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Debate about the nature of climate and the magnitude of ecological change across Australia during the last glacial maximum (LGM; 26.5–19 ka) persists despite considerable research into the late Pleistocene. This is partly due to a lack of detailed paleoenvironmental records and reliable chronological frameworks. Geochemical and geochronological analyses of a 60 ka sedimentary record from Brown Lake, subtropical Queensland, are presented and considered in the context of climate-controlled environmental change. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of dune crests adjacent to prominent wetlands across North Stradbroke Island (Minjerribah) returned a mean age of 119.9 ± 10.6 ka; indicating relative dune stability soon after formation in Marine Isotope Stage 5. Synthesis of wetland sediment geochemistry across the island was used to identify dust accumulation and applied as an aridification proxy over the last glacial-interglacial cycle. A positive trend of dust deposition from ca. 50 ka was found with highest influx occurring leading into the LGM. Complexities of comparing sedimentary records and the need for robust age models are highlighted with local variation influencing the accumulation of exogenic material. An inter-site comparison suggests enhanced moisture stress regionally during the last glaciation and throughout the LGM, returning to a more positive moisture balance ca. 8 ka.
On January 29, 2020, a total of 195 US citizens were evacuated from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Wuhan, China, to March Air Reserve Base in Riverside, California, and entered the first federally mandated quarantine in over 50 years. With less than 1-d notice, a multi-disciplinary team from Riverside County and Riverside University Health System in conjunction with local and federal agencies established on-site 24-h medical care and behavioral health support. This report details the coordinated efforts by multiple teams that took place to provide care for the passengers and to support the surrounding community.
Reading difficulties are one of the most significant challenges for children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The aims of this study were to identify and categorize the types of reading impairments experienced by children with NF1 and to establish predictors of poor reading in this population.
Children aged 7–12 years with NF1 (n = 60) were compared with typically developing children (n = 36). Poor word readers with NF1 were classified according to impairment type (i.e., phonological, surface, mixed), and their reading subskills were compared. A hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to identify predictors of word reading.
Compared to controls, children with NF1 demonstrated significantly poorer literacy abilities. Of the 49 children with NF1 classified as poor readers, 20 (41%) were classified with phonological dyslexia, 24 (49%) with mixed dyslexia, and 5 (10%) fell outside classification categories. Children with mixed dyslexia displayed the most severe reading impairments. Stronger working memory, better receptive language, and fewer inattentive behaviors predicted better word reading skills.
The majority of children with NF1 experience deficits in key reading skills which are essential for them to become successful readers. Weaknesses in working memory, receptive language, and attention are associated with reading difficulties in children with NF1.
Inadequate iodine intake during pregnancy increases the risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate whether prenatal supplements containing iodine affect urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) of pregnant women in Malawi.
A randomised controlled trial. Pregnant women (n 1391) were assigned to consume 60 mg/d Fe and 400 µg/d folic acid (IFA) or 18 vitamins and minerals including 250 µg/d iodine (MMN) or 20 g/d small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) with similar nutrient contents as MMN group, plus macronutrients (LNS) until childbirth. In a sub-study (n 317), we evaluated group geometric mean urinary iodine concentration (UIC) (µg/L) at 36 weeks of gestation controlling for baseline UIC and compared median (baseline) and geometric mean (36 weeks) UIC with WHO cut-offs: UIC < 150, 150–249, 250–499 and ≥500 reflecting insufficient, adequate, above requirements and excessive iodine intakes, respectively.
Mangochi District, Malawi.
Women ≤20 weeks pregnant.
Groups had comparable background characteristics. At baseline, overall median (Q1, Q3) UIC (319 (167, 559)) suggested iodine intakes above requirements. At 36 weeks, the geometric mean (95 % CI) UIC of the IFA (197 (171, 226)), MMN (212 (185, 243)) and LNS (220 (192, 253)) groups did not differ (P = 0·53) and reflected adequate intakes.
In this setting, provision of supplements containing iodine at the recommended dose to pregnant women with relatively high iodine intakes at baseline, presumably from iodised salt, has no impact on the women’s UIC. Regular monitoring of the iodine status of pregnant women in such settings is advisable. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01239693.
