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To assess whether disparities in energy consumption and insufficient energy intake in India have changed over time across socio-economic status (SES).
This cross-sectional, population-based survey study examines the relationship between several SES indicators (i.e. wealth, education, caste, occupation) and energy consumption in India at two time points almost 20 years apart. Household food intake in the last 30 d was assessed in 1993–94 and in 2011–12. Average dietary energy intake per person in the household (e.g. kilocalories) and whether the household consumed less than 80 % of the recommended energy intake (i.e. insufficient energy intake) were calculated. Linear and relative risk regression models were used to estimate the relationship between SES and average energy consumed per day per person and the relative risk of consuming an insufficient amount of energy.
Rural and urban areas across India.
A nationally representative sample of households.
Among rural households, there was a positive association between SES and energy intake across all four SES indicators during both survey years. Similar results were seen for energy insufficiency vis-à-vis recommended energy intake levels. Among urban households, wealth was associated with energy intake and insufficiency at both time points, but there was no educational patterning of energy insufficiency in 2011–12.
Results suggest little overall change in the SES patterning of energy consumption and percentage of households with insufficient energy intake from 1993–94 to 2011–12 in India. Policies in India need to improve energy intake among low-SES households, particularly in rural areas.
It is no longer possible nor desirable to address the dual challenges of equity and sustainability separately. Instead, they require new thinking and approaches which recognize their interlinkages, as well as the multiple perspectives and dimensions involved. We illustrate how equity and sustainability are intertwined, and how a complex social–ecological systems lens brings together advances from across the social and natural sciences to show how (in)equity and (un)sustainability are produced by the interactions and dynamics of coupled social–ecological systems. This should help understand which possible pathways could lead to sustainable and fair futures.
The goal of this study was to perform in situ electrochemical polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) in peripheral nerves to create a soft, precisely located injectable conductive polymer electrode for bi-directional communication. Intraneural PEDOT polymerization was performed to target both outer and inner fascicles via custom fabricated 3D printed cuff electrodes and monomer injection strategies using a combination electrode-cannula system. Electrochemistry, histology, and laser light sheet microscopy revealed the presence of PEDOT at specified locations inside of peripheral nerve. This work demonstrates the potential for using in situ PEDOT electrodeposition as an injectable electrode for recording and stimulation of peripheral nerves.
The ability to interface electronic materials with the peripheral nervous system is required for stimulation and monitoring of neural signals. Thus, the design and engineering of robust neural interfaces that maintain material-tissue contact in the presence of material or tissue micromotion offer the potential to conduct novel measurements and develop future therapies that require chronic interface with the peripheral nervous system. However, such remains an open challenge given the constraints of existing materials sets and manufacturing approaches for design and fabrication of neural interfaces. Here, we investigated the potential to leverage a rapid prototyping approach for the design and fabrication of nerve cuffs that contain supporting features to mechanically stabilize the interaction between cuff electrodes and peripheral nerve. A hybrid 3D printing and robotic-embedding (i.e., pick-and-place) system was used to design and fabricate silicone nerve cuffs (800 µm diameter) containing conforming platinum (Pt) electrodes. We demonstrate that the electrical impedance of the cuff electrodes can be reduced by deposition of the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) on cuff electrodes via a post-processing electropolymerization technique. The computer-aided design and manufacturing approach was also used to design and integrate supporting features to the cuff that mechanically stabilize the interface between the cuff electrodes and the peripheral nerve. Both ‘self-locking’ and suture-assisted locking mechanisms are demonstrated based on the principle of making geometric alterations to the cuff opening via 3D printing. Ultimately, this work shows 3D printing offers considerable opportunity to integrate supporting features, and potentially even novel electronic materials, into nerve cuffs that can support the design and engineering of next generation neural interfaces.
To assess the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity stratified by sex, and test for evidence of effect modification by social network characteristics.
A population-based cross-sectional study. The nine-item Household Food Insecurity Access Scale captured food insecurity. Five name generator questions elicited network ties. A sixteen-item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Depression captured depression symptom severity. Linear regression was used to estimate the association between food insecurity and depression symptom severity while adjusting for potential confounders and to test for potential network moderators.
In-home survey interviews in south-western Uganda.
All adult residents across eight rural villages; 96 % response rate (n 1669).
Severe food insecurity was associated with greater depression symptom severity (b=0·4, 95 % CI 0·3, 0·5, P<0·001 for women; b=0·3, 95 % CI 0·2, 0·4, P<0·001 for men). There was no evidence of effect modification by social network factors for women. However, for men who are highly embedded within in their village social network, and (separately) for men who have few poor contacts in their personal network, the relationship between severe food insecurity and depression symptoms was stronger than for men on the periphery of their village social network, and for men with many poor personal network contacts, respectively.
