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The Following design of a Pulsar Survey System with a Huge Interferometric Array is discussed. (1) A Huge Array of 320m × 320m with 256(= 16 × 16) spherical dishes of 20m in diameter, (2) RF is 1.4 GHz, (3) Receivers are frequency modified GPS(1.57542, 1.2276GHz) ones, (4) Phase and Delay Tracking, (5) Phase Calibration using Differential GPS(GPS signal × 2 → CW), (6) (2+1+2)D FFT /256 pixel Imaging + 256 ch Filtering + Dispersion Removal and Period finding(17M point floating 2DFFT by DSP), (8) Observing time required for the same sensitivity to Arecibo τ/τA: 0.88(Timing), 0.003(Survey).
This study described prescribing trends before and after implementing a provincial strategy aimed at improving osteoporosis and fracture prevention in Ontario long-term care (LTC) homes. Data were obtained from a pharmacy provider for 10 LTC homes in 2007 and 166 homes in 2012. We used weighted, multiple linear regression analyses to examine facility-level changes in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates between 2007 and 2012. After five years, the estimated increase in vitamin D, calcium, and osteoporosis medication prescribing rates, respectively, was 38.2 per cent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 29.0, 47.3; p < .001), 4.0 per cent (95% CI: –3.9, 12.0; p = .318), and 0.2 per cent (95% CI: –3.3, 3.7; p = .91). Although the study could not assess causality, findings suggest that wide-scale knowledge translation activities successfully improved vitamin D prescribing rates, although ongoing efforts are needed to target homes with low uptake.
Four microseconds long Ar3+ beam with injection energy of 15 keV/u has been injected into the Digital Accelerator of the High-Energy Accelerator Research Organization. Beam production, transportation, and injection are described as well as machine properties. Results of a free running experiment under static magnetic field and longitudinal confinement and acceleration under a fast ramping magnetic field are presented in detail with a brief discussion on the beam lifetime.
In this study, ZnO f ilms heavily doped with Al or Ga were grown on a polarity-controlled buffer layer using pulsed laser deposition. The films prepared using a 1 mol% Al-doped target with the buffer layer grown at 700 °C had the c(+)-face, whereas the films with the buffer layer grown at 400 °C had the c(-)-face, which means that the polarity control can be successfully carried out using the buffer layer. However, the films prepared using targets doped with more than 1 mol% Al or Ga had the c(+)-face regardless of the polarity of the buffer layer. The 1 mol% Al-doped ZnO film with the c(+)-face had lower electron concentration and higher growth rate than the film with the c(-)-face. This result indicates that the Al content in the film with the c(-)-face was larger than that in the film with the c(+)-face.
The mechanism of improvement in gate oxide integrity (GOI) characteristics by H2 annealing in CZ-grown Silicon wafers was investigated. Grown-in defects that are considered to degrade GOI and which can be detected correlatively as 0.1 μm level size pits appearing after SC-1 cleaning, decrease drastically by H2 annealing, while other inert gases, i.e., N2 and Ar, do not exhibit such effect. Besides, H2 annealing shrinks or extinguishes oxygen precipitates significantly, while other gases do not. On the other hand, oxygen outdiffusion is exactly the same among H2, N2 and Ar annealing. From these results, it was concluded that the dominant mechanism for GOI characteristics improvement by H2 annealing is due to decomposition of the grown-in defects having Si-O bonding by the reduction reaction between Si-O bonding and hydrogen, and not due to a mere thermal decomposition enhanced by oxygen outdiffusion.
The mechanical properties and deformation behavior of each constituent layer of multilayered steel composites were examined using microtensile testing. Three-layered integrated steels consisting of SUS420 and SPCC (cold-reduced carbon steel sheets) were fabricated by a cold-rolling process. Different heat treatment processes were used to prepare three types of specimens (as-rolled, 823K-2 min heat-treated, and 823K-500 min heat-treated), and the effect of heat treatment on their mechanical properties was investigated. In the as-rolled specimens, the average tensile strengths in the SUS420 and SPCC layers were 1063 and 606 MPa, respectively, while in the specimens heat-treated for 500 min, they were 680 and 451 MPa, respectively. The tensile strength decreased with the increase in the heat treatment time. The tensile strength of the specimens was also calculated by using the rule of mixture. For the as-rolled specimens and the 823K-2 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was consistent with the measured value; however, for the 823K-500 min heat-treated specimens, the calculated value was lower than the measured value. This result suggests that the necking of this layered structure was effectively obstructed by the outer ductile layer. The micromechanical characterization technique used in this study is useful not only for investigating deformation behavior but also for designing multilayered steel composites with superior mechanical properties.
