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To determine the risk of dementia in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes and in individuals with glycosylated haemoglobin, type A1C (HbA1c) of ⩾48 mmol/mol, which is the diagnostic limit for diabetes.
We included the following cohorts: all incident diabetes cases aged 15 or above registered in the National Diabetes Registry (NDR) from January 2000 through December 2012 (n = 148 036) and a reference population, adult participants from the Glostrup cohort (n = 16 801), the ADDITION Study (n = 26 586) and Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) (n = 5408). Using these cohorts, we analysed if a diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the NDR or HbA1c level of ⩾ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol) in the cohorts increased risk of dementia in the Danish National Patient Registry or cognitive performance assessed by the Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R (IST2000R).
A diagnosis of type 1 or type 2 diabetes in the NDR was associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosed both before or after age 65 as well as across different subtypes of dementia. Self-reported diabetes or high HbA1c levels were associated with lower cognitive performance (p = 0.004), while high HbA1c was associated with increased risk of dementia (HR 1.94 (1.10–3.44) in the Glostrup cohort but not in the ADDITION Study (HR 0.96 (0.57–1.61)).
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an increased risk of dementia, while the importance of screening-detected elevated HbA1c remains less clear.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction using the complete digitized diffraction pattern has proved to be an effective approach to improving the accuracy of the analysis of complex mineral mixtures, provided representative reference patterns and accurate Reference Intensity Ratio (RIR) factors arc available for each component phase. However, chemical and structural variability of common rock-forming minerals may complicate the pattern fitting approach. A method has been developed which utilizes X-ray fluorescence chemistry of an unknown and realistic compositional ranges for component phases as constraints on the quantitative XRD analysis without significant compromise of the pattern fit. This unique approach no only yields accurate weight fractions, but also provides indications of the specific compositions of each phase present in the mixture.
It has been reported that foetal death follows a seasonal pattern. Influenza virus infection has been postulated as one possible contributor to this seasonal variation. This ecological study explored the temporal association between the influenza activity and the frequency of foetal death. Time series analysis was conducted using weekly influenza-like illness consultation proportions from the Danish sentinel surveillance system and weekly proportions of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths from hospital registers from 1994 to 2009. The association was examined in an autoregressive (AR) integrated (I) moving average (MA) model and subsequently analysed with cross-correlation functions. Our findings confirmed the well-known seasonality in influenza, but also seasonality in spontaneous abortion. No clear pattern of seasonality was found for stillbirths, although the analysis exposed dependency between observations. One final AR integrated MA model was identified for the influenza-like illness (ILI) series. We found no statistically significant relationship between weekly influenza-like illness consultation proportions and weekly spontaneous abortion proportions (five lags: P = 0.52; 11 lags: P = 0.91) or weekly stillbirths (five lags: P = 0.93; 11 lags: P = 0.40). Exposure to circulating influenza during pregnancy was not associated with rates of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths. Seasonal variations in spontaneous abortion were confirmed and this phenomenon needs further investigation.
Tail damage within the production of finisher pigs is an animal welfare problem. Recent research suggests that removal of known risk factors may not be enough to eliminate tail biting, especially in undocked pigs, thus a different strategy is worth investigating. This could be early detection of tail biting, using behavioural changes observed before tail damage. If these early stages of tail biting can be detected before tail damage occurs, then tail damage could be prevented by early interventions. The first step in developing such a strategy is to identify the types of behaviour changes that emerge during early stages of tail biting. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether pen level activity and object manipulation evolved differently during the last 7 days before the scoring of tail damage (day 0) for pens scored with tail damage (tail damage pens) and pens not scored with tail damage (matched control pens). The study included video recordings for twenty-four tail damage pens and thirty-two matched control pens. Activity level and object manipulation were observed the last 7 days before day 0 during the morning (0600 to 0800 h), afternoon (1600 to 1800 h) and evening (2200 to 2400 h, only activity level). Both activity level and object manipulation were analysed using generalised linear mixed effects models with a binomial distribution for activity level and a negative binomial distribution for object manipulation. The probability of being active was higher in tail damage pens compared to control pens during the afternoon the last 5 days before day 0 (P<0.001). This was seen due to a decrease in activity level in the control pens, which makes it difficult to identify future tail damage pens from this difference. Object manipulation was lower in tail damage pens compared to the control pens on all 7 days before day 0, but only in pens with undocked pigs (P<0.01). Thus, it is still unknown when this difference in object manipulation initiated. It was concluded that both activity level and object manipulation seemed related to ongoing tail biting and should be investigated through more detailed observations and for a longer time to establish the normal behaviour pattern for a particular pen. Thus, it is suggested that future research focusses on developing automatic monitoring methods for pen level activity and object manipulation and applies algorithms that establish and detect deviations from the normal behaviour pattern of the pen before tail damage.
