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To evaluate the nasal functions of patients with unilateral chronic otitis media using rhinomanometry, comparing chronic otitis media sides with healthy sides, chronic otitis media patients with cholesteatoma and without cholesteatoma, and patients with healthy individuals.
This prospective study included 102 patients with unilateral chronic otitis media (48 with and 54 without cholesteatoma). The control group comprised 40 individuals without any ear or nasal pathologies. All patients underwent active anterior rhinomanometry to measure nasal airway resistance and a saccharin test to measure mucociliary transport times.
There were no significant differences in nasal airway resistance and mucociliary transport time between the chronic otitis media sides and unaffected sides in the 102 patients (p = 0.72 and p = 0.28, respectively), between the non-suppurative chronic otitis media patients (without cholesteatoma) and chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma patients (p > 0.05), or between the study and control groups (p > 0.05).
The present study, with a larger sample size compared to previously published literature, supports the conclusion that unilateral nasal obstruction is unlikely to lead to chronic otitis media on the same side. The results also suggest that nasal functions do not contribute to the development of cholesteatoma.
The nucleation and growth of Al on 7 × 7 and
$\sqrt 3 \times \sqrt 3$
R30 Al reconstructed Si(111) that result in strain-free Al overgrown films grown with an atomically abrupt metamorphic interface are compared. The reconstructed surfaces and abrupt strain relaxations are verified using reflection high-energy electron diffraction. The topography of evolution is examined with atomic force microscopy. The growth of Al on both the surfaces exhibits 3D island growth, but the island evolution of growth is dramatically different. On the 7 × 7 surface, mounds formed are uniformly distributed across the substrate, and growth appears to proceed uniformly. Alternatively, on the
$\sqrt 3 \times \sqrt 3$
R30 surface, Al atoms exhibit a clear preference to form mounds near the step edges. During Al growth, mounds increase in size and number, expanding out from step edges until they cover the whole substrate. Consistent expression of a mounded nucleation and growth mode imparts a physical limitation to the achievable surface roughness that may impact the ultimate performance of layered devices such as Josephson junctions that are critical components of superconducting quantum circuits.
Atrazine has been the most widely used herbicide in North American
processing sweet corn for decades; however, increased restrictions in recent
years have reduced or eliminated atrazine use in certain production areas.
The objective of this study was to identify the best stakeholder-derived
weed management alternatives to atrazine in processing sweet corn. In field
trials throughout the major production areas of processing sweet corn,
including three states over 4 yr, 12 atrazine-free weed management
treatments were compared to three standard atrazine-containing treatments
and a weed-free check. Treatments varied with respect to herbicide mode of
action, herbicide application timing, and interrow cultivation. All
treatments included a PRE application of dimethenamid. No single weed
species occurred across all sites; however, weeds observed in two or more
sites included common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, morningglory species,
velvetleaf, and wild-proso millet. Standard treatments containing both
atrazine and mesotrione POST provided the most efficacious weed control
among treatments and resulted in crop yields comparable to the weed-free
check, thus demonstrating the value of atrazine in sweet corn production
systems. Timely interrow cultivation in atrazine-free treatments did not
consistently improve weed control. Only two atrazine-free treatments
consistently resulted in weed control and crop yield comparable to standard
treatments with atrazine POST: treatments with tembotrione POST either with
or without interrow cultivation. Additional atrazine-free treatments with
topramezone applied POST worked well in Oregon where small-seeded weed
species were prevalent. This work demonstrates that certain atrazine-free
weed management systems, based on input from the sweet corn growers and
processors who would adopt this technology, are comparable in performance to
standard atrazine-containing weed management systems.
This study aimed to assess the histopathological effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) on rabbit nasal turbinates.
A total of 21 rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups and various parts of both nasal turbinates were injected with 0.5 ml OK-432, 0.2 ml OK-432 or 0.6 ml saline (control). Bilateral nasal turbinates were later excised and studied under light microscopy to assess any histopathological changes.
Animals in the 0.2 ml and 0.5 ml OK-432 groups exhibited mild ciliary loss, goblet cell loss and epithelial damage, and a marked increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis. There was a significant difference in histopathological changes between the two OK-432 treated groups. In addition, each OK-432 treated group had significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration, increased submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis compared with controls.
