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Multiple lines of evidence suggest the presence of altered neuroimmune processes in patients with schizophrenia (Sz) and severe mood disorders. Recent studies using a novel free water diffusion tensor imaging (FW DTI) approach, proposed as a putative biomarker of neuroinflammation, atrophy, or edema, have shown significantly increased FW in patients with Sz. However no studies to date have investigated the longitudinal stability of FW alterations during the early course of psychosis, nor have studies focused separately on FE psychosis patients with Sz or bipolar disorder (BD) with psychotic features.
The current study included 188 participants who underwent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging scanning at baseline. Sixty-four participants underwent follow-up rescanning after 12 months. DTI-based alterations in patients were calculated using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics and region of interest analyses.
Patients with FE psychosis, both Sz and BD, exhibited increased FW at illness onset which remained unchanged over the 12-month follow-up period. Preliminary analyses suggested that antipsychotic medication exposure was associated with higher FW in gray matter that reached significance in the BD group. Higher FW in white matter correlated with negative symptom severity.
Our results support the presence of elevated FW at the onset of psychosis in both Sz and BD, which remains stable during the early course of the illness, with no evidence of either progression or remission.
Improving understanding of and outcomes for early-course psychosis (ECP) is a recognised global mental health priority. We argue digital health technologies can advance care for ECP by better accounting for clinical heterogeneity, offering better predictive models, increasing access to early interventions and enhancing existing treatment options.
Declaration of interest
L.M.T. owns shares in Safari Health Inc – a digital health technology company.
The first mental health act legislation in the history of the Philippines has been officially signed into law and was enacted as the Republic Act no. 11036 on 21 June 2018. It provides a rights-based mental health bill and a comprehensive framework for the implementation of optimal mental healthcare in the Philippines. We review the principles and provisions of the Mental Health Act of 2017 and the implications for mental healthcare in the Philippines.
A key concern regarding current and future climate change is the possibility of sustained droughts that can have profound impacts on societies. As such, multiple paleoclimatic proxies are needed to identify megadroughts, the synoptic climatology responsible for these droughts, and their impacts on past and future societies. In the hyperarid Atacama Desert of northern Chile, many streams are characterized by perennial flow and support dense in-stream wetlands. These streams possess sequences of wetland deposits as fluvial terraces that record past changes in the water table. We mapped and radiocarbon dated a well-preserved sequence of in-stream wetland deposits along a 4.3-km reach of the Río San Salvador in the Calama basin to determine the relationship between regional climate change and the incision of in-stream wetlands. The Río San Salvador supported dense wetlands from 11.1 to 9.8, 6.4 to 3.5, 2.8 to 1.3, and 1.0 to 0.5 ka and incised at the end of each of these intervals. Comparison with other in-stream wetland sequences in the Atacama Desert, and with regional paleoclimatic archives, indicates that in-stream wetlands responded similarly to climatic changes by incising during periods of extended drought at ~9.8, 3.5, 1.3, and 0.5 ka.
Previous research has established that parental marital discord is associated with higher levels of offspring externalizing behaviors, but it is unclear how parental relationship functioning is associated with the genetic and environmental variance on a factor of externalizing problems. Thus, the current study assessed how parental marital discord moderates genetic and environmental variance on offspring externalizing problems at two different ages: childhood and late adolescence. That is, the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on offspring externalizing at ages 11 and 17 was examined as a function of parental marital discord. Consistent with a diathesis–stress model of psychopathology, it was hypothesized that with increasing marital discord, genetic influences on externalizing would be more pronounced. Rather, results indicated that for the 11-year-old sample, nonshared environmental influences were greater when parental marital discord was low, and comparatively, shared environmental influences contributed more to the variance in externalizing problems when parental marital discord was high. No moderation was found for the 17-year-old cohort. In contrast to studies that do not find an effect of the shared environment, these results provide evidence that the common rearing environment has an impact on externalizing problems in preadolescent children.
