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Les problèmes psychosociaux dans le monde de l’entreprise sont de plus en plus fréquents et de plus en plus graves. L’augmentation continue du nombre de suicides au travail, dont les médias se font régulièrement l’écho, en témoigne. La France est l’un des pays les plus touchés. Pourtant, les réponses proposées dans le monde de l’entreprise restent limitées à la gestion du stress, semblant ignorer l’existence de réels troubles de l’humeur d’origine professionnelle. Il est vrai que la plupart des intervenants au sein des entreprises n’ont pas de formation psychiatrique. Il existe d’authentiques dépressions professionnelles qui surviennent suite à des difficultés dans le monde du travail et s’expriment principalement au travail. Ces dépressions représentent la majeure partie des dépenses médicales occasionnées par les problèmes de santé mentale. La dépression des dirigeants d’entreprise, souvent méconnue, est un facteur causal de certaines faillites. La sémiologie est spécifique, les éléments de prise en charge et de prévention primaire, sont très différents de ceux du stress professionnel. De la même façon, le cadre législatif est surprenant. La dépression n’existe pas dans le tableau des maladies professionnelles, et sa reconnaissance hors tableau est difficile, avec en particulier, une absence de présomption d’origine. Au contraire, le suicide est désormais fréquemment reconnu comme accident du travail. Notre intervention, après avoir rappelé la sémiologie spécifique des troubles de l’humeur d’origine professionnelle, fera le point sur les aspects de prévention spécifique et sur les éléments de prise en charge. Nous présenterons, pour conclure, la prise en charge que nous avons mise en place dans un établissement bancaire français.
In our response to the 27 commentaries, we refine the theoretical claims, clarify several misconceptions of our framework, and explore substantial disagreements. In doing so, we (1) show that our framework accommodates multiple historical scenarios; (2) debate the historical evidence, particularly about “pre-Axial” religions; (3) offer important details about cultural evolutionary theory; (4) clarify the term prosociality; and (4) discuss proximal mechanisms. We review many interesting extensions, amplifications, and qualifications of our approach made by the commentators.
Throughout the modern period the Bible's role in society has been substantial. Sunday school and Bible-study groups continue to shape people and society. Forty years after the debates began in England, biblical debates over slavery raged in the United States, until the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863. Both sides in the slavery debate appealed vigorously to the Bible. The cultural underpinnings of slavery were colonial expansions by Western countries. Zionism witnesses uniquely to colonialism. Third World womanist liberationists exposit, white feminist expositions too are found wanting, as in the notable article by Indian writer Mukto Barton. This chapter shows why discernment in biblical interpretation on social moral issues has been difficult in the past, and why it continues to be difficult today. The culture of the global South is closer to the social, cultural and intellectual milieu of biblical times and thus the Bible appeals, producing phenomenal church growth.
We develop a cultural evolutionary theory of the origins of prosocial religions and apply it to resolve two puzzles in human psychology and cultural history: (1) the rise of large-scale cooperation among strangers and, simultaneously, (2) the spread of prosocial religions in the last 10–12 millennia. We argue that these two developments were importantly linked and mutually energizing. We explain how a package of culturally evolved religious beliefs and practices characterized by increasingly potent, moralizing, supernatural agents, credible displays of faith, and other psychologically active elements conducive to social solidarity promoted high fertility rates and large-scale cooperation with co-religionists, often contributing to success in intergroup competition and conflict. In turn, prosocial religious beliefs and practices spread and aggregated as these successful groups expanded, or were copied by less successful groups. This synthesis is grounded in the idea that although religious beliefs and practices originally arose as nonadaptive by-products of innate cognitive functions, particular cultural variants were then selected for their prosocial effects in a long-term, cultural evolutionary process. This framework (1) reconciles key aspects of the adaptationist and by-product approaches to the origins of religion, (2) explains a variety of empirical observations that have not received adequate attention, and (3) generates novel predictions. Converging lines of evidence drawn from diverse disciplines provide empirical support while at the same time encouraging new research directions and opening up new questions for exploration and debate.
Radiocarbon-dated sediment cores from the Champlain Valley (northeastern USA) contain stratigraphic and micropaleontologic evidence for multiple, high-magnitude, freshwater discharges from North American proglacial lakes to the North Atlantic. Of particular interest are two large, closely spaced outflows that entered the North Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence estuary about 13,200–12,900 cal yr BP, near the beginning of the Younger Dryas cold event. We estimate from varve chronology, sedimentation rates and proglacial lake volumes that the duration of the first outflow was less than 1 yr and its discharge was approximately 0.1 Sv (1 Sverdrup = 106 m3 s−1). The second outflow lasted about a century with a sustained discharge sufficient to keep the Champlain Sea relatively fresh for its duration. According to climate models, both outflows may have had sufficient discharge, duration and timing to affect meridional ocean circulation and climate. In this report we compare the proglacial lake discharge record in the Champlain and St. Lawrence valleys to paleoclimate records from Greenland Ice cores and Cariaco Basin and discuss the two-step nature of the inception of the Younger Dryas.