Piglet mortality in outdoor production systems varies across the year, and a reason for this variation could be fluctuations in hut climate, as ambient temperature might influence piglet survival, both directly and indirectly. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of farrowing hut climate and year variation on stillbirth and liveborn mortality. A large-scale observational study was conducted at five commercial organic pig-producing herds in Denmark from June 2015 to August 2016. Both year variation (F3,635=4.40, P=0.004) and farrowing hut temperature (F2,511=6.46, P=0.002) affected the rate of stillbirths. The risk of stillborn piglets was lowest in winter and during this season larger changes in hut temperature between day 1 prepartum and the day of farrowing increased the risk of stillbirths (F1,99=6.39, P=0.013). In addition, during the warm part of the year stillbirth rate increased at temperatures ⩾27°C. Year variation also affected liveborn mortality (F3,561=3.86, P=0.009) with a lower rate of liveborn deaths in spring. However, the hut climate did not influence liveborn deaths. Consequently, other factors than hut climate may explain the influence of year variation on liveborn mortality. These could be light differences causing seasonality in reproduction and lactation.
Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are essential amino acids that are necessary for muscle mass maintenance. Little is known about the plasma concentrations of BCAA and the protein intake in relation to sarcopenia. We aimed to compare the non-fasting plasma concentrations of the BCAA and the dietary protein intake between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic older adults. Norwegian older home-dwelling adults (≥70 years) were invited to a cross-sectional study with no other exclusion criteria than age. Sarcopenic subjects were defined by the diagnostic criteria by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Non-fasting plasma concentrations of eight amino acids were quantified using NMR spectroscopy. Protein intake was assessed using 2×24-h dietary recalls. In this study, ninety out of 417 subjects (22 %) were sarcopenic, and more women (32 %) than men (11 %) were sarcopenic (P<0·0001). Sex-adjusted non-fasting plasma concentrations of leucine and isoleucine, and the absolute intake of protein (g/d), were significantly lower among the sarcopenic subjects, when compared with non-sarcopenic subjects (P=0·003, P=0·026 and P=0·003, respectively). A similar protein intake was observed in the two groups when adjusted for body weight (BW) and sex (1·1 g protein/kg BW per d; P=0·50). We show that sarcopenia is associated with reduced non-fasting plasma concentration of the BCAA leucine and isoleucine, and lower absolute intake of protein. More studies are needed to clarify the clinical relevance of these findings, related to maintenance of muscle mass and prevention of sarcopenia.
Assessing the relationship between antimicrobial usage (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) requires the accurate and precise utilisation of register data. Therefore, validation of register-based data is essential for evaluating the quality and, subsequently, the internal validity of studies based on the data.
In this study, different smoothing methods for Veterinary Medicine Statistic Program database (VetStat)-records were validated by comparing these with farm-records. Comparison between measurements included accuracy as; completeness and correctness, and precision as; a relative difference of the error, correlation with Fisher's z transformation and reliability coefficient. The most valid methods of those examined were then used in re-analyses of the abundance of AMR genes in 10 finisher batches from a previous study.