Many studies have shown that marijuana can negatively affect the cognitive development of adolescents. For some individuals, marijuana use may also initiate opioid use, dose escalation, and opioid use disorder. States that legalize marijuana should help adolescents through regulation of advertising and availability of marijuana-infused edibles. Such policies may assist in protecting neurodevelopment of the adolescent and young adult brain. The federal government should also remove its prohibition of marijuana sales and use, leaving their regulation to state law-makers.
The following position statement from the Union of the European Phoniatricians, updated on 25th May 2020 (superseding the previous statement issued on 21st April 2020), contains a series of recommendations for phoniatricians and ENT surgeons who provide and/or run voice, swallowing, speech and language, or paediatric audiology services.
This material specifically aims to inform clinical practices in countries where clinics and operating theatres are reopening for elective work. It endeavours to present a current European view in relation to common procedures, many of which fall under the aegis of aerosol generating procedures.
As evidence continues to build, some of the recommended practices will undoubtedly evolve, but it is hoped that the updated position statement will offer clinicians precepts on safe clinical practice.
Spot spraying POST herbicides is an effective approach to reduce herbicide input and weed control cost. Machine vision detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems is a challenging task due to the similarity in plant morphology. In this work, we explored the feasibility of using image classification with deep convolutional neural networks (DCNN), including AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and VGGNet, for detection of crabgrass species (Digitaria spp.), doveweed [Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan], dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.), and tropical signalgrass [Urochloa distachya (L.) T.Q. Nguyen] in bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. VGGNet generally outperformed AlexNet and GoogLeNet in detecting selected grassy weeds. For detection of P. dilatatum, VGGNet achieved high F1 scores (≥0.97) and recall values (≥0.99). A single VGGNet model exhibited high F1 scores (≥0.93) and recall values (1.00) that reliably detected Digitaria spp., M. nudiflora, P. dilatatum, and U. distachya. Low weed density reduced the recall values of AlexNet at detecting all weed species and GoogLeNet at detecting Digitaria spp. In comparison, VGGNet achieved excellent performances (overall accuracy = 1.00) at detecting all weed species in both high and low weed-density scenarios. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using DCNN for detection of grass or grass-like weeds in turfgrass systems.
The use of mechanical restraint is a challenging area for psychiatry. Although mechanical restraint remains accepted as standard practice in some regions, there are ethical, legal and medical reasons to minimise or abolish its use. These concerns have intensified following the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. Despite national policies to reduce use, the reporting of mechanical restraint has been poor, hampering a reasonable understanding of the epidemiology of restraint. This paper aims to develop a consistent measure of mechanical restraint and compare the measure within and across countries in the Pacific Rim.
We used the publicly available data from four Pacific Rim countries (Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United States) to compare and contrast the reported rates of mechanical restraint. Summary measures were computed so as to enable international comparisons. Variation within each jurisdiction was also analysed.
International rates of mechanical restraint in 2017 varied from 0.03 (New Zealand) to 98.8 (Japan) restraint events per million population per day, a variation greater than 3000-fold. Restraint in Australia (0.17 events per million) and the United States (0.37 events per million) fell between these two extremes. Variation as measured by restraint events per 1000 bed-days was less extreme but still substantial. Within all four countries there was also significant variation in restraint across districts. Variation across time did not show a steady reduction in restraint in any country during the period for which data were available (starting from 2003 at the earliest).
Policies to reduce or abolish mechanical restraint do not appear to be effecting change. It is improbable that the variation in restraint within the four examined Pacific Rim countries is accountable for by psychopathology. Greater efforts at reporting, monitoring and carrying out interventions to achieve the stated aim of reducing restraint are urgently needed.
The new compound (4R)-methyl-3-(1-(4-chlorophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbonyl)thiazolidin-4-carboxylate was synthesized by the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between (4R)-methyl-3-propionyl-thiazolidin-4-carboxylate (1) and 4-chlorophenylazide using the click chemistry approach. Molecular characterization was carried out by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The X-ray powder diffraction study determined that the title compound crystallized in an orthorhombic system with unit-cell parameters a = 20.876 (2) Å, b = 12.111 (1) Å, and c = 6.288 (9) Å. The volume of the unit cell is V = 1589.7 (2) Å3. All measured diffraction maxima were indexed and are consistent with the P2221 space group (No. 17). No detectable impurities were observed.
