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We describe a new extinct spiny rat, Proclinodontomys dondasi n. gen. n. sp. (Rodentia, Caviomorpha, Echimyidae), represented by a noteworthy preserved skull and mandible from the early-middle Pleistocene outcrops at the coastal cliffs of SE Buenos Aires Province (Central Argentina). Phylogenetic analyses allow us to propose that the new species described here and the already known Eurzygomatomys mordax (Winge) represent a new genus closely related to the living Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Clyomys laticeps. The new genus differs from Euryzygomatomys and Clyomys by having much more procumbent upper incisors, a more developed fossa for the M. temporalis, more flared and laterally expanded zygomatic arches, frontal less markedly expanded posteriorly, jugals much deeper anteriorly than posteriorly, with the dorsal border descending more abruptly posteriorly, smaller orbital cavity, and external auditory meatus relatively smaller and slanted upward and backward. Several features of the new species reflect a higher degree of adaptation to semifossorial habits than those of E. spinosus. The origin of the semifossorial ecomorphotype within echimyids may have been triggered by the expansion of relatively open and arid environments that arose near the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. The record of this new echimyid in Central Argentina indicates that during the early-middle Pleistocene, the southern limit of the geographic range of extinct representatives of the Brazilian lineage of semifossorial echimyids extended farther south than that of their living members.
Dementia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without pharmacologic prevention or cure. Mounting evidence suggests that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may slow cognitive decline, and is important to characterise in at-risk cohorts. Thus, we determined the reliability and validity of the Mediterranean Diet and Culinary Index (MediCul), a new tool, among community-dwelling individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A total of sixty-eight participants (66 % female) aged 75·9 (sd 6·6) years, from the Study of Mental and Resistance Training study MCI cohort, completed the fifty-item MediCul at two time points, followed by a 3-d food record (FR). MediCul test–retest reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland–Altman plots and κ agreement within seventeen dietary element categories. Validity was assessed against the FR using the Bland–Altman method and nutrient trends across MediCul score tertiles. The mean MediCul score was 54·6/100·0, with few participants reaching thresholds for key Mediterranean foods. MediCul had very good test–retest reliability (ICC=0·93, 95 % CI 0·884, 0·954, P<0·0001) with fair-to-almost-perfect agreement for classifying elements within the same category. Validity was moderate with no systematic bias between methods of measurement, according to the regression coefficient (y=−2·30+0·17x) (95 % CI −0·027, 0·358; P=0·091). MediCul over-estimated the mean FR score by 6 %, with limits of agreement being under- and over-estimated by 11 and 23 %, respectively. Nutrient trends were significantly associated with increased MediCul scoring, consistent with a Mediterranean pattern. MediCul provides reliable and moderately valid information about Mediterranean diet adherence among older individuals with MCI, with potential application in future studies assessing relationships between diet and cognitive function.
Using Latinobarometer survey data, we study the evolution of religious identities among the adult populations of 17 Latin American countries between 1996 and 2013. We find several interesting patterns. First, the current religious landscape is highly dynamic and is becoming increasingly pluralist among a majority of countries. Changes derive not only from the growth of Evangelicals, as commonly assumed, but also from the sharp rise in irreligious individuals. Second, religious change cannot be convincingly explained by important theories such as secularization, religious economies, and anomie. However, the predictions derived from anomie theory seem more useful for understanding Evangelical growth. Finally, our cohort analysis indicates that aggregate religious change largely results from individual-level change across time—religious conversion and apostasy—rather than from generational replacement. Still, there are interesting variations across countries in that respect.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective and fast acting therapy for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Animal research has consistently pointed to neuroplasticity as a central mechanism of ECT action (1), however evidence in humans remains scarce (2; 3).