Improved accuracy was found when detailed smoothing methods were applied. Although the precision also increased, the effect was not as pronounced, as the usage estimate of all smoothing methods deviated moderately compared with the farm-registrations. Applying the most valid methods to the 10 finisher batches increased estimates of statistical model fit for aminoglycosides, lincosamides, tetracyclines and decreased estimates of statistical model fit for macrolides. The estimates of statistical model fit for sulfonamides and broad-spectrum penicillins remained the same.
Through refined data transformation, VetStat-records can be used to calculate a daily amount of AMU per pig reflecting the true usage accurately and moderately precisely, which is the foundation for calculating lifetime AMU.
One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relative effect of three possible preventive measures against tail damage. The study included 112 pens with 1624 finisher pigs divided between four batches. Pens were randomly assigned to one level of each of three treatments: (1) tail-docked (n=60 pens) v. undocked (n=52 pens), (2) 150 g of straw provided per pig per day on the solid floor (n=56 pens) v. no straw provided (n=56 pens), (3) stocking density of 1.21 m2/pig (11 pig/pen; n=56 pens) v. 0.73 m2/pig (18 pigs/pen; n=56 pens). Tail damage was recorded three times per week throughout the finisher period by scoring the tail of each individual pig. A pen was recorded as a tail damage pen and no longer included in the study if at least one pig in a pen had a bleeding tail wound; thus, only the first incidence of tail damage on pen level was recorded. Data were analysed by a Cox regression for survival analysis assuming proportional hazards. Results are presented as hazards, and a higher hazard means that a pen has a higher risk of tail damage and of it happening earlier in the finisher period. Pens with undocked pigs had a 4.32-fold higher hazard of tail damage compared with pens with docked pigs (P<0.001). Pens with no straw provided had a 2.22-fold higher hazard of tail damage compared with pens with straw provided (P<0.01). No interactions was seen between the treatments, but the effect of tail docking was higher than the effect of straw provision (P<0.001). Stocking density did not have a significant effect on the hazard of tail damage (hazard rate ratios (HRR)=1.67; P=0.064). However, a combination of straw provision and lowered stocking density showed a similar hazard of tail damage as seen with only tail docking (HRR=1.58; P=0.39). In conclusion, tail docking and straw provision were preventive measures against tail damage, and tail docking reduced the risk more than straw provision. A combination of other preventive measures is necessary to reduce the risk of tail damage in undocked pigs to the same level as in docked pigs.
The flow speed of Greenland outlet glaciers is governed by several factors, the relative importance of which is poorly understood. The delivery of surface-generated meltwater to the bed of alpine glaciers has been shown to influence glacier flow speed when the volume of water is sufficient to increase basal fluid pressure and hence basal lubrication. While this effect has also been demonstrated on the Greenland ice-sheet margin, little is known about the influence of surface melting on the large, marine-terminating outlet glaciers that drain the ice sheet. We use a validated model of meltwater input and GPS-derived surface velocities to quantify the sensitivity of glacier flow speed to changes in surface melt at Helheim Glacier during two summer seasons (2007–08). Our observations span ∼55 days near the middle of each melt season. We find that relative changes in glacier speed due to meltwater input are small, with variations of ∼45% in melt producing changes in velocity of ∼2–4%. These velocity variations are, however, of similar absolute magnitude to those observed at smaller glaciers and on the ice-sheet margin. We find that the glacier’s sensitivity to variations in meltwater input decreases approximately exponentially with distance from the calving front. Sensitivity to melt varies with time, but generally increases as the melt season progresses. We interpret the time-varying sensitivity of glacier flow to meltwater input as resulting from changes in subglacial hydraulic routing caused by the changing volume of meltwater input.
A program of electronographic photometry of star clusters in the Magellanic Clouds is being carried out using the McMullan camera on the Danish 1.5-m telescope at La Silla. The observations are being reduced using the Geneva microdensitometer and data reduction programs. Results are shown for the LMC cluster Hodge 11 (=SL 868), based on measurements of two exposures in both yellow and blue-light, each three hours in length, recorded on Ilford L4 emulsion.
