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High unemployment is a hallmark of psychotic illness. Individual placement and support (IPS) may be effective at assisting the vocational recoveries of young people with first-episode psychosis (FEP).
To examine the effectiveness of IPS at assisting young people with FEP to gain employment (Australian and Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000094370).
Young people with FEP (n = 146) who were interested in vocational recovery were randomised using computer-generated random permuted blocks on a 1:1 ratio to: (a) 6 months of IPS in addition to treatment as usual (TAU) or (b) TAU alone. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 6 months (end of intervention), 12 months and 18 months post-baseline by research assistants who were masked to the treatment allocations.
At the end of the intervention the IPS group had a significantly higher rate of having been employed (71.2%) than the TAU group (48.0%), odds ratio 3.40 (95% CI 1.17–9.91, z = 2.25, P = 0.025). However, this difference was not seen at 12- and 18-month follow-up points. There was no difference at any time point on educational outcomes.
This is the largest trial to our knowledge on the effectiveness of IPS in FEP. The IPS group achieved a very high employment rate during the 6 months of the intervention. However, the advantage of IPS was not maintained in the long term. This seems to be related more to an unusually high rate of employment being achieved in the control group rather than a gross reduction in employment among the IPS group.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
Virulence factors from the ROP2-family have been extensively studied in Toxoplasma gondii, but in the closely related Neospora caninum only NcROP2Fam-1 has been partially characterized to date. NcROP40 is a member of this family and was found to be more abundantly expressed in virulent isolates. Both NcROP2Fam-1 and NcROP40 were evaluated as vaccine candidates and exerted a synergistic effect in terms of protection against vertical transmission in mouse models, which suggests that they may be relevant for parasite pathogenicity. NcROP40 is localized in the rhoptry bulbs of tachyzoites and bradyzoites, but in contrast to NcROP2Fam-1, the protein does not associate with the parasitophorous vacuole membrane due to the lack of arginine-rich amphipathic helix in its sequence. Similarly to NcROP2Fam-1, NcROP40 mRNA levels are highly increased during tachyzoite egress and invasion. However, NcROP40 up-regulation does not appear to be linked to the mechanisms triggering egress. In contrast to NcROP2Fam-1, phosphorylation of NcROP40 was not observed during egress. Besides, NcROP40 secretion into the host cell was not successfully detected by immunofluorescence techniques. These findings indicate that NcROP40 and NcROP2Fam-1 carry out different functions, and highlight the need to elucidate the role of NcROP40 within the lytic cycle and to explain its relative abundance in tachyzoites.
Este libro reúne un número significativo de artículos suponen una aportación ciertamente notable a la bibliografía disponible hasta la fecha. Juan de Mena: de letrado a poeta recoge dieciséis trabajos en los que se estudia su figura y su obra desde perspectivas distintas pero complementarias que abren nuevas líneas de investigación o bien enriquecen otras ya existentes. El libro está estructurado en tres grandes bloques temáticos: El primero de ellos se dedica al contexto histórico de Juan de Mena. El segundo bloque gira en torno a la configuración del poeta, atendiendo a la conciencia autorial de Mena y a los recursos literarios que emplea. El tercer y último bloque está dedicado a la transformación del 'famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena' en un clásico. Cristina Moya García es profesora en la Universidad de Córdoba. This book contains several studies reviewing the two facets of Juan de Mena's life as lawyer and poet. These contributions open up new lines of research on this important early-fifteenth-century Castilian writer and enrich some existing ones, studying Juan de Mena from different perspectives. The book is structured into three thematic blocks: The first is devoted to the historical context of Juan de Mena. The second section focuses on the configuration of the poet. The third and final part is dedicated to the transformation of "famosíssimo poeta Juan de Mena" into a classic author. Cristina Moya García is a profesor at the Universidad de Córdoba.Contributors: Federica Accorsi, Carlos Alvar, Linde M. Brocato, Daniel Capra, Juan Luis Carriazo Rubio, Antonio Cortijo, Sila Gómez Álvarez, Ángel Gómez Moreno, Daniel Hartnett, Julián Jiménez Heffernan, Maxim Kerkhof, Françoise Maurizi, Cristina Moya García, Francisco de Paula Cañas Gálvez, Pedro Ruiz Pérez.