A unified physically-based representation of the microstructure in martensitic steels is developed to investigate its effects on the initiation and evolution of failure modes at different physical scales that occur due to a myriad of factors, such as texture, grain size and shape, grain heterogeneous microstructures, and grain boundary (GB) misorientations and distributions. The microstructural formulation is based on a dislocation-density based multiple-slip crystal plasticity model that accounts for variant distributions, orientations, and morphologies. This formulation is coupled to specialized finite-element methods to predict the scale-dependent heterogeneous microstructure, and failure phenomena such as shearstrain localization, and void coalescence.
The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the level of residual damage resulting from nitrogen and boron implants after different anneal processes are investigated using the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique. It is shown that after implantation there is a substantial defect concentration significantly below the range of the implants. However such damage is almost completely recovered after anneal in contrast with the damage close to the implant range point. Such residual damage has a strong effect on the electrical characteristics of double implanted bipolar transistors - principally though reduction in carrier mobility and lifetime. It is shown that the precise implant and anneal conditions play a strong role in the level of such damage and the subsequent electrical performance of bipolar devices.
A simple ion-implanted bipolar transistor technology in 4H-SiC is presented. Suitable for both high-voltage vertical devices and lateral high-temperature transistors (for circuit applications), the technology is based on an implanted boron p-well with nitrogen and boron (or aluminium) implanted n+ and p+ regions respectively. The effects of base doping and carrier lifetime on device performance have been studied using TCAD techniques. It is shown that understanding the strong variation of carrier concentration with temperature (due to deep activation levels) and applied field (so-called field ionization) is critical in device design optimisation. The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the physical and electrical characteristics of the junctions are investigated. It is shown that annealing can remove much of the damage induced by high dose nitrogen implantation but that residual damage is still present. The electrical characteristics of simple BJT transistors with breakdown voltages in excess of 1000V and common-emitter gains of ∼2 is related to the level of such residual damage.
Formation of Au colloid particles and their optical property have been investigated in silica glasses implanted with Au+ ions at an acceleration energy of 1.5MeV and fluence levels of 1016-1017 ions/cm2. The Au colloid particles are formed in the as-implanted glasses. It is inferred that the average radius of Au colloid particles depends on the fluence level, although the fluence level does not affect the distribution of Au atomic concentration. The heat-treatment little affects the Au atomic distribution. The Au colloid particles grow to 4.3nm in average radius during heat treatment. It is revealed that the large nonlinear optical property of the Au+ -ion-implanted silica glass is attributed to the high concentration of the Au colloid particles in the narrow region.
The crystallographic orientation distribution, and its change accompanied with tilting γ/γ boundaries in Ni-based single crystal superalloys have been investigated by a theoretical elastic-plastic calculation, X-ray diffractometry and SEM-EBSD analysis. The distribution of the crystallographic orientation has significantly broadened by creep deformations. The broadening can be explained by an unbalance of the amount of creep dislocations of each slip system, which agrees with the result of elastic-plastic calculations. Creep strain of superalloys crept at a condition forming the raft structure can be estimated by the measurement of the width of rocking curve of a diffraction peak.
A polycrystalline-silicon surface with hemispherical-grain (HSG) is deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition at the transition temperature of the film structure from amorphous to polycrystalline. The surface area of the HSG-Si film is about twice as large as Si films deposited at other temperatures. It is found that the HSG-Si is not formed during deposition, but formed during annealing of amorphous Si surface after deposition. At the annealing temperature which is maintained to be the transition temperature, HSG-Si is formed by the nuclei generation on the amorphous-Si surface and the outward crystalline growth of grains dixough migration of surface Si atoms. By applying the HSG-Si film as the storage electrode for a 64Mbit dynamic random access memory (DRAM) stacked-capacitor with a SiO2Si3N4 dielectric film, twice the capacitance is obtained. The increase in the capacitance makes it possible to reduce the DRAM cell area, even by using a relatively thick dielectric film for higher reliability. Consequently, the HSG-Si technique is applicable to the fabrication process for 64Mbit and larger DRAMs.