For normal giants, the only binary system known until recently with completely determined masses was Capella (αAur, GO III+G5III). Being non-eclipsing, its masses are, however, so uncertain (20% and 8%, respectively) that the properties of the corresponding range of theoretical models are considerably more uncertain than the observationally determined temperatures and luminosities. The discovery of the eclipsing nature of TZ For = HD 20301 (Olsen, 1977) thus provides a unique opportunity to obtain absolute parameters of much higher precision.
Maternal exposures to fever and infections in pregnancy have been linked to subsequent psychiatric morbidity in the child. This study examined whether fever and common infections in pregnancy were associated with psychosis-like experiences (PLEs) in the child.
A longitudinal study of 46 184 children who participated in the 11-year follow-up of the Danish National Birth Cohort was conducted. Pregnant women were enrolled between 1996 and 2002 and information on fever, genitourinary infections, respiratory tract infection, and influenza-like illness during pregnancy was prospectively collected in two interviews during pregnancy. PLEs were assessed using the seven-item Adolescent Psychotic-Like Symptom Screener in a web-based questionnaire completed by the children themselves at age 11.
PLEs were reported among 11% of the children. Multinomial logistic regression models with probability weights to adjust for potential selection bias due to attrition suggested that maternal fever, genitourinary infections and influenza-like illness were associated with a weak to moderate increased risk of subclinical psychosis-like symptoms in the offspring, whereas respiratory tract infections were not. No clear pattern was observed between the strengths of the associations and the timing of exposure, or the type of psychosis-like symptom.
In this study, maternal exposures to fevers and common infections in pregnancy were generally associated with a subtle excess risk of PLEs in the child. A more pronounced association was found for influenza-like illness under an a priori definition, leaving open the possibility that certain kinds of infections may constitute important risk factors.
We have used tide-gauge data from near Helheim Glacier, East Greenland, and GPS data acquired on the glacier to investigate the spectra of tidal forcing and flow response. For both the tide-gauge and GPS time series, we calculated amplitudes and phases for a harmonic expansion using a limited set of harmonic constituents. We find that the semidiurnal constituents of the glacier flow are well modeled using a single admittance and lag with respect to the tide-gauge data. However, diurnal variations in the glacier flow cannot be simply described using this model. We find an additional signal in glacier position, in phase with the S1 solar tide, with some modulations at other frequencies. These non-tidal variations account for a peak-to-peak variation in glacier flow speed at a site close to the terminus of ~0.7 m d-1, compared with a mean flow rate at this location of ~22 m d-1. The speed variations reach their daily maximum value ~6 hours after local noon. We hypothesize that these additional diurnal variations are associated with peaks in lubrication of the glacier bed due to surface melting driven by diurnal solar heating.
We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godthåbsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone.
The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010–2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.
The objectives were to present three approaches for calculating antimicrobial (AM) use in pigs that take into account the rearing period and rearing site, and to study the association between these measurements and phenotypical resistance and abundance of resistance genes in faeces samples from 10 finisher batches. The AM use was calculated relative to the rearing period of the batches as (i) ‘Finisher Unit Exposure’ at unit level, (ii) ‘Lifetime Exposure’ at batch level and (iii) ‘Herd Exposure’ at herd level. A significant effect on the occurrence of tetracycline resistance measured by cultivation was identified for Lifetime Exposure for the AM class: tetracycline. Furthermore, for Lifetime Exposure for the AM classes: macrolide, broad-spectrum penicillin, sulfonamide and tetracycline use as well as Herd Unit Exposure for the AM classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide and tetracycline use, a significant effect was observed on the occurrence of genes coding for the AM resistance classes: aminoglycoside, lincosamide, macrolide, β-lactam, sulfonamide and tetracycline. No effect was observed for Finisher Unit Exposure. Overall, the study shows that Lifetime Exposure is an efficient measurement of AM use in finisher batches, and has a significant effect on the occurrence of resistance, measured either by cultivation or metagenomics.