moraines reported in four published studies. Our models represent 10Be accumulation in boulders that are exhumed over time by slope processes (moraine degradation), and the delivery of boulders with preexisting 10Be inventories to moraines (inheritance). For now, we neglect boulder erosion and snow cover, which are likely second-order processes. Given a highly scattered data set, we establish which model yields the better fit to the data, and estimate the age of the moraine from the better model fit. The process represented by the better-fitting model is probably responsible for most of the scatter among the apparent ages. Our methods should help resolve controversies in exposure dating; we reexamine the conclusions from two published studies based on our model fits.
The aim of the present study was to assess the recent trends in the epidemiology of non-typhoid Salmonella in Israel using a sentinel laboratory-based surveillance network. Between 1999 and 2009, 8758 Salmonella stool isolates were reported by five sentinel laboratories. There was a significant decrease in the incidence rate of Salmonella isolates from 70·5/100 000 in 1999 to 21·6/100 000 in 2005 followed by a slight increase to 30·3/100 000 in 2009. Of all Salmonella, 64·3% were isolated from children in the 0–4 years age group. Up to 2008, S. Enteritidis was the most prevalent serotype and in 2009 S. Infantis emerged as the most common Salmonella serotype. The decrease in the incidence of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium and increase in S. Infantis among humans were associated with a similar trend among breeding flocks, which followed significant preventive interventions conducted against S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium infections in poultry. Tight surveillance and education of food handlers and consumers should be enhanced to reduce the foodborne transmission of Salmonella in Israel.
We studied the thickness variation of equally doped ZnO:Al films used as conductive window layer in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. The IV-characteristics of solar cells with window layer thickness of d1=200nm exhibit a strong enhancement of the short-circuit current density JSC (ΔJSC = 3mA/cm2) as compared to samples with module-like ZnO:Al-film thickness (d2=1200nm). Accordingly, the quantum efficiency reveals the spectral regimes where the JSC-gain occurs. Moreover, current-voltage measurements reveal that the cells with thicker ZnO:Al exhibit slightly decreased open circuit voltage VOC. This finding can be assigned to a decreased net-doping density NA, which appears to be introduced by additional heat flux during the longer process time required for deposition of thicker ZnO:Al films. However, the improved efficiency of solar cells with thinner window layer comes along with an increase of the series resistance (RS) by almost a factor of 2, which will have consequences for the series connection of elements in a module. XRD-diffractograms and SEM cross-section imaging suggest that the enhanced RS in cells with thin ZnO:Al is not exclusively related to the thickness but is also due to a reduced (002)-texture and an elongated lateral charge carrier pathway.
The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 [.proportional]m to 5 [.proportional]m and thickness of 1 [.proportional]m were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB).
In this study, we use a quantum well (QW) probe structure to explore the size dependent effects of sidewall recombination in GaN. Mesas 0.8-7 μm in width with pitches of 4 μm, 8 μm, and 12 μm were etched into the QW probe structure, exposing the QW at the sidewalls. Several etch conditions were investigated. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements, using a He-Cd laser as an excitation source and laser spot size of approximately 230 μm, were taken before and after the mesas were etched. The effects of sidewall formation were quantified by comparing the maximum PL intensity of the QW before and after etch. Higher remaining PL intensity was observed for etch conditions which used both Ar ions and Cl2 gas instead of only Ar ions. The fraction of remaining PL decreased with decreasing mesa width, however the remaining PL intensity was relatively large even for small features. The preliminary data suggested that GaN is relatively insensitive to sidewall damage.
The contribution of spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization to the formation of a 2DEG in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures was investigated using undoped AlGaN/GaN structures. Hall measurements of 2DEG density on such structures with varying Al percentage (8%-27%) and varying thickness of the AlGaN layer (30-500Å) indicated that donor-like surface states at an energy of 1.42eV below the conduction band were the source of electrons in the 2DEG. Field effect transistors were fabricated on such undoped heterostructures. For an AlGaN/GaN structure with 0.27 Al mole fraction, power density in excess of 3.5 W/mm at 6 GHz with corresponding maximum PAE of 33.5% was obtained. These results exceed the best reported power performance of MBE grown GaN HFETs on sapphire, thus demonstrating the excellent capability of MBE grown GaN heterostructures for microwave power applications.
Magneto-optical garnet based optical circulator was designed and fabricated with wafer-scale technology. Modeling and simulation strategy is established for the optimization of a new design of circulator based on ring cavity. Wafer-scale technological process is developed and demonstrated allowing fabrication of the optimized BIG/GGG buried ring circulator.
