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Data-driven materials design informed by legacy data-sets can enable the education of a new workforce, promote openness of the scientific process in the community, and advance our physical understanding of complex material systems. The performance of structural materials, which are controlled by competing factors of composition, grain size, particle size/distribution, residual strain, cannot be modelled with single-mechanism physics. The design of optimal processing route must account for the coupled nature of the creation of such factors, and requires students to learn machine learning and statistical modelling principles not taught in the conventional undergraduate or graduate level Materials Science and Engineering curricula. Therefore, modified curricula with opportunities for experiential learning are paramount for workforce development. Projects with real-world data provide an opportunity for students to establish fluency in the iterative steps needed to solve relevant scientific and engineering process design questions.
Three-dimensional printing (3DP) is becoming a standard manufacturing practice for a variety of biomaterials and biomedical devices. This layer-by-layer methodology provides the ability to fabricate parts from computer-aided design files without the need for part-specific tooling. Three-dimensional printed medical components have transformed the field of medicine through on-demand patient care with specialized treatment such as local, strategically timed drug delivery, and replacement of once-functioning body parts. Not only can 3DP technology provide individualized components, it also allows for advanced medical care, including surgical planning models to aid in training and provide temporary guides during surgical procedures for reinforced clinical success. Despite the advancement in 3DP technology, many challenges remain for forward progress, including sterilization concerns, reliability, and reproducibility. This article offers an overview of biomaterials and biomedical devices derived from metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites that can be three-dimensionally printed, as well as other techniques related to 3DP in medicine, including surgical planning, bioprinting, and drug delivery.
Sol–gel spin coating is applied to fabricate the pure and different concentrations of aluminum (Al)-doped ZnO films on high-quality silicon substrates. All films are showing high crystallinity in X-ray diffraction study, and lattice constants were obtained using PowderX software. The value of crystallite size was found in range of 20–40 nm. EDX/SEM mapping was performed for 2 wt% Al-doped ZnO film, which shows the presence of Al and its homogeneous distribution in the film. SEM investigation shows nanorods morphology all over the surface of films, and the dimension of nanorods is found to increase with Al doping. The E(g)dire. values were estimate in range of 3.25–3.29 eV for all films. Linear refractive index was found in range of 1.5–2.75. The χ1 value is found in range of 0.13–1.4 for all films. The χ3 values are found in range of 0.0053 × 10−10 to 6.24 × 10−10 esu for pure and doped films. The n2 values were also estimated. These studies clearly showed that the properties of ZnO have been enriched by Al doping, and hence doped films are more appropriate for optoelectronic applications.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We reviewed the epidemiology of TB and ESRD, investigations of TB exposures in US dialysis facilities, and published guidelines to inform screening and treatment practices among US ESRD patients. Compared to TB in the general population, ESRD patients have 6–25-fold higher TB incidence rates, and mortality during treatment is 2–3-fold higher. Most TB cases among ESRD patients (~90%) occur among non–US-born persons, and an analysis of genotyping data suggests that 80% of all cases result from latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Published TB contact investigations in dialysis facilities have reported cases among ESRD patients and healthcare workers. However, transmission of TB is rare: there were no reports of secondary cases of TB because of exposure to an index-case patient and there were few TB infections, which was demonstrated by low occurrence of newly positive tuberculin skin tests (12%–16%) and conversions (8%–17%) among contacts. Targeted TB education, screening, and treatment for ESRD patients at highest risk for TB exposure (eg, non–US-born persons), using interferon-gamma release assays and short course LTBI regimens (ie, isoniazid-rifapentine weekly for 12 weeks or rifampin daily for 4 months) may be an effective overall strategy for reducing TB burden in ESRD patients.
The complexities of the global agri-food system and the singular importance of food as a primary good elevate the need to explore what corporate social responsibility (CSR) might mean for agri-food firms. Although CSR refers to voluntary actions on the part of capitalist firms to exceed legal and regulatory requirements, those requirements are important because they set the institutional foundation for what a firm must do to earn the CSR label. In the case of CSR for agri-food firms, the institutional context includes the regulatory state as well as the publicly supported agricultural and food research and development that tends to be done at universities. The purpose of this paper is to provide greater conceptual clarity to the blur between the state, agri-food firms, and universities and their respective responsibilities to the public. Since the globalization of the agri-food system and the emergence of private forms of governance signal the decline of the state's legal and regulatory influence on corporate firms, we pay particularly close attention to the ethical challenges that have surrounded university–agribusiness collaborations—initiatives, which conjoin the moral concerns associated with each respective institution while also raising new questions in their own right. Although the university would ideally play a critical participatory role in this process by virtue of its public commitments, as we explain, the historical relationship between the university and agri-food firms has complicated the university's potential standing as an independent arbiter. Upon examining each of these issues in greater detail, we conclude the paper with a blueprint for how universities can enhance their ethical leadership when engaging with agri-food firms.