Background: There is an unmet need for blood-based biomarkers that can reliably detect MS disease activity. Serum Biomarkers of interest includ Neurofilament-light-chain (NfL), Glial-fibrillary-strocyte-protein(GFAP) and Tau. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) is reserved for aggressive forms of MS and has been shown to halt detectable CNS inflammatory activity for prolonged periods. Significant pre-treatment tissue damage at followed by inflammatory disease abeyance should be reflected longitudinal sera collected from these patients. Methods: Sera were collected from 23 MS patients pre-treatment, and following BMT at 3, 6, 9 and 12-months in addition from 33 non-inflammatory neurological controls. Biomarker quantification was performed with SiMoA. Results: Pre-AHSCT levels of serum NfL and GFAP but not Tau were elevated compared to controls (p=0.0001), and NfL correlated with lesion-based disease activity (6-month-relapse, MRI-T2 and Gadolinium-enhancement). 3-months post-treatment, while NfL levels remained elevated, Tau/GFAP paradoxically increased (p=0.0023/0.0017). These increases at 3m correlated with MRI ‘pseudoatrophy’ at 6-months. NfL/Tau levels dropped to that of controls by 6-months (p=0.0036/0.0159). GFAP levels dropped progressively after 6-months although even at 12-months remained higher than controls (p=0.004). Conclusions: NfL was the closest correlate of MS disease activity and treatment response. Chemotherapy-related toxicity may account for transient increases in NfL, Tau and MRI brain atrophy post-BMT.
In this paper, we will report about the implementation of the self-consistent Kröner–Eshelby model for the calculation of X-ray elastic constants for general, triclinic crystal symmetry. With applying appropriate symmetry relations, the point groups of higher crystal symmetries are covered as well. This simplifies the implementation effort to cover the calculations for any crystal symmetry. In the literature, several models can be found to estimate the polycrystalline elastic properties from single crystal elastic constants. In general, this is an intermediate step toward the calculation of the polycrystalline response to different techniques using X-rays, neutrons, or ultrasonic waves. In the case of X-ray residual stress analysis, the final goal is the calculation of X-ray Elastic constants. Contrary to the models of Reuss, Voigt, and Hill, the Kröner–Eshelby model has the benefit that, because of the implementation of the Eshelby inclusion model, it can be expanded to cover more complicated systems that exhibit multiple phases, inclusions or pores and that these can be optionally combined with a polycrystalline matrix that is anisotropic, i.e., contains texture. We will discuss a recent theoretical development where the approaches of calculating bounds of Reuss and Voigt, the tighter bounds of Hashin–Shtrikman and Dederichs–Zeller are brought together in one unifying model that converges to the self-consistent solution of Kröner–Eshelby. For the implementation of the Kröner–Eshelby model the well-known Voigt notation is adopted. The 4-rank tensor operations have been rewritten into 2-rank matrix operations. The practical difficulties of the Voigt notation, as usually concealed in the scientific literature, will be discussed. Last, we will show a practical X-ray example in which the various models are applied and compared.
Identifying Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) constructs in early childhood is essential for understanding etiological pathways of psychopathology. Our central goal was to identify early emotion knowledge and self-regulation difficulties across different RDoC domains and examine how they relate to typical versus atypical symptom trajectories between ages 3 and 10. Particularly, we assessed potential contributions of children's gender, executive control, delay of gratification, and regulation of frustration, emotion recognition, and emotion understanding at age 3 to co-occurring patterns of internalizing and externalizing across development. A total of 238 3-year-old boys and girls were assessed using behavioral tasks and parent reports and reassessed at ages 5 and 10 years. Results indicated that very few children developed “pure” internalizing or externalizing symptoms relative to various levels of co-occurring symptoms across development. Four classes of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems were identified: low, low-moderate, rising, and severe-decreasing trajectories. Three-year-old children with poor executive control but high emotion understanding were far more likely to show severe-decreasing than low/low-moderate class co-occurring internalizing and externalizing symptom patterns. Child gender and poor executive control differentiated children in rising versus low trajectories. Implications for early intervention targeting self-regulation of executive control are discussed.