A compendium of over 8000 galaxy distances has been accumulated. Distance measurements permit the separation of observed velocities into cosmic expansion and peculiar velocity components. Only the radial component of peculiar velocities can be measured and individual errors are large, but a Wiener Filter procedure permits the reconstruction of three-dimensional motions and the density field that is responsible for these motions. A coherent flow pervades the entire domain of ± 15,000 km/s. Techniques are discussed for the separation of local and tidal components of the flow. Laniakea supercluster is identified as a region of contiguous infalling flows.
Recent observations of UGC 4879 with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope confirm that it is a nearby isolated dwarf irregular galaxy. We measure a distance of 1.36 ± 0.03 Mpc using the Tip of the Red Giant Branch method. This distance puts UGC 4879 beyond the radius of first turnaround of the Local Group and ~700 kpc from its nearest neighbor Leo A. This isolation makes this galaxy an ideal laboratory for studying pristine star formation uncomplicated by interactions with other galaxies. We present the star formation history of UGC 4879 derived from simulated color-magnitude diagrams.
As part of the HST/ACS Coma Cluster Treasury Survey, we have undertaken a Keck/LRIS spectroscopic campaign to determine membership for faint dwarf galaxies. In the process, we discovered a population of Ultra Compact Dwarf galaxies (UCDs) in the core region of the Coma Cluster. At the distance of Coma, UCDs are expected to have angular sizes 0.01 < Re < 0.2 arcsec. With ACS imaging, we can resolve all but the smallest ones with careful fitting. Candidate UCDs were chosen based on magnitude, color, and degree of resolution. We spectroscopically confirm 27 objects as bona fide UCD members of the Coma Cluster, a 60% success rate for objects targeted with MR < −12. We attribute the high success rate in part to the high resolution of HST data and to an apparent large population of UCDs in Coma. We find that the UCDs tend to be strongly clustered around giant galaxies, at least in the core region of the cluster, and have a distribution and colors that are similar to globular clusters. These findings suggest that UCDs are not independent galaxies, but rather have a star cluster origin.
With targeted imaging of groups in the local volume, the regions of collapse around bright galaxies can be clearly identified by the distribution of dwarfs and luminosity functions can be established to very faint levels. In the case of the M 81 Group there is completion to MR ~ −9. In all well studied cases, the faint end slopes are in the range − 1.35 < α < −1.2, much flatter than the slope for the bottom end of the halo mass spectrum anticipated by ΛCDM hierarchical clustering theory. Small but significant variations are found with environment. Interestingly, the populations of dwarf galaxies are roughly constant per unit halo mass. With the numbers of dwarfs as an anchor point, evolved environments (dominated by early morphological types) have relatively fewer intermediate luminosity systems and at least one relatively more important galaxy at the core. The variations with environment are consistent with a scenario of galaxy merging. However it is questionable if the universal dearth of visible dwarf systems is a consequence of an astrophysical process like reionization.
A one-year field-study has been carried out in a diarrhoea-endemic area in West Africa to determine the relationship between the bacteriostatic activity of fresh human milk for Escherichia coli in vitro and freedom from diarrhoea of the infant recipients of the milk. The specific contribution of E. coli gastroenteritis to gastrointestinal diseases of infants in general is not known, nor is its particular role in the Gambian infants studied. During the study period, however, both enteropathogenic and toxigenic strains of E. coli were isolated.
The incidence of diarrhoea in Gambian infants of seven age-groups from 2 days to 12 months was not significantly correlated with the bacteriostatic activity of milk. This was due rather to absence of diarrhoea in babies fed on low-activity milk than illness in those receiving highly bacteriostatic milk. Indeed, very active milk appeared to protect recipients almost completely, including seven babies of over 3 months of age, five of them during the rainy season, when the risk was high. Babies receiving lower-activity milk experienced more diarrhoea. In a situation where diarrhoeal disease is multifactorial, field evaluation of the protective action by one antibacterial property of milk is difficult. A better understanding of in vivo protection is important, and the factors which have to be taken into account are discussed.