The marked fibrosis observed in OK-432-injected turbinates may be responsible for a reduction in turbinate size.
To demonstrate the inhibitory effects of clarithromycin on in vitro tympanosclerosis.
Twenty-eight rats were divided into three groups: a clarithromycin group, a non-clarithromycin group and a negative control group. Those in the first two groups were injected with Streptococcus pneumoniae following a myringotomy, and tympanosclerosis was experimentally induced. Oral clarithromycin therapy was administered in the clarithromycin group. The other groups received no medical treatment.
All eardrums in the clarithromycin and non-clarithromycin groups developed myringosclerosis, but there was only one eardrum, in the clarithromycin group, with very severe myringosclerosis. In the clarithromycin group, 11 ears showed no inflammation and there were no ears with severe inflammation. In the non-clarithromycin group, there were 11 ears with severe inflammation. The mean eardrum thickness in the clarithromycin group was 20.93 µm and in the non-clarithromycin group it was 42.71 µm.
Acute otitis media and myringotomies induced tympanosclerosis, but clarithromycin reduced the severity of tympanosclerosis.
This study aimed to determine whether or not the middle cranial fossa dural plate is located lower (i.e. more caudally) in patients with chronic otitis media, relative to adjacent structures.
The authors retrospectively investigated computed tomography temporal bone scans of 267 ears of 206 patients who had undergone surgery with a diagnosis of chronic otitis media, together with scans of 222 ears of 111 patients without chronic otitis media. The depth of the middle cranial fossa dural plates was recorded.
The mean depth of the middle cranial fossa dural plate was 4.59 mm in the study group and 2.71 mm in the control group (p < 0.001). The middle cranial fossa dural plate was located lower in the right ear in both the study and control groups.
The middle cranial fossa dural plate was located lower in patients with chronic otitis media, and in the right ears of both patients and controls. Surgeons should take this low location into consideration, and take extra care, during relevant surgery on patients with chronic otitis media.
Turkish (Origanum onites L.) and Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare L., ssp. hirtum (Link.) Ietswaart) species were investigated to determine herbage colour, essential oil content and composition changes due to sage leafhopper (Eupteryx melissae) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) infestation. Sage leafhopper population on both Turkish and Greek oregano did not significantly vary. The sage leafhopper damage was more severe in the lower part of the canopy than the middle and upper parts. Extensive sage leafhopper feeding dramatically reduced essential oil contents, resulting in 28.8 and 34.8% reductions for Greek and Turkish oregano, respectively. Carvacrol, the major essential oil component of both oregano species, did not remarkably vary between leafhopper infested and non-infested plants. With respect to herbage colour, the brightness, redness and yellowness values were significantly different between infested and non-infested plants. Sage leafhopper damage increased brightness and yellowness but decreased greenness of the oregano herbage. To avoid the feeding damage, it is essential to detect the sage leafhopper problem as early as possible and certain control practices are necessary when the infestation is high.
Following the occurrence of five cases of Legionnaires' disease among patients and therapists at a French hot spring spa, a series of cleansing procedures and an epidemiological study were undertaken. During a 3-month period, the spring water was repeatedly sampled. Serum samples were taken from 689 randomly selected patients, 230 therapists, 134 administrative staff and a control group of 904 blood donors.
Legionellaceae were present in the spring water at concentrations of 103–1055 colony forming units/1. Fifteen different species or serogroups were isolated with Legionella pneumophila serogroups 3 and 1 predominating. No clinical cases of Legionnaires disease were observed during the study. However, 11% of the therapists and 5% of the patients either had a high titre of antibody (≥256) to at least one species or serogroup or seroconverted during the study. Mean antibody titres in the three study groups were significantly higher than those in the blood donors against 11 of the 32 legionella antigens tested. Nine of these 11 antigens corresponded to species or serogroups isolated from the spring water. The highest mean antibody titres in all three study groups were against L. pneumophila serogroup 3, the most common legionella in the spring water.
These findings have important implications for the maintenance of adequate standards of hygiene, bacteriological sampling and clinical surveillance in this and similar establishments.