Weed interference during crop establishment is a serious concern for Florida strawberry [Fragaria×ananassa (Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier (pro sp.) [chiloensis×virginiana]] producers. In situ remote detection for precision herbicide application reduces both the risk of crop injury and herbicide inputs. Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.) is a widespread broadleaf weed within Florida strawberry production with sensitivity to clopyralid, the only available POST broadleaf herbicide. Geranium carolinianum leaf structure is distinct from that of the strawberry plant, which makes it an ideal candidate for pattern recognition in digital images via convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The study objective was to assess the precision of three CNNs in detecting G. carolinianum. Images of G. carolinianum growing in competition with strawberry were gathered at four sites in Hillsborough County, FL. Three CNNs were compared, including object detection–based DetectNet, image classification–based VGGNet, and GoogLeNet. Two DetectNet networks were trained to detect either leaves or canopies of G. carolinianum. Image classification using GoogLeNet and VGGNet was largely unsuccessful during validation with whole images (Fscore<0.02). CNN training using cropped images increased G. carolinianum detection during validation for VGGNet (Fscore=0.77) and GoogLeNet (Fscore=0.62). The G. carolinianum leaf–trained DetectNet achieved the highest Fscore (0.94) for plant detection during validation. Leaf-based detection led to more consistent detection of G. carolinianum within the strawberry canopy and reduced recall-related errors encountered in canopy-based training. The smaller target of leaf-based DetectNet did increase false positives, but such errors can be overcome with additional training images for network desensitization training. DetectNet was the most viable CNN tested for image-based remote sensing of G. carolinianum in competition with strawberry. Future research will identify the optimal approach for in situ detection and integrate the detection technology with a precision sprayer.
Parameters such as pretreatment method, enzyme type and concentration, determine the conversion efficiency of biomass’ cellulose and hemicellulose to glucose and mainly xylose in biomass-based fuel production. Chemical quantification of these processes offers no information on the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis (EH) on particle morphology. We report on the development of a microscopy method for imaging pretreated biomass particles at different EH stages. The method was based on acquiring large field of view images, typically 20×10 mm2 containing thousands of particles. Morphology of particles with lengths between 2 μm and 5 mm could be visualized and analyzed. The particle length distribution of corn stover samples, pretreated with increasing amounts of sulfuric acid at different EH stages, was measured. Particle size was shown to be dependent on pretreatment severity and EH time. The methodology developed could offer an alternative method for characterization of EH of biomass for second generation biofuels and visualization of recalcitrant structures.
This article describes a CDI outbreak in a long-term care (LTC) facility that used molecular typing techniques and whole-genome sequencing to identify widespread dissemination of the clonal strain in the environment which was successfully removed after terminal cleaning.
This study was conducted in a long-term care facility in Texas.
A recently hospitalized LTC patient was diagnosed with CDI followed shortly thereafter by 7 subsequent CDI cases. A stool specimen was obtained from each patient for culturing and typing. An environmental point-prevalence study of the facility was conducted before and after terminal cleaning of the facility to assess environmental contamination. Cultured isolates were typed using ribotyping, multilocus variant analysis, and whole-genome sequencing.
Stool samples were available for 5 of 8 patients; of these specimens, 4 grew toxigenic C. difficile ribotype 027. Of 50 environmental swab samples collected throughout the facility prior to the facility-wide terminal cleaning, 19 (38%) grew toxigenic C. difficile (most commonly ribotype 027, 79%). The terminal cleaning was effective at reducing C. difficile spores in the environment and at eradicating the ribotype 027 strain (P<.001). Using multilocus variance analysis and whole-genome sequencing, clinical and environmental strains were highly related and, in some cases, were identical.
Using molecular typing techniques, we demonstrated reduced environmental contamination with toxigenic C. difficile and the eradication of a ribotype 027 clone. These techniques may help direct infection control efforts and decrease the burden of CDI in the healthcare system.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
The stellar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been studied in the last decade and has been found to be an important factor to determine the habitability of planetary surfaces. It is known that UVR can be a constraint for life. However, most of the studies of UVR and habitability have missed some fundamental aspects: i) Accurate estimation of the planetary atmospheric attenuation, ii) The biological inferences used to represent the impact of the stellar UVR on life are theoretical and based on the action spectrum (for DNA or microorganisms) or considering parameters as the “lethal dose” obtained from non-astrobiological experiments. Therefore, the conclusions reached by previous studies about the UVR habitability of planetary bodies may be inaccurate. In this work, we propose how to address these studies in a more accurate way through an interdisciplinary approach that combines astrophysics, microbiology, and photobiology and by the use of specially designed laboratory experiments.