In a study of the influence of environmental and other conditions on the growth and nutrition of the children of the poorer classes in the city of Glasgow, it seemed desirable to determine how far a homogeneous stock was being dealt with since there was some danger that racial variations might modify the results of the investigation.
Research studies for the treatment of the putative prodromal phase of
psychotic disorders have begun to appear
To obtain preliminary evidence of the short-term efficacy and safety of
aripiprazole treatment in people with the psychosis prodrome
Fifteen participants meeting prodrome criteria (mean age 17.1 years,
s.d.=5.5) enrolled in an open-label, single-site trial with
fixed-flexible dosing of aripiprazole (5–30 mg/day) for 8 weeks
In the mixed-effects repeated-measures analysis, improvement from
baseline on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms total score was statistically
significant by the first week. No participant converted to psychosis and
13 completed treatment. Neuropsychological measures showed no consistent
improvement; mean weight gain was 1.2 kg. Akathisia emerged in 8
participants, but the mean Barnes Akathisia Scale score fell to baseline
levels by the final visit. Adverse events were otherwise minimal
Aripiprazole shows a promising efficacy and safety profile for the
psychosis prodrome. Placebo-controlled studies are indicated
The intent of the CRISP education and outreach effort is to use materials science as a vehicle for enhancing the scientific literacy and knowledge of kindergarten through post-graduate level students. A challenging part of our mission has been inspiring students to take the next step and consider further study (or a career) in the field of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE). The CRISP educational programs were developed through a partnership between Yale University, Southern Connecticut State University and the urban school district of New Haven, CT. An overview of the methods and results of both formal and informal educational program components will be presented for years one and two of the CRISP MRSEC. This paper will focus on two CRISP programs: 1) MRSEC Initiative for Multidisciplinary Education & Research (MIMER) and 2) “Exploring Materials Science” mobile kits. The evaluation data indicates that the approach used in developing these educational programs is important. Specifically, the impact of these programs is influenced by the students' ability to relate the acquired knowledge to real life applications and technologies. In particular, emphasizing career opportunities rather than just presenting content-based programs is a key element to increasing interest towards further study in Materials Science and Engineering.
1. The data. We study detailed star formation histories (SFH) of 14 dwarf galaxies in the central parts (≤ 300 Kpc) of the two nearby galaxy groups: M 81 (D=3.6 Mpc) and Cen A (D = 3.8 Mpc). The images of 7 galaxies were selected from the sample of about 50 nearby dwarf galaxies observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) at the Hubble Space Telescope within our prog. 9771 & 10235, (PI I.Karachentsev). The rest of the images (ACS and WFPC2) were taken from the Hubble Archive (prog. 9884, 5898 and 6964).
Over the last five years, enormous progress in accurate distance measurements for nearby galaxies has been attained. The Hubble Space Telescope allows us to estimate distances of about 7–10% accuracy using red giant branch (RGB) up to 8 Mpc. Now we have very accurate distances for more than 200 galaxies within ~6 Mpc.
We derive quantitative star formation histories (SFH) of the two dwarf spheroidal (KK 197 and ESO 269-066) and one dwarf irregular (ESO 381-018) galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A group. The data are part of our sample of about 50 nearby dwarf galaxies observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) at the Hubble Space Telescope (prog. 9771 & 10235, PI I.Karachentsev). Deep color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of KK 197 is shown in Fig.1.
The Iron Project is an international consortium dedicated to the computation of atomic data for astrophysical applications. Although the project has been mainly concerned with ions in the iron group, the earlier papers gave priority to calculations of $A$-values and electron impact collision strengths for infrared transitions. In the present report we include a compilation of these data which will become useful in the spectral modelling of planetary nebulae.