A number of recent reports emphasize the risk of zoonotic diseases and the high degree of prevalence of asymptomatic animals infected with Leptospira interrogans. This report sought to assess the prevalence of antibodies to certain serovars of L. interrogans, and to describe the association between seropositivity and risk factors associated with within-flock transmission in a mountainous region of Mexico. Overall seroprevalence to L. interrogans was 54·5% (95% confidence interval 48·3–60·7); the most frequent serovar was Icterohaemorrhagiae. The accumulation of placentas and fetuses at a site close to lambing paddocks can play a significant role as a risk factor for within-flock transmission of L. interrogans in transhumant farming systems in the municipality of Xalatlaco. The high prevalence of L. interrogans antibodies supports the hypothesis that natural foci of this zoonosis are present in sheep flocks in this area. These findings emphasize the need for planning and implementation of control programmes for ovine leptospirosis in Mexico and elsewhere.
Collagen-covered prostheses can be used as a non-circumferential segmental tracheal replacement. However, the applicability of these implants in young subjects has not yet been reported.
In this experimental, longitudinal study, dogs aged 29–32 days underwent limited segmental tracheal replacement with a polyester prosthesis or were allocated to a control, untreated group. The dogs were evaluated clinically, endoscopically and tomographically for up to one year.
Although there was evidence of tracheal growth in the experimental group, tomographic measurements were significantly smaller in this group than in the control group throughout the observation period. At the end of the study, there was no evidence of implant rejection, stenosis or collapse. Normal respiratory epithelium had grown across the implanted membrane in the experimental group.
The homologous collagen mersylene membrane allowed for limited structural tracheal growth and was functionally integrated into the segmented tracheal wall in growing dogs.
The purpose of this work was to study the relationship between self-focused
attention and mindfulness in participants prone to hallucinations and others who
were not. A sample of 318 healthy participants, students at the universities of
Sevilla and Almería, was given the Launay-Slade Hallucinations
Scale-revised (LSHS-R, Bentall & Slade, 1985). Based on this sample, two groups were formed:
participants with high (n = 55) and low proneness
(n = 28) to hallucinations. Participants with a
score higher than a standard deviation from the mean in the LSHS-R were included
in the high proneness group, participants with a score lower than a standard
deviation from the mean in the LSHR-R were included in the second one. All
participants were also given the Self-Absorption Scale (SAS, McKenzie
& Hoyle, 2008) and the
Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ, Chadwick et al., 2008). The results showed that
participants with high hallucination proneness had significantly higher levels
of public (t(80) = 6.81, p
< .001) and private (t(77) = 7.39,
p < .001) self-focused attention and lower levels
of mindfulness (t(81) = -4.56, p
< .001) than participants in the group with low hallucination
proneness. A correlational analysis showed a negative association between
self-focused attention (private and public) and mindfulness (r
= -0.23, p < .001; r
= -0.38, p < .001 respectively). Finally,
mindfulness was found to partly mediate between self-focused attention and
hallucination proneness. The importance of self-focused attention and
mindfulness in understanding the etiology of hallucinations discussed and
suggest some approaches to their treatment.
Dementia is a syndrome characterized by a progressive impairment in cognition, function and behaviour, with a considerable burden in terms of health and social care, and economic costs. As Alzheimer's disease and other dementias advance, the patient's capacity, competence and possibility of participation in decision-making decrease. Key points in managing people with dementia include screening of cognitive impairment, neuropsychological assessment, laboratory tests and neuroimaging, genetic tests, informed consent, inclusion in clinical trials and discussion of advance directives, driving, managing finances and testamentary capacity, pharmolocogical and non-pharmacological treatment and also palliative and end-of-life care. In this article we review these crucial points in decision-making for people with dementia and their families and caregivers.
