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We link cleansing effects to contemporary cognitive theories via an account of event representation (intersecting object histories) that provides an explicit, neurally plausible mechanism for encoding objects (e.g., the self) and their associations (with other entities) across time. It explains separation as resulting from weakening associations between the self in the present and the self in the past.
Since 2015, the number of hepatitis B virus (HBV) cases increased substantially in Germany. In 2015, a more sensitive HBV case definition was introduced. This coincided with an asylum seeker influx with differing screening strategies. Information on the asylum seeker status has been collected since 09/2015. We investigated this increase to interpret HBV notification data in Germany. We compared HBV surveillance data from 2010–2013 (baseline) with 2015–2016, excluding 2014 due to beginning of asylum seeker influx. We estimated the excess above the mean case number (baseline) using Poisson regression and compared asylum seeker cases and the excess of cases with the unknown asylum seeker status. HBV cases increased from 1855 (mean baseline) to 3873 (2015) and 3466 (2016) with 1903 asylum seeker cases and 1099 excess-cases with the unknown asylum seeker status in 2015–2016. Cases only fulfilling the changed case definition increased from 60% (1119) in baseline to 81% (P < 0.01) in 2015–2016; 69% of asylum seeker cases and 61% of excess-cases were males <40 years compared to 27% (baseline) (P < 0.01). Changed case definition increased the number of cases in official statistics substantially. Demographic and geographical distributions suggest that screening of asylum seekers increased the case numbers even to a higher extent than surveillance data indicates.
In this chapter we discuss the link between intelligence and problem-solving. To preview, we argue that the ability to solve problems is not just an aspect or feature of intelligence – it is the essence of intelligence. We briefly review evidence from psychometric research concerning the nature of individual differences in intelligence, and then review evidence for how intelligence relates to complex problem-solving. We also consider the question of what mechanisms might underlie both problem-solving and intelligence, focusing on fluid intelligence and some of our own research on placekeeping ability. We then discuss the predictive validity of intelligence as it relates to job performance, mortality, expertise, and academic achievement. We also discuss practical uses of intelligence tests. Finally, we consider the question of whether intelligence as problem-solving ability can be improved through training. We close with directions for future research.
Gilead et al.'s approach to human cognition places abstraction and prediction at the heart of “mental travel” under a “representational diversity” perspective that embraces foundational concepts in cognitive science. But, it gives insufficient credit to the possibility that the process of abstraction produces a gradient, and underestimates the importance of a highly influential domain in predictive cognition: language, and related, the emergence of experientially based structure through time.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
The aim of this research was to look at the emergence of wearable technology and the internet of things (IoT) and their current and potential use in the health and care area. There is a wide and ever-expanding range of wearables, devices, apps, data aggregators and platforms allowing the measurement, tracking and aggregation of a multitude of health and lifestyle measures, information and behaviours. The use and application of such technology and the corresponding richness of data that it can provide bring the health and care insurance market both potential opportunities and challenges. Insurers across a range of fields are already engaging with this type of technology in their proposition designs in areas such as customer engagement, marketing and underwriting. However, it seems like we are just at the start of the journey, on a learning curve to find the optimal practical applications of such technology with many aspects as yet untried, tested or indeed backed up with quantifiable evidence. It is clear though that technology is only part of the solution, on its own it will not engage or change behaviours and insurers will need to consider this in terms of implementation and goals. In the first weeks of forming this working party, it became evident that the potential scope of this technology, the information already out there and the pace of development of it, is almost overwhelming. With many yet-unanswered questions the paper focuses on pulling together in one place relevant information for the consideration of the health and care actuary, and also to open the reader’s eyes to potential future innovations by drawing on use of the technology in other markets and spheres, and the “science fiction–like” new technology that is just around the corner. The paper explores:
an overview of wearables and IoT and available measures,
examples of how this technology is currently being used,
risks and challenges,
future technology developments and
what this may mean for the future of insurance.