An image sensor with enhanced sensitivity for near ultraviolet radiation (UVA) has been fabricated in TFA (Thin Film on ASIC) technology. The device employs an amorphous silicon pin detector optimized for UV detection by carbonization and layer thickness variation. The front electrode consists of an Al grid or TCO. Measurements show a peak responsivity of 90 mAW-1 at 380 nm. The UV Imager prototype consists of 128 × 128 pixels with a size of 25 μm × 25 [tim each, fabricated in a 0.7 μm CMOS process. Global sensitivity control serves to achieve a dynamic range in excess of 80 dB. The sensor can be used in fields such as chemical, medical and astronomical applications. Furthermore, a UV monitor has been developed, suited to warn of excessive sunlight exposure, considering skin type and sun protection factor.
Image sensors in TFA (Thin Film on ASIC) technology have been successfully fabricated and tested. This paper provides a survey of TFA research results so far and outlines future perspectives. The properties of different a-Si:H b/w and color thin film detectors are evaluated, including spectral sensitivity, dark current, temperature influence and transient behavior. Furthermore several TFA prototypes and emerging concepts are presented, ranging from a simple one-transistor cell design to a locally autoadaptive sensor.
The optical properties of (In, Al) GaN thin films and heterostructures have been compared under the conditions of strong nanosecond excitation. The stimulated emission (SE) threshold from AIGaN epilayers was found to increase with increasing Al content compared to GaN, in contrast to InGaN epilayers, where an order of magnitude decrease is observed. Optically pumped SE has been observed from AIGaN films with aluminum concentrations as high as 26%. Room temperature SE at wavelengths as low as 327 nm has been achieved. In contrast to the increase of SE threshold seen for AlGaN films, we found that AlGaN/GaN heterostructures which utilize carrier confinement and optical waveguiding drastically enhance the lasing characteristics. We demonstrate that AIGaN/GaN heterostructures are suitable for the development of deep ultraviolet laser diodes.
The present study reviews the use of Cl in gate oxidation furnaces for growth of high quality gate oxides with a thickness in the range of 2 to 15 nm. The following, commercially available, “state of the art” Cl-precursors have been tested: 1,1,1- trichloroethane (TCA), irons-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE) and oxalyl chloride (OC). Different parameters were evaluated including: metal removal efficiency, poly-silicon haze, Fe bulk incorporation, carrier lifetime and Cl-incorporation in the oxide. Cl2was identified as the active component in Cl-oxidation. As a consequence, OC was identified as being the most efficient Cl-source. In particular, OC is the most suited Cl-source for applications requiring reduced oxygen concentration, such as the manufacturing of ultra thin gate oxides.
Gate dielectrics for advanced ULSI circuits are rapidly scaling below 10 nm. Thinner dielectrics and smaller lateral dimensions are essential to produce high performance transistors for memories, microprocessors and microcontrollers. In this overview we will discuss the factors that affect the performance and reliability of scaled gate dielectrics. Process parameters that affect oxide and oxynitride dielectrics include substrates, pre-gate cleaning, growth parameters and growth techniques as well as oxide and oxynitride dielectric materials. Thin dielectrics require new or modified measurement methods and extensive use of physical analysis techniques such as SIMS, XPS, AFM and TEM to characterize these materials. Boron diffusion through thin gate oxides, HCI stress, and process induced damage can degrade dielectric quality and affect long term reliability. These factors will affect the performance and reliability of circuits with scaled gate dielectrics.
We present a modeling strategy for assessing the reliability cost for improved performance from modified interconnect structures. We have studied air gaps which have been deliberately introduced in the passivation between aluminum interconnect lines as a means for increasing transmission speed by decreasing dielectric capacitance. The models allow examination of tradeoffs between improved circuit performance and decreased reliability due to dielectric cracking. Stresses in the dielectric due to electromigration in the metal were modeled using finite element analysis. These stresses were used to compute an estimate of the mean time to failure relative to the case with no air gap using an electromigration failure model from MIT.
In the present study, several different types of amorphous passivation layers such as PECVD-SiN and PECVD-TEOS were tested to learn how effectively they protect underlying Al interconnection lines. According to the experimental results, a thick monolithic passivation layer composing of PECVD-SiN was found to be highly susceptible to stress-related migration because it did not have sufficient elasticity. Moreover, since silicon nitride also has a high dielectric-breakdown strength, it exhibits an increased impedance to electric current due to parasitic resistance that exists in the path between the two passivated metal lines. On the other hand, passivation thickening through the use of PECVD-TEOS as an initial layer was estimated to be a more effective way to improve device reliability because of its better step coverage and smaller dielectric constant. The FEM simulation explains why the thick multilayer compromising an alternating sequence of mechanically dissimilar layers is an effective way to suppress stress-induced passivation damage during thermal cycling without having a significant effect on the IC pattern.