In this population-based study from rural Uganda, food insecurity was associated with mental health for both men and women. Future research is needed on networks and food insecurity-related shame in relation to depression symptoms among food-insecure men.
Multi–frequency Observations of Solar Microwave bursts recorded during solar maximum period 1980–81 are analysed and compared with x–ray data for studying the nature of microwave emissions from active regions. Most of the microwave burst spectra showed that the spectral index below the peak frequency is always less than 2.
The magneto-ionic conditions of the burst sources and the electron energies as obtained from these multi-frequency observations of the bursts showed that the centimetric and x-ray observations are satisfactorily explained, if the emitting regions are dense, hot and compact associated with strong magnetic fields of a few hundred gauss, suggesting that the thermal gyroresonance process is the most likely emission mechanism involved in the emission of microwave and x-ray radiations from the active regions of sun.
The double quasar 00957 + 561 A,B along with bright radio arches and VLBI structures is modelled using a gravitational lens consisting of an elliptical galaxy and a cluster. The effective time-delay between components A and B comes out to be about a year and this enables one to distinguish between intensity fluctuations resulting from intrinsic quasar variations and minilensing by low mass stars.
Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman), is a prominent species infesting onion and tomato in the northern highlands of Tanzania. It causes considerable leaf damage by direct feeding and also transmits the Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Hence, one of the objectives of this study was to identify the most resistant onion entries against T. tabaci. One highly resistant (VI038552) and two resistant onion entries (VI038512 and AVON 1067) were identified against T. tabaci. Besides thrips resistance, the bulb size of VI038512 was also equivalent to one of the commercial varieties, Texas. The highly resistant VI038552 recorded the highest yield, followed by the resistant entry, VI038512. However, the yield of AVON 1067 was significantly lower. Elucidation of the biophysical bases of resistance revealed that there was a significant negative correlation between leaf angle as well as leaf toughness and thrips damage. The total epicuticular wax content in the leaves had a weak and non-significant negative relationship with thrips damage. The scanning electron microscopic study confirmed that the wax crystals occurred as filaments, rods, platelets, tubes and complex dendritic structures, and that they were densely arranged in resistant or moderately resistant entries. Studies on the biochemical basis of resistance confirmed that there was a significant negative relationship between total phenol content and thrips damage. Similarly, the relationship between total foliar amino acids or total sugars and thrips damage was inversely correlated and non-significant. Hence, entries VI038552 and VI038512 could be promising candidates for breeding programmes aimed at developing onion varieties that are resistant to thrips and that are high yielding, which will help to enhance the productivity of onions in sub-Saharan Africa.
Frankliniella schultzei Trybom is a polyphagous pest and vector of tospoviruses worldwide. It occurs in dark and pale colour forms that are morphologically similar but differ in vector competency and geographic spread. In Kenya and other tropical regions, mixed populations of both colour forms are observed in similar habitats, so are considered as one species. To ascertain the taxonomic status of the two colour forms, they were characterized using morphological, molecular, biological and ecological approaches. Morphological characterization revealed differences between the colour forms on eight features and they separated into distinct clusters through principal component analysis. Restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS-RFLP) analysis revealed differences between the two colour forms and was confirmed by differences in ITS2 sequences. Virgin pale females had female offspring (thelytoky), while virgin dark females had male offspring (arrhenotoky). Interbreeding of dark males with pale females resulted in pale females, indicating absence of interbreeding between the two colour forms. Laboratory colonies of pale forms lacked males and further analysis of F. schultzei males from Ipomoea setosa flowers in the field indicated the presence of dark males and the absence of pale males. Field surveys in Kenya indicated differences in distribution and host plant preferences among the colour forms. Lack of interbreeding, distinct host preferences and distribution, and morphological and molecular differences indicate that the two colour forms of F. schultzei could be different species. The results highlight the need for combining morphological, biological, molecular and ecological characteristics for resolving taxonomic status of closely related insects.
This paper reports on a theoretical analysis of the rich variety of spatio-temporal patterns observed recently in inclined layer convection at medium Prandtl number when varying the inclination angle
and the Rayleigh number
. The present numerical investigation of the inclined layer convection system is based on the standard Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations. The patterns are shown to originate from a complicated competition of buoyancy driven and shear-flow driven pattern forming mechanisms. The former are expressed as longitudinal convection rolls with their axes oriented parallel to the incline, the latter as perpendicular transverse rolls. Along with conventional methods to study roll patterns and their stability, we employ direct numerical simulations in large spatial domains, comparable with the experimental ones. As a result, we determine the phase diagram of the characteristic complex 3-D convection patterns above onset of convection in the
plane, and find that it compares very well with the experiments. In particular we demonstrate that interactions of specific Fourier modes, characterized by a resonant interaction of their wavevectors in the layer plane, are key to understanding the pattern morphologies.