We assessed two independent samples of TRD patients referred for ECT. The Barcelona-sample included 13 subjects treated with bitemporal ECT and 10 healthy volunteers (HV). Four successive 3T structural MRIs were acquired: baseline, 24-48 hours after the 1st ECT session, 24-48 hours after the 9th ECT, and two weeks after ECT course completion. HV were scanned twice five weeks apart. Within the framework of the Barcelona-Sydney Clinical Imaging Collaboration, we also scanned 10 patients treated mainly with right unilateral ECT (Sydney-sample). Whole-brain longitudinal grey matter (GM) changes were measured using intra-subject diffeomorphic registration, within SPM12b.
In the Barcelona-sample, over the course of treatment bitemporal ECT produced a linear increase of GM volume in the limbic system (involving bilateral hippocampi and amygdalae). Additionally, volumetric increase within the right subgenual cortex was detected from baseline to the 9th ECT session. Such volume changes were not observed in HV. Furthermore, GM volume expansion correlated positively with depressive symptom improvement and neurocognitive performance (memory and executive function). Hippocampal and amygdalar volume increases were replicated in the Sydney-sample, although limited to the stimulated hemisphere.
ECT effects described here could be accounted for by the induction of regionally specific structural plasticity. Nevertheless, other mechanisms such as neurovascular changes should not be discarded.
We present the optical/infrared counterpart to GT0106+613, a transient gamma-ray source believed to be a blazar. Long-term differential photometry and satellite information was used to confirm the variability in optical/infrared wavelengths, correlated with gamma-ray flares from the source. An intense optical flare with no counterpart in gamma-rays is also remarkable.
In this work we shed new light in the nature of spiral arm structures in galaxies. We present a disk kinematic and dynamic study of MW like galaxies using complementary approaches: analytical models, test-particle simulations, pure N-body and cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations. Using collisionless N-body data we have found that models with strong bar present a flat rotation frequency, i.e. rigid body rotation, whereas in the opposite extreme case, i.e. in unbarred systems, spiral arms are disk corotant (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2013). Complementary to this work, we discuss how the vertex deviation parameter is a good tracer of corotation (CR) and outer Lindblad resonance radius (OLR) (Roca-Fàbrega et al. 2014). We have succeeded to produce MW like models in fully cosmological N-body plus hydrodynamic simulations with a high resolution (Roca-Fàbrega et al., in preparation). First results concerning disk phase space properties in terms of spiral arm nature using these simulations are presented (http://www.am.ub.edu/ sroca/shared/PosterRocaFabrega.pdf).
The purpose of this paper was to prepare purified Na- bentonite with improved properties for use in the pharmaceutical industry. Calcium bentonite from the Shagia region of Karak district, Pakistan, was activated with various proportions of sodium carbonate (2, 3, 5 and 8 wt.%) and purified by sedimentation to remove impurities, especially quartz. X-ray diffraction (XRD), and swelling volume confirmed the conversion of raw bentonite to sodium bentonite by using 5% Na2CO3. The sodium bentonite (K5) obtained by activation met the chemical and microbiological requirements set by the pharmacopeias regarding the toxic trace elemental content (Pb and As), absence of E. coli, total aerobic microbial contents and physicochemical properties such as swelling volume, pH and sedimentation volume. Therefore K5 bentonite could be designated as potentially suitable for pharmaceutical applications. The CEC, surface area, porosity, pH, gel formation and swelling volume indicated that K5 bentonite could be used in the formulation of oral suspension and in topical application.
We quantified the time burden of alcohol-based handrub accompanying nonsterile-glove use among emergency physicians, through observation in controlled and clinical settings. We report gloving episodes per hour, gloving times with and without handrub, and handrub recommendations compliance. Handrub adds 46 seconds to each glove-use episode, and we provide national extrapolations.
A psichiatric emergency is a situation where disorders of thought, mood or behavior are so disruptive that require immediate assistance.
To analyze clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, predictors of hospitalization, and poli-attendance in patients attended in a reference area psychiatric emergency service.