An interatomic potential for aluminum was developed, which is based on empirical tight binding approximations. The model successfully reproduced the shear constants, structure energy differences, and phonon dispersion curves. This transferable potential was applied on static surface relaxations, and shows good agreements with experimental results on the oscillatory damped behavior of the multilayer relaxations and the expansion of the (111) surface.
The high temperature cubic phase of Ba2 nr2O5 shows large ion conductivity. It is interestingto examine, if the cubic phase can be stabilized in the low temperature region (920 C) by making solid solution of another element. In the present study, we investigated the ion conductivity and the crystal structure of Ba2(In2-x.Mx)O5 system by substituting In site for element M such as Sc, Y, La, Ce, Nb, Ta etc. By substituting 3 mole % Nb for In, the transition temperature decreased by about 300 C. High temperature X-ray diffraction analysis shows the crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to cubic at this transition temperature. The effective elements which decreased the transition temperature were pentavalent or tetra valent elements such as Nb or Si ,Ce. The substitution In site for 20 mole percentage Nb stabilizes the cubic structure down to room temperature. Considering the transport number, the tetravalent element doping is very effective to stabilize the cubic phase of Ba2In2O5 without lose of excellent characteristic of pure Ba2ln2O5.
We have investigated MSA, namely, Laser Spike Annealing (LSA) and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA), dopant activation technology of source/drain extension for 45 nm node, which can be substituted for spike RTA. Since it is possible to achieve a similar relation between a sheet resistance and a junction depth by using either FLA or LSA, both annealing methods are capable of providing the junction characteristics required by the ITRS target. However, we have noticed that there are three crucial issues from the viewpoints of device integration and CMOSFET performance: junction leakage current, gate leakage current and pattern dependence. In this report, we discuss these issues and indicate how to cope with them.
Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) technique was used to deposit nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin film transistors (TFT) on thin polyimide sheets. Two straight tantalum filaments at 1850°C with a substrate to filament distance of 4 cm was used to deposit HWCVD nc-Si with no thermal damage to plastic sheet. Top-gate staggered TFTs were fabricated at 150°C and 250°C using a HWCVD nc-Si channel, PECVD silicon nitride gate dielectric, and microcrystalline n+ drain/source contacts. Leakage current of 3.3×10-12 A, switching current ratio of 3×106, and sub threshold swing of 0.51 V/decade were obtained for TFTs with aspect ratio of 1400 µm / 100 µm fabricated at 150°C. The highest electron field effect mobility was found to be 0.3 cm2/V.s observed for TFTs deposited at lower substrate temperature. Measurements showed superior threshold voltage stability of HW nc-Si TFTs over their amorphous silicon (a-Si) counterparts.
We successfully measured the mechanoluminesence (ML) from a single ML nanoparticle at the first time. In order to measure the weak light emission from a single nanoparticle induced by applying a micro force, we developed an AFM-based new apparatus with a photomultiplier. Interestingly, the emission (ML) intensity from a nanoparticle was approximately proportional to the load, the phenomena is similar to the macroscopic ML emission properties.
White OLED consisting of a fluorescent blue emissive layer combined with a phosphorescent green and a phosphorescent red emissive layer were processed by means of Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD). Different concepts to tune the color coordinates of the device are discussed with respect to the luminous efficiency. Furthermore, the influence of device aging on the emitted spectrum is being investigated by means of spectrally resolved lifetime measurements.
Human rotavirus strains from Kenya, from children with gastroenteritis in an urban area (Nairobi) and three rural areas were characterized by antigenic and genomic analysis. While in all areas strains with subgroups II and G serotype 1 antigens were most common, two unusual strains were detected. One strain (NK59: subgroup II. G serotype 4) possessed an additional RNA band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the other (D202) which had antigenic specificity of subgroup II and G serotype 1 showed a ‘short’ RNA pattern. The latter strain was adapted to growth in cell culture.