Individual increase in inbreeding coefficients (ΔFi) has been recommended as an alternate measure of inbreeding. It can account for the differences in pedigree knowledge of individual animals and avoids overestimation due to increased number of known generations. The effect of inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) calculated from ΔFi, on growth traits were studied in Nilagiri and Sandyno flocks of sheep. The study was based on data maintained at the Sheep Breeding Research Station, Sandynallah. The pedigree information and equivalent number of generations were less in Sandyno compared with Nilagiri sheep. The average F and EF for the Nilagiri population were 2.17 and 2.44, respectively and the corresponding values for Sandyno sheep were 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. The trend of inbreeding over years in both the populations indicated that EF was higher during earlier generations when pedigree information was shallow. Among the significant effects of inbreeding, the depression in growth per 1 percent increase in inbreeding ranged from 0.04 kg in weaning weight to 0.10 kg in yearling weight. In general, more traits were affected by inbreeding in Nilagiri sheep, in which greater regression of growth traits was noticed with F compared with EF. Higher values of EF than F in earlier generations in both the populations indicate that EF avoided the potential overestimation of inbreeding coefficient during recent generations. In the Sandyno population, the magnitude of depression noticed among growth traits with significant effects of inbreeding was higher. The differences in response to F and EF noticed in the two populations and possible causes for the trait wise differences in response to F and EF are appropriately discussed.
This paper presents the numerical simulations of flowfield over a typical Crew Module at Mach 4 for different angles-of-attack ranging from 0 to –25°. Detailed flow features such as contour of density gradient over the model, numerical oil flow and near wake vortex structures are captured very well in the present simulations. The location of the sonic line and its behaviour due to angles-of-attack is also captured in the simulations. The CP distribution on the windward and leeward side shows excellent match with the experimental results. Also, the prediction of aerodynamic coefficients shows very good agreement with the experimental results. The numerical simulation predicts CMcg, CN and CA within 8%, 4% and 3·5% respectively with respect to experimental values.
We examine the linear stability of a homogeneous gas–solid suspension of small Stokes number particles, with a moderate mass loading, subject to a simple shear flow. The modulation of the gravitational force exerted on the suspension, due to preferential concentration of particles in regions of low vorticity, in response to an imposed velocity perturbation, can lead to an algebraic instability. Since the fastest growing modes have wavelengths small compared with the characteristic length scale (
) and oscillate with frequencies large compared with
being the settling velocity and
the shear rate, we apply the WKB method, a multiple scale technique. This analysis reveals the existence of a number density mode which travels due to the settling of the particles and a momentum mode which travels due to the cross-streamline momentum transport caused by settling. These modes are coupled at a turning point which occurs when the wavevector is nearly horizontal and the most amplified perturbations are those in which a momentum wave upstream of the turning point creates a downstream number density wave. The particle number density perturbations reach a finite, but large amplitude that persists after the wave becomes aligned with the velocity gradient. The growth of the amplitude of particle concentration and fluid velocity disturbances is characterised as a function of the wavenumber and Reynolds number (
) using both asymptotic theory and a numerical solution of the linearised equations.
Several epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of finger millet (FM) alleviates diabetes-related complications. In the present study, the effect of finger millet whole grain (FM-WG) and bran (FM-BR) supplementation was evaluated in high-fat diet-fed LACA mice for 12 weeks. Mice were divided into four groups: control group fed a normal diet (10 % fat as energy); a group fed a high-fat diet; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-BR; a group fed the same high-fat diet supplemented with FM-WG. The inclusion of FM-BR at 10 % (w/w) in a high-fat diet had more beneficial effects than that of FM-WG. FM-BR supplementation prevented body weight gain, improved lipid profile and anti-inflammatory status, alleviated oxidative stress, regulated the expression levels of several obesity-related genes, increased the abundance of beneficial gut bacteria (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria and Roseburia) and suppressed the abundance of Enterobacter in caecal contents (P≤ 0·05). In conclusion, FM-BR supplementation could be an effective strategy for preventing high-fat diet-induced changes and developing FM-BR-enriched functional foods.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermosensitive polymer that is well-known for its behavior at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 305 K. Below the LCST, PNIPAM is soluble in water, and above this temperature, polymer chains collapse and transform into a globule state. The conformational dynamics of single chains of polymer in a solution is known to be different from those of grafted structures that comprise of an ensemble of such single chains. In this study, we have carried out MD simulations of a mesoscopic nanostructure of PNIPAM polymer chains consisting of 60 monomer units grafted onto gold nanoparticles of different diameters, to study the effect of temperature and core particle size on the polymer conformations. Additionally, we have also studied the effect of grafting density on the coil-to-globule transition exhibited by PNIPAM through the LCST. The systems investigated consisted of ∼3 and ∼6 million atoms. Simulations were carried out below and above the LCST of PNIPAM, at 275K and 325K. Simulation trajectories were analyzed for radius of gyration of PNIPAM chains.