Information about changes associated with advances in crop productivity is essential for understanding yield-limiting factors and developing new strategies for future breeding programmes. National bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in Turkey have risen by an average of 20·8 kg/ha/year from 1925 to 2006. Annual gain in yield attributable to agronomic and genetic improvement averaged c. 11·6 kg/ha/year prior to 1975, but is now averaging c. 15·1 kg/ha/year. In the Mediterranean region, however, the wheat yield trend line (10·9 kg/ha/year) is c. 0·38 lower than that of Turkey. In order to understand whether such a trend was due to the cultivars released over the years, 16 bread wheat cultivars, commonly grown in the region and representing 23 years of breeding, introduction and selection (from 1976 to 1999), were grown in a randomized complete block design with three replicates across 2 years. Data were collected on maturation time, plant height, spike length, spikelet number/spike, grain number/spike, grain weight/spike, 1000 seed weight, harvest index and grain yield. None of the measured plant traits showed any historical cultivar patterns; therefore, the increase in grain yield could not be attributed to a single yield component. Several physiological traits changed during two decades of cultivar releases in the Mediterranean region that led to a genetic gain in grain yield of about 0·5% per year. Years of data and the present field study in the Mediterranean region suggested that the genetic improvement in wheat seemed inadequate and should be reinforced with modern agricultural management practices as well as technological innovations.
It has been reported that the left molar approach of laryngoscopy can make difficult intubation easier. The aim of this study was to investigate whether left molar approach to laryngoscopy provided a better laryngeal view in cases of unexpected difficult intubation.
Following the approval of local Ethics Committee and written informed consent from the patients, out of 1386 patients who underwent general anaesthesia for surgery, 20 patients who could be ventilated by face mask but could not be intubated with conventional midline approach on the first attempt were included in the study. Those 20 patients, who had Grade III-IV laryngeal views on laryngoscopy by conventional midline approach, were subjected to left molar laryngoscopy, and their laryngeal views were evaluated. The external laryngeal compression was routinely used to improve the laryngeal view. When endotracheal intubation failed by left molar laryngoscopy, we performed the conventional midline approach again. All data were recorded.
Of the 20 patients studied, 18 had a Grade III laryngeal view and two had a Grade IV laryngeal view. Eighteen of them had a better laryngeal view with left molar laryngoscopy. Eleven of the 20 patients underwent successful intubation with the left molar laryngoscopy, which provided a significantly better laryngeal view and success rate of tracheal intubation than did the conventional midline approach (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, respectively).
Left molar laryngoscopy can make unexpected difficult intubation easier and should be attempted in cases of difficult intubation.
We compared the efficacy of intravenous lornoxicam vs. dipyrone in
patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative analgesia.
The study included 105 patients who had undergone elective septorhinoplasty
after receiving general anaesthesia. Patients were divided into three groups
to receive lornoxicam (24 mg day−1), dipyrone (5 g
day−1) or placebo. Pain was evaluated using a
0–100 mm visual analogue scale at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h
postoperatively. Pethidine (1 mg kg−1) was
administered intramuscularly to patients requiring rescue analgesia.
Pethidine requirements were recorded during the first 24 h postoperatively,
and treatment-related adverse effects were noted.
Postoperative pain scores were significantly lower with lornoxicam compared
with dipyrone at 8 h (P = 0.016). No
significant differences regarding pain scores at 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 20 and 24
h were found. Significantly fewer patients in the lornoxicam group required
rescue analgesics (vs. dipyrone, P =
0.046; vs. placebo, P = 0.001); fewer
patients in the dipyrone group required rescue analgesics compared with
placebo (P = 0.008). Significantly fewer
patients in the lornoxicam group had nausea (vs. dipyrone, P = 0.022; vs. placebo, P = 0.006); no significant differences were found between
the other two groups. Antiemetic use was significantly lower in the
lornoxicam group (vs. dipyrone, P =
0.002; vs. placebo, P = 0.001).
Lornoxicam has better tolerability and is a more effective analgesic than
dipyrone when administered by patient-controlled analgesia for postoperative
analgesia after septorhinoplasty.