Using high resolution 3D hydrodynamical simulations we quantify the amount of mass accreted onto the secondary star of the binary system η Carinae during periastron passage on its highly eccentric orbit. The accreted mass is responsible for the spectroscopic event occurring every orbit close to periastron passage, during which many lines vary and the x-ray emission associated with the destruction wind collision structure declines. The system is mainly known for its giant eruptions that occurred in the nineteenth century. The high mass model of the system, M1=170M⊙ and M2=80M⊙, gives Macc≍ 3×10−6M⊙ compatible with the amount required for explaining the reduction in secondary ionization photons during the spectroscopic event, and also matches its observed duration. As accretion occurs now, it surely occurred during the giant eruptions. This implies that mass transfer can have a huge influence on the evolution of massive stars.
A cadmium chloride activation treatment is essential for the production of high efficiency cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar cells. However, the effects of the treatment on the distributions of chlorine and sulphur within the device are not fully understood. Here, the detailed locations of chlorine and sulphur in a treated CdTe cell are determined in three dimensions by high resolution dynamic SIMS measurements. Chlorine is found to be present in grain boundaries, grain interiors, extended defects within the grain interiors, at the front interface, and in the cadmium sulphide layer. In each of these regions, the chlorine is likely to have significant effects on local electronic properties of the material, and hence overall device performance. Sulphur is found to have a U-shaped diffusion profile within CdTe grains, indicating a mixed grain boundary and lattice diffusion regime.
There is a shortage of psychiatrists worldwide. Within Europe, psychiatric trainees can move between countries, which increases the problem in some countries and alleviates it in others. However, little is known about the reasons psychiatric trainees move to another country.
Survey of psychiatric trainees in 33 European countries, exploring how frequently psychiatric trainees have migrated or want to migrate, their reasons to stay and leave the country, and the countries where they come from and where they move to. A 61-item self-report questionnaire was developed, covering questions about their demographics, experiences of short-term mobility (from 3 months up to 1 year), experiences of long-term migration (of more than 1 year) and their attitudes towards migration.
A total of 2281 psychiatric trainees in Europe participated in the survey, of which 72.0% have ‘ever’ considered to move to a different country in their future, 53.5% were considering it ‘now’, at the time of the survey, and 13.3% had already moved country. For these immigrant trainees, academic was the main reason they gave to move from their country of origin. For all trainees, the overall main reason for which they would leave was financial (34.4%), especially in those with lower (<500€) incomes (58.1%), whereas in those with higher (>2500€) incomes, personal reasons were paramount (44.5%).
A high number of psychiatric trainees considered moving to another country, and their motivation largely reflects the substantial salary differences. These findings suggest tackling financial conditions and academic opportunities.
Considering the ample evidence of involvement of the glutamate system in the pathophysiology of depression, pre-clinical and clinical studies have been conducted to assess the antidepressant efficacy of glutamate inhibition, and glutamate receptor modulators in particular. This review focuses on the use of glutamate receptor modulators in unipolar depression.
There is emerging evidence that glutamatergic system dysfunction might play an important role in the pathophysiology of bipolar depression. This review focuses on the use of glutamate receptor modulators for depression in bipolar disorder.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of hospitalization and mortality in the United States. Prevention of TB transmission in acute care facilities relies on prompt identification and implementation of airborne isolation, rapid diagnosis, and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients. In areas with low TB burden, this strategy may result in inefficient utilization of airborne infection isolation rooms (AIIRs). We reviewed TB epidemiology and diagnostic approaches to inform optimal TB detection in low-burden settings. Published clinical prediction rules for individual studies have a sensitivity ranging from 81% to 100% and specificity ranging from 14% to 63% for detection of culture-positive pulmonary TB patients admitted to acute care facilities. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have a specificity of >98%, and the sensitivity of NAATs varies by acid-fast bacilli sputum smear status (positive smear, ≥95%; negative smear, 50%–70%). We propose an infection prevention strategy using a clinical prediction rule to identify patients who warrant diagnostic evaluation for TB in an AIIR with an NAAT. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether use of clinical prediction rules and NAATs results in optimized utilization of AIIRs and improved detection and treatment of presumptive pulmonary TB patients.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1215–1225
The addition of a CdMgTe (CMT) layer at the back of a CdTe solar cell should improve its performance by reflecting both photoelectrons and forward-current electrons away from the rear surface. Higher collection of photoelectrons will increase the cell’s current, and reduction of forward current will increase its voltage. To achieve electron reflection, conformal CMT layers were deposited at the back of CdTe cells, and a variety of measurements including performance curves, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were performed. Oxidation of magnesium in the CMT layer was addressed by adding a CdTe capping layer. MgCl2 passivation was substituted for CdCl2 in some cases, but little difference was seen.