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In our response to the 27 commentaries, we refine the theoretical claims, clarify several misconceptions of our framework, and explore substantial disagreements. In doing so, we (1) show that our framework accommodates multiple historical scenarios; (2) debate the historical evidence, particularly about “pre-Axial” religions; (3) offer important details about cultural evolutionary theory; (4) clarify the term prosociality; and (4) discuss proximal mechanisms. We review many interesting extensions, amplifications, and qualifications of our approach made by the commentators.
We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10–12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.
Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Champlain Valley (northeastern USA) contain stratigraphic and micropaleontologic evidence for multiple, high-magnitude, freshwater discharges from North American proglacial lakes to the North Atlantic. Of particular interest are two large, closely spaced outflows that entered the North Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence estuary about 13,200–12,900 cal yr BP, near the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold event. We estimate from varve chronology, sedimentation rates and proglacial lake volumes that the duration of the first outflow was less than 1 yr and its discharge was approximately 0.1 Sv (1 Sverdrup = 106 m3 s−1). The second outflow lasted about a century with a sustained discharge sufficient to keep the Champlain Sea relatively fresh for its duration. According to climate models, both outflows may have had sufficient discharge, duration and timing to affect meridional ocean circulation and climate. In this report we compare the proglacial lake discharge record in the Champlain and St. Lawrence valleys to paleoclimate records from Greenland Ice cores and Cariaco Basin and discuss the two-step nature of the inception of the Younger Dryas.
New nanocrystalline, multicomponent extremely soft magnetic materials with superior high temperature magnetic properties hold great promise in power applications. Fabricated in ribbon form by rapid solidification methods, the initial material is amorphous. By controlled annealing procedures, the amorphous material was transformed into a nanocrystalline form with the degree of crystallinity determined by the annealing temperature and time. The magnetic structures of ribbons, as-fabricated and annealed at temperatures from 550 to 750 °C were examined by magnetic force microscopy to determine the impact of residual stress and nanocrystallinity on the observed structure. A correlation was seen between the magnetic structures and surface microstructure. The wheel side of the as-processed ribbon was rougher than the top side of the ribbon and a complicated magnetic domain structure was present in the amorphous material. After annealing, nanocrystals formed, increasing in size with increasing temperature. The lowest temperature annealed sample had a bimodal grain size distribution and a combination of stripe and localized domains. After annealing little difference was seen between the two sides of the ribbons. Stripe domains were absent in the ribbons annealed at the highest temperatures.
Alloys consisting of Fe-Co-M-B-Cu (with M = Zr, Hf, Nb), called HITPERM alloys, have been developed. Synchrotron X-radiation studies have been used to show that the ferromagnetic phase in an equiatomic FeCo-based alloy is the α'-FeCo phase. Since both the α'-FeCo phase and the FeCo-based amorphous phase of the nanocrystalline alloy have high Curie temperatures, a high magnetization persists up to the α -> γ structural phase transformation temperature of 980°C. Room temperature AC permeability measurements have shown that the alloys maintain a high permeability of ∼2000 up to a frequency of 20 kHz. The room temperature core loss has also been shown to be competitive with commercial high temperature magnetic alloys with a value of 1 W/g at Bs = 10 kG andf= 10 kHz. Analysis of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data is consistent with a two-phase mixture of nanocrystalline body centered cubic derivative FeCo structure and an amorphous Zr-rich phase. A differential scanning calorimetry study of the primary crystallization reaction shows an activation energy of 323.3 kJ/mol. As a preliminary study of phase and grain stability, broadening of X-ray diffraction peaks indicates little grain growth after annealing at 600 °C for 3072 hours.
In this work we describe crystallization kinetics as inferred from time-dependent magnetization studies and thermal analysis for an Allied Signal amorphous Fe-based METGLAS® 2605SA-1 alloy and a NANOPERM (Fe88Zr7B4Cu1) alloy. We illustrate and contrast several phenomena important to understanding crystallization kinetics in particular to the NANOPERM alloy system. In METGLAS® 2605SA-1 primary and secondary crystallization events are observed in differential scanning calorimetry data (DSC) at temperatures of 504 °C and 549 °C, respectively for data taken at a 10 °C/min scan rate. Both temperatures are greater than the Curie temperature of the amorphous alloy. For the NANOPERM alloy primary crystallization (as determined from differential thermal analysis (DTA)) occurs at 500 °C and secondary crystallization at 730 °C and M(t) at temperatures near the primary crystallization temperature is dominated (at short times < 1 hour) by the primary crystallization event. Using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation for isothermal transformations and the Kissinger equation for constant heating transformations, we find corresponding models for the crystallization kinetics of the NANOPERM alloy.
The Department of Defense (DoD) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) requested that the National Research Council's National Materials Advisory Board conduct a study to assess the current status of microwave processing technology, identify applications of microwave technology where resulting properties are unique or enhanced relative to conventional processing or where significant cost, energy or space savings can be realized, and to recommend future activities in microwave processing. A committee was established to perform the study and report on their findings. This paper is a summary developed from the committee's report, Microwave Processing of Materials (NMAB Report Number 473, Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy Press, Washington, DC).
This study focuses on a Co-based nanocrystalline alloy (Co84.55Fe4.45Zr7B4) with potential for long-term high temperature use. As an indication of their performance, core losses were measured on toroidal samples using a Walker AC permeameter over a frequency range of 0.1 to 500 kHz, at induction amplitudes of 100, 300, and 500 mT, and temperatures from 22 to 300°C. For a given frequency and maximum induction amplitude, the losses were invariant as a function of measurement temperature. Vibrating sample magnetometry provided the magnetization and hysteretic losses as a function of temperature. As the temperature of the alloy was raised to 300°C from room temperature, the saturation magnetization (120 emu/g)was reduced by less than 15%. A toroid was aged at 300°C for up to 300 hours and core loss measured as a function of aging time at the previously mentioned frequencies and induction amplitudes. The losses were invariant over the aging time.
Humans undergoing intense exercise exhibit transient microalbuminuria. Previous studies have shown that swimming, but not running, induces microalbuminuria in dogs. In this study, urine samples were collected from nineteen well-conditioned Alaskan sled dogs and analysed by the Heska ERD-Screen Test for microalbuminuria. None of the dogs has microalbuminuria, indicated that well-trained dogs do not develop microalbuminuria after running. Further studies are needed to determine if these dogs do develop microalbuminuria after competition or longer-distane runs.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.