Insurers who engage now are likely to be on an evolving business case model and product development journey, over which they can build up their understanding and interpretation of the data that this technology can provide. An exciting area full of potential – when and how will you get involved?
Laryngeal amyloidosis represents approximately 1 per cent of all benign laryngeal lesions, and can cause variable symptoms depending on anatomical location and size. Treatment ranges from observation through to endoscopic microsurgery, laser excision and laryngectomy.
To highlight the diversity of presentations, increase awareness of paediatric amyloidosis and update the reader on current management.
Five cases are illustrated. Four adult patients were female, and the one child, the second youngest in the literature, was male. Amyloid deposits were identified in all laryngeal areas, including the supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Treatment consisted of balloon dilatation, endoscopic excision, laser cruciate incision, and resection with carbon dioxide laser, a microdebrider and coblation wands.
Laryngeal amyloidosis remains a rare and clinically challenging condition. Diagnosis should be considered for unusual appearing submucosal laryngeal lesions. Treatment of this disease needs to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis and managed within an appropriate multidisciplinary team.
A few studies have evaluated the impact of clinical trial results on practice in paediatric cardiology. The Infant Single Ventricle (ISV) Trial results published in 2010 did not support routine use of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in infants with single-ventricle physiology. We sought to assess the influence of these findings on clinical practice.
A web-based survey was distributed via e-mail to over 2000 paediatric cardiologists, intensivists, cardiothoracic surgeons, and cardiac advance practice nurses during three distribution periods. The results were analysed using McNemar’s test for paired data and Fisher’s exact test.
The response rate was 31.5% (69% cardiologists and 65% with >10 years of experience). Among respondents familiar with trial results, 74% reported current practice consistent with trial findings versus 48% before trial publication (p<0.001); 19% used angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in this population “almost always” versus 36% in the past (p<0.001), and 72% reported a change in management or improved confidence in treatment decisions involving this therapy based on the trial results. Respondents familiar with trial results (78%) were marginally more likely to practise consistent with the trial results than those unfamiliar (74 versus 67%, p=0.16). Among all respondents, 28% reported less frequent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor over the last 3 years.
Within 5 years of publication, the majority of respondents was familiar with the Infant Single Ventricle Trial results and reported less frequent use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in single-ventricle infants; however, 28% reported not adjusting their clinical decisions based on the trial’s findings.
In this paper, the design and test of a single-chip RF pulse-width modulator and driver (PWMD) aimed at exciting a high-power class-E GaN high-power stage at 435 MHz is described. For the required buffer size, avoiding potential ringing of the pulses within the buffer structure presents a major challenge in the design process. Therefore, a smaller test chip capable of driving capacitive loads of up to 5 pF was initially designed, fabricated, and tested. An approach based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations was used to validate the test results and offers excellent simulation accuracy. Based on the results obtained for test chip an enlarged PWMD chip capable of driving a 40 W high-power stage has been designed and tested on passive loads representing the targeted final stage.
We investigated second language (L2) comprehension of grammatical structures that are unique to the L2, and which are known to cause persistent difficulties in production. A visual-world eye-tracking experiment focused on online comprehension of English articles by speakers of the article-lacking Mandarin, and a control group of English native speakers. The results show that non-native speakers from article-lacking backgrounds can incrementally utilise the information signalled by L2 articles in real time to constrain referential domains and resolve reference more efficiently. The findings support the hypothesis that L2 processing does not always over-rely on pragmatic affordances, and that some morphosyntactic structures unique to the target language can be processed in a targetlike manner in comprehension – despite persistent difficulties with their production. A novel proposal, based on multiple meaning-to-form, but consistent form-to-meaning mappings, is developed to account for such comprehension–production asymmetries.