Background: Cyanotic CHD comprises up to 25% of cases of all causes of CHD. Rationale: There is lack of data about the present spectrum of congenital cyanotic heart disease in the paediatric age group. Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine the spectrum of patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease in the paediatric age group in tertiary paediatric cardiac care clinic. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Paediatric cardiac clinic of a tertiary cardiac care centre. Methods: All children aged 0–18 years with suspected cyanotic CHD were provisionally included in this study. They underwent a thorough echocardiographic evaluation, and those patients who had definitive diagnosis of congenital cyanotic heart disease were included for final analysis. Results: A total of 119 children met the inclusion criteria. Tetralogy of Fallot and its variant were the most common congenital cyanotic heart disease with proportion of about 44%. Other common malformations were double outlet right ventricle (14%), pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (8%), total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (7%), d-transposition of the great arteries (9%), tricuspid valve anomalies − tricuspid atresia and Ebstein’s anomaly − hypoplastic left-heart syndrome, truncus arteriosus, and complex CHD such as single ventricle. Conclusion: Tetralogy of Fallot and its variants were the most common cyanotic heart disease diagnosed in our patients. As there were a significant proportion of cases with complex cyanotic CHD, paediatric cardiologists should be familiar with the diagnosis and management of all these complex congenital malformations of the heart.
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a thermo-sensitive polymer that exhibits a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) around 305 K. Below the LCST, PNIPAM is soluble in water and above this temperature polymer chains collapse prior to aggregation. In the presence of methanol, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy suggests that, LCST of PNIPAM is depressed up to certain mole fraction of methanol (0.35 mole fraction) and it is speculated that addition of methanol affects the PNIPAM-water interactions. Above 0.35 mole fraction of methanol, LCST gets elevated to temperatures above ∼305 K (32°C) and cannot be detected up to 373 K (100 °C). The atomistic origin of this co-solvency effect on the LCST behavior is not completely understood. In the present study, we have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the effect of methanol-water mixtures on conformational transitions and the LCST of PNIPAM. We employ two different force fields i.e. polymer consistent force-field (PCFF) and CHARMM to study solvation dynamics and the PNIPAM LCST phase transition in various methanol-water mixture compositions (0.018, 0.09, 0.27, 0.5, and 0.98 mole fractions). Simulations are conducted at fully atomistic level for three different temperatures (260, 278, and 310 K) and radius of gyration (Rg) of PNIPAM chains was computed for determination of LCST behavior of PNIPAM.
We describe a 38-year-old woman who developed symptoms of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder (HPPD) after using lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) once and continued to have symptoms of HPPD for nearly 17 years, although she did not use LSD after her first use. The symptoms of HPPD were temporally related to her first LSD use and she responded well to risperidone within a few weeks of commencing on the same. Although different medications have been tried in the management of HPPD including risperidone, olanzapine, clonidine, fluoxetine, sertraline, benzodiazepines and anti-epileptic medications, none have been proven to be the definitive medication of choice in the treatment of HPPD. Furthermore, there have been case reports suggesting worsening of symptoms with risperidone; however, the response to risperidone in our patient suggests the possibility of its effectiveness in the management of HPPD symptoms in some patients.
The Nilagiri sheep is a dual utility (fine wool and meat), native to the Nilagiri hills of Tamil Nadu. It is known for its adaptability to high altitude and low input system of rearing. At present, this breed is endangered with less than a thousand numbers existing, of which about 50 percent is maintained at Sheep Breeding Research Station, Sandynallah. Efforts are on to conserve the breed in-situ. Generation interval (GI), pedigree completeness level, inbreeding coefficient (F), average relatedness (AR), effective population size (Ne), and effective number of founders (fe) and ancestors (fa) were studied for the breed. Pedigree analysis was carried out using data available at the research station on 5 051 animals from 1965 onwards using ENDOG ver. 4.8. Higher values of pedigree completeness (more than 80 percent for 5th generation), balance in percent of ancestors between sire and dam pathways and higher equivalent complete generations (7.12) for the reference population were indicative of the depth in pedigree. The GI, F, and AR were 3.36 years, 2.17 and 3.45 percent, respectively. Ne based on maximum number of generations and individual increase in inbreeding was 298.83 and 97.25, respectively. fe and fa were 59 and 41, respectively, for the reference population. F was far from critical values of inbreeding and fe/fa ratio indicated absence of stringent bottlenecks. The effective population size was on the higher end of the range reported for endangered sheep breeds. The knowledge on genetic diversity and effective population size coefficients would support the cause of conservation.