All assistances from 01.12.2011 to 31.01.12 were recorded in a database. Patient poly-attendance was defined by two or more assistances during the study period. Logistic regression analysis was performed to find out hospitalization and poli-attendance predictors.
N = 219. 50.68% male, 49.32% female; 86.75% between 20-64 years. 45.62% finished primary studies. 80.82% owned social support network. 80.73% unemployed. 71.89% voluntary assistances. 58.97% already tracked by mental health, 24.66% first contact. Reason care: anxiety (24.20%), behavioral disorders (22.57%), suicide (20.55%) and psychosis (12.79%). Final diagnoses: psychosis (24.20%), anxiety (15.48%), depression (10.05%), drugs abuse (9.13%), personality disorders (17.35%), mental retardation (8.22%), social issues (16.89%).26.94% were poly-attendance, assisted by: organic mental disorder (OR= 21,10, IC95%), personality disorders (OR=4,313, IC95%), mental retardation (OR=5,545, IC95%), social issues (OR=2,94, IC95%). 24.20% of the patients hospitalized. Factors associated to risk: age range 15-20 (OR 12.10, IC95%); psychosis (OR = 51.03, IC 95%), depression (OR = 14.61, IC95%), bipolar disorder (OR=20,38, IC 95%).
Minor diseases, social issues or stables axis II disorders accomplished most attendances. Hospitalitation was associated with severe mental illness and lower age.Poly-attendance is not associated with axis I patology, but it is with axis II and IV disorders.
We present an observational program we started in 1999, to systematically obtain mid-resolution spectra of late-type stars, to study in particular chromospheric activity. In particular, we found cyclic activity in four dM stars, including Prox-Cen. We directly derived the conversion factor that translates the known S index to flux in the Ca II cores, and extend its calibration to a wider spectral range. We investigated the relation between the activity measurements in the calcium and hydrogen lines, and found that the usual correlation observed is the product of the dependence of each flux on stellar color, and it is not always preserved when simultaneous observations of a particular star are considered. We also used our observations to model the chromospheres of stars of different spectral types and activity levels, and found that the integrated chromospheric radiative losses, normalized to the surface luminosity, show a unique trend for G and K dwarfs when plotted against the S index.
Ce-containing MCM-41 mesoporous materials with large surface area and ordered pore structure system have been possible to be synthesized through a surfactant-assisted approach. The textural properties and structural regularity of the materials varied with the Si/Ce molar ratio. It is found that the band at 970 cm-1 in the FTIR spectrum of the Ce-MCM-41 mesoporous materials might be used as an indicator of the formation of the Ce-O-Si bond and its intensity as a measure of a degree of cerium ion substitution in the framework of Si-MCM-41. When Ni was loaded on the Ce-MCM-41 support, the Ni/Ce-MCM-41 catalysts show high catalytic activity which has strong temperature dependence. The methane conversion over these catalysts reached 60-75 % with a 100 % selectivity towards hydrogen.
A comparative study of different sorbent materials was performed in order to propose an integrated system to eliminate both, anionic and cationic contaminant ions in drinking water, such as Cr (VI) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes). The adsorption process was studied using several adsorbents: activated carbon, cationic clays (bentonite) and natural zeolite as well as anionic clays (Al-Mg/Nitrate hydrotalcites). The activated carbon and natural zeolites were commercial samples, while hydrotalcite-like compounds were synthesized by an ultrasound-assisted method. It was found that although activated carbon showed a good performance in the cationic sorption, the calcined hydrotalcites presented the highest sorption capacity of chromates compared with activated carbon which had a good performance only up to 100 ppm. For higher concentrations (>100 ppm) activated carbon is saturated rapidly and its sorptive capacity is practically null.