The intraspecific diversity of Neospora caninum is a determinant for in vivo parasite virulence and in vitro parasite behaviour. The relationship between isolate virulence and specific antibody responses against key parasite proteins has not been well characterized. The response kinetics and the differences in specific anti-rNcGRA7, -rNcSAG4, -rNcBSR4 and -rNcSRS9 antibody levels were analysed by recombinant protein-based ELISA in groups of mice inoculated with 10 different N. caninum isolates that differ in their virulence. The majority of the virulence parameters analysed correlated with the specific antibody levels against the 4 recombinant proteins. The antibodies developed against the highly immunogenic protein NcGRA7 were significantly higher in mice inoculated with high virulence isolates than in those inoculated with low-to-moderate virulence isolates in both non-pregnant and pregnant mouse models. Moreover, these levels were correlated with the anti-N. caninum IgG1 and IgG2a responses and the in vitro tachyzoite yield at 56 h. The antibodies directed against the bradyzoite-specific proteins were not detected in a non-pregnant mouse model. However, some seropositive mice were found in groups inoculated with high virulence isolates in a pregnant mouse model. NcGRA7 and NcSAG4 are proteins clearly correlated with virulence, and to a lesser extent NcBSR4 and NcSRS9 proteins. Moreover, antibodies to bradyzoite-specific proteins appear to also be related to virulence in mice. Further analyses should be performed in order to verify the usefulness of these proteins as predictive markers for virulence in an experimental bovine model of neosporosis.
Endogenous transplacental transmission (EnTT) of Neospora caninum is the most common route of infection in cattle and occurs as a consequence of a reactivation of N. caninum infection that may lead to abortion or to the birth of congenitally infected calves. The reactivation of N. caninum infection was studied during the gestation of chronically infected dams and, for the first time, in their congenitally infected pups. BALB/c mice were infected with Nc-Spain 7 (Group 1) or Nc-Spain 3H (Group 2), high virulence isolates and low-to-moderate virulence isolates, respectively. The mice were mated after 90 days post-infection, and the morbidity, mortality, vertical transmission and humoral immune responses were recorded for 2 consecutive generations. In the first generation, higher morbidity and mortality rates were observed in G1 before mating than in G2 (P < 0·0001). In the second generation, low vertical transmission rates were observed in both inoculated groups (7·7% and 17·1% in G1 and G2, respectively) and were significantly diminished in the third generation (8·7% in G2 versus 0% in G1). Low rates of reactivation of N. caninum infection were induced in chronically infected mice and decreased in subsequent generations regardless of the isolate employed in the inoculations. Thus, further studies are needed to improve this reactivation mouse model.
Although mental health information on the internet is often of poor quality, relatively little is known about the quality of websites, such as Wikipedia, that involve participatory information sharing. The aim of this paper was to explore the quality of user-contributed mental health-related information on Wikipedia and compare this with centrally controlled information sources.
Content on 10 mental health-related topics was extracted from 14 frequently accessed websites (including Wikipedia) providing information about depression and schizophrenia, Encyclopaedia Britannica, and a psychiatry textbook. The content was rated by experts according to the following criteria: accuracy, up-to-dateness, breadth of coverage, referencing and readability.
Ratings varied significantly between resources according to topic. Across all topics, Wikipedia was the most highly rated in all domains except readability.
The quality of information on depression and schizophrenia on Wikipedia is generally as good as, or better than, that provided by centrally controlled websites, Encyclopaedia Britannica and a psychiatry textbook.
Here we present the detection of a gene cluster for Neospora caninum surface genes, similar to the Toxoplasma gondii SRS9 locus, and the cloning and characterization of the NcSRS9 gene. PCR genome walking, using NcBSR4 gene as a framework, allows the identification, upstream NcBSR4, of 2 sequences homologous to the SRS5 and the Ubiquinol-cytochrome C reductase genes and, downstream NcBSR4, of an ORF of 1191 bp coding for a 396-amino acid polypeptide with 59% similarity to the TgSRS9 antigen. A putative 39-residue signal peptide was found at the NH2-terminus followed by a hydrophilic region, and a potential site for a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at the COOH-terminus. A recombinant NcSRS9 protein was produced and was recognized on a Western blot by a low proportion of sera from a panel of naturally infected cows and calves. In addition, Western blot analysis using polyclonal anti-rNcSRS9 revealed stage-specific expression of NcSRS9 in bradyzoites but not in tachyzoites, and immunohistochemistry on brain from a congenitally infected calf showed NcSRS9 recognition in bradyzoites contained in tissue cysts. However, bradyzoite-specific expression of NcSRS9 could not be proven by immunofluorescence on bradyzoites obtained in vitro and RT-PCR analysis showed no significant variations of NcSRS9 transcripts during in vitro tachyzoite-bradyzoite switch, probably due to incomplete maturity of in vitro bradyzoites. Initial characterization of NcSRS9 in this study may lead to further studies for a better understanding of N. caninum persistence.