We analysed data on laboratory or epidemiologically confirmed cases (n = 856 539) and on outbreaks (n = 31 644) notified during week 31 (2001) to week 30 (2009), and performed molecular typing of specimens from 665 outbreaks. We aimed at identifying demographic and molecular characteristics to inform on potential additional approaches to prevent disease spread in the population. The mean incidence by norovirus season (week 31 in one year to week 30 in the following year) was 130 (range 19–300) cases/100 000 population and was highest in persons aged <5 years (430/100 000) and ⩾75 years (593/100 000). The proportion hospitalized in community-acquired cases was 8–19% per season. The mean norovirus-associated mortality was 0·05/100 000 per season and 0·5/100 000 in the ⩾75 years age group. Most outbreaks with known setting (75%) occurred in hospitals (32%), nursing homes (28%), households (24%) and childcare facilities (10%). GII strains dominated in the outbreak specimens. GII.4 strains were found in 82% of nursing home outbreaks, 85% of hospital outbreaks, and 33% of childcare facility and school outbreaks. Cases in younger individuals were notified earlier during the season than adult cases, and outbreaks in childcare facilities and schools preceded those in nursing/residential homes, hospitals and private households. We suggest future studies to investigate more closely potential transmission patterns between children and adults.
The requirement for dopaminergic drugs in Parkinson's disease (PD) is highly variable. Visual hallucinations are a frequent and serious complication of chronic levodopa therapy. Polymorphisms in the DAT1 gene might affect the reuptake of dopamine in the synaptic cleft, but the influence of this variability on adverse effects or levodopa equivalent dose on PD patients is still poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate DAT1 gene polymorphisms on levodopa equivalent dose and visual hallucination occurrence in PD patients. Altogether, 196 PD patients in treatment with at least 200 mg levodopa equivalent dose for at least 1 yr were included. These patients were genotyped for the −839 C > T and 3′ VNTR DAT1 polymorphisms by PCR-based methodologies. Visual hallucinations occurred in 25.5% of the sample. After controlling for confounders, the dopamine transporter (DAT) −839 C allele was associated with visual hallucinations (prevalence ratio 2.5, 95% confidence intervals 1.13–5.5, p = 0.02). Levodopa equivalent dose was lower in carriers of the nine repeat allele of the DAT 3′UTR VNTR (741.2 ± 355.0 vs. 843.4 ± 445.7), explaining 21% of dose variability (p = 0.01). Our results support an effect of DAT1 polymorphisms in adverse effects of anti-Parkinsonian drugs and in levodopa equivalent dose usage.
In industrialized countries, acute infectious enteric diseases are usually mild, but they can also cause death. They do so, however, at different ages. Using 2004–2008 German notification data, we computed and compared crude and premature mortality [three different measures of years of potential life lost (YPLL)] of illnesses caused by Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, norovirus, rotavirus, non-typhoidal Salmonella spp., and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Among ∼1·5 million notified illnesses, those caused by norovirus were the most frequent. The highest annual mortality was registered for salmonellosis (0·55/1 000 000 population), but listeriosis accounted for the highest number of YPLL (n=4245). Disregarding death at advanced age (i.e. >70 years), STEC illness (n=757) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (n=648) ranked second and third, following listeriosis (n=2306). Routine surveillance captures only a fraction of all incident cases and deaths, under-ascertaining the true burden of disease. Weighting death by age permits a different view on the disease burden individual enteric pathogens cause and particularly underscores the public health importance of listeriosis prevention.
An auditory sentence comprehension task investigated the extent to which the integration of contextual and structural cues was mediated by verbal memory span with 32 English-speaking six- to eight-year-old children. Spoken relative clause sentences were accompanied by visual context pictures which fully (depicting the actions described within the relative clause) or partially (depicting several referents) met the pragmatic assumptions of relativization. Comprehension of the main and relative clauses of centre-embedded and right-branching structures was compared for each context. Pragmatically appropriate contexts exerted a positive effect on relative clause comprehension, but children with higher memory spans demonstrated a further benefit for main clauses. Comprehension for centre-embedded main clauses was found to be very poor, independently of either context or memory span. The results suggest that children have access to adult-like linguistic processing mechanisms, and that sensitivity to extralinguistic cues is evident in young children and develops as cognitive capacity increases.