Objective diagnostics of excessive alcohol use are valuable tools in the identification and monitoring of subjects with alcohol use disorders. A number of potential biomarkers of alcohol intake have been proposed, but none have reached widespread clinical usage, often due to limited diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. In order to identify novel potential biomarkers, we performed proteomic biomarker target discovery in plasma samples from non-human primates that chronically self-administer high levels of ethanol. Two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to quantify plasma proteins from within-subject samples collected before exposure to ethanol and after 3 months of excessive ethanol self-administration. Highly abundant plasma proteins were depleted from plasma samples to increase proteomic coverage. Altered plasma levels of serum amyloid A4 (SAA4), retinol-binding protein, inter-alpha inhibitor H4, clusterin, and fibronectin, identified by 2D-DIGE analysis, were confirmed in unmanipulated, whole plasma from these animals by immunoblotting. Examination of these target plasma proteins in human subjects with excessive alcohol consumption (and control subjects) revealed increased levels of SAA4 and clusterin and decreased levels of fibronectin compared to controls. These proteins not only serve as targets for further development as biomarker candidates or components of biomarker panels, but also add to the growing understanding of dysregulated immune function and lipoprotein metabolism with chronic, excessive alcohol consumption.
Humans undergoing intense exercise exhibit transient microalbuminuria. Previous studies have shown that swimming, but not running, induces microalbuminuria in dogs. In this study, urine samples were collected from nineteen well-conditioned Alaskan sled dogs and analysed by the Heska ERD-Screen Test for microalbuminuria. None of the dogs has microalbuminuria, indicated that well-trained dogs do not develop microalbuminuria after running. Further studies are needed to determine if these dogs do develop microalbuminuria after competition or longer-distane runs.
Nutrigenomics is the study of how constituents of the diet interact with genes, and their products, to alter phenotype and, conversely, how genes and their products metabolise these constituents into nutrients, antinutrients, and bioactive compounds. Results from molecular and genetic epidemiological studies indicate that dietary unbalance can alter gene–nutrient interactions in ways that increase the risk of developing chronic disease. The interplay of human genetic variation and environmental factors will make identifying causative genes and nutrients a formidable, but not intractable, challenge. We provide specific recommendations for how to best meet this challenge and discuss the need for new methodologies and the use of comprehensive analyses of nutrient–genotype interactions involving large and diverse populations. The objective of the present paper is to stimulate discourse and collaboration among nutrigenomic researchers and stakeholders, a process that will lead to an increase in global health and wellness by reducing health disparities in developed and developing countries.
Sustained strenuous exercise has been shown to produce gastrointestinal disease in athletic species, but the causative factors remain unknown. Since exercise results in oxidative stress and hypercortisolaemia, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative and physiological stress cause gastrointestinal disease in racing Alaskan sled dogs. Dogs from three racing teams were examined before (pre) and immediately after (post) completing a 1770-km sled dog race in approximately 11 days. Serum cortisol and isoprostane concentrations were compared with markers of gastrointestinal barrier integrity and endoscopic evidence of gastric ulceration. Gastric barrier integrity was assessed by measuring the urinary recovery of sucrose and intestinal barrier integrity was assessed using the urinary recovery ratio of lactulose to rhamnose (L/R), administered together by orogastric gavage. Exercise produced a significant increase in median serum cortisol (pre: 1040, 717–2946 pg ml−1 (range); post: 8072, 2228–29 571 pg ml−1; P<0.0001) and L/R recovery ratio (pre: 0.110, 0.060–0.270; post: 0.165, 0.080–0.240; P=0.009) but not isoprostane (pre: 1007, 656–2305 pg ml−1; post: 1164, 23–4710 pg ml−1; P=0.194) concentration. The increased serum cortisol concentration was not correlated with a change in L/R recovery ratio or urine sucrose concentration. Dogs with abnormal gastric endoscopy results (61% of finishers) had higher serum cortisol concentrations than dogs with normal endoscopy results (P=0.0007). We have demonstrated concurrent hypercortisolaemia and gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction with no correlation of the two. Thus, our data do not provide support for the hypothesis that increased serum cortisol concentration causes exercise-induced gastrointestinal disease.
This study focuses on a Co-based nanocrystalline alloy (Co84.55Fe4.45Zr7B4) with potential for long-term high temperature use. As an indication of their performance, core losses were measured on toroidal samples using a Walker AC permeameter over a frequency range of 0.1 to 500 kHz, at induction amplitudes of 100, 300, and 500 mT, and temperatures from 22 to 300°C. For a given frequency and maximum induction amplitude, the losses were invariant as a function of measurement temperature. Vibrating sample magnetometry provided the magnetization and hysteretic losses as a function of temperature. As the temperature of the alloy was raised to 300°C from room temperature, the saturation magnetization (120 emu/g)was reduced by less than 15%. A toroid was aged at 300°C for up to 300 hours and core loss measured as a function of aging time at the previously mentioned frequencies and induction amplitudes. The losses were invariant over the aging time.