J. M. Anderson, Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, National Institute of Health, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Room 2E-22, Rockville, MD 20852 USA,
J. G. Valenzuela, Vector Molecular Biology Unit, Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research, NIAID, National Institute of Health, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Room 2E-22, Rockville, MD 20852 USA
When a tick attaches to a mammalian host to obtain a blood meal it must counteract the well developed haemostatic, inflammatory and immune systems which function to avoid blood loss and to reject unwanted guests. Ticks have been in the blood-feeding business for millions of years and have acquired potent pharmacologically active molecules found in their saliva that can disarm and counteract the haemostatic system of the mammalian host (Ribeiro, 1987b, 1995) and alter the host inflammatory and immune responses (Gillespie et al., 2000; Wikel, 1999). The types of molecules present in tick saliva range from lipids to small peptides and large proteins; each is capable of altering the physiology of the feeding site, consequently affecting pathogen transmission (Ribeiro, 1995; Valenzuela, 2002b; see also Chapter 10). Adaptation of ticks to their natural hosts resulted in the ability of ticks to modulate host immune and haemostatic responses with their saliva. However, tick feeding on non-natural hosts often results in an immune and allergic response, presumably to the injected salivary proteins, resulting in tick rejection (Ribeiro, 1989). Furthermore, in some cases, an immune response to tick feeding confers protection against the pathogens ticks transmit.
Because of the importance of tick saliva, there is increasing interest in the identification and isolation of the molecules in saliva responsible for these effects. The small amount of protein and other biological material present in tick salivary glands has made this a difficult task for many years.
Corneal transplant, also known as penetrating keratoplasty, has a 90% success rate as defined by clear grafts in 1 year. The primary indication for the procedure is a hazy or opaque cornea causing decrease in vision. The etiologies of corneal opacities include congenital defects, hereditary dystrophies, infection, and trauma. Occasionally, corneal transplants are performed simultaneously with cataract surgery, intraocular lens exchange, or with posterior segment surgery, depending on other conditions affecting vision. The procedure is not as common as lamellar keratoplasty, in which only the anterior surface of the cornea is grafted, leaving the posterior surface intact.
For most patients, the operation is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia with monitored anesthesia care. Under special circumstances, a patient may require general anesthesia and overnight stay in the hospital. Depending on whether or not other intraocular surgeries are performed at the same time, the operation lasts between one half to two hours and involves removing the patient's hazy cornea and replacing it with a clear donor cornea that is sewn in place with nylon sutures. It is performed under an operating microscope and requires the patient to lie still. When the operation is complete, the patient is given topical medications and the eye should be patched overnight. Blood loss is minimal to none during the procedure.
Usual postoperative course
Expected postoperative hospital stay
Most patients go home on the day of surgery.
Extremely low and generally associated with the anesthetic used.
Vitreoretinal surgical techniques are used to address disorders of the posterior segment of the eye. Great strides have been made in the ability to safely and effectively operate in the posterior segment over the last 20 years. With the evolution of advanced microsurgical instruments, computerized infusion and aspiration systems, endolaser probes, perfluorocarbon heavy liquid for manipulation of detached retinal tissue, implantable slow-release pharmacological devices, wide angle optical viewing systems, and long-acting gases and silicone oil for intraocular tamponade, the spectrum of disorders which are amenable to operative intervention has broadened significantly. The treatment of intraocular tumors with radioactive episcleral plaques has also become well established in recent years. However, in many cases of primary retinal detachment, the most appropriate treatment remains the standard scleral buckling operation that has been performed for over 60 years.
The scleral buckling operation consists of placing a strip of silicone around the outside of the globe to cause a slight indentation or buckle of the eye wall. The buckle achieves its purpose because the indentation helps close the causative retinal tear inside the eye. A combination of support from the buckle and chorioretinal scarring induced by treating the tear with cryotherapy maintain closure of the retinal tear. Complex retinal detachments with very large or posteriorly located retinal tears, significant retinal scarring, vitreous hemorrhage, or severe cataract formation are usually approached with a combination of scleral buckle and the more advanced intraocular vitrectomy techniques listed above.