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Delay discounting—the extent to which individuals show a preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards—has been proposed as a transdiagnostic neurocognitive process across mental health conditions, but its examination in relation to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is comparatively recent. To assess the aggregated evidence for elevated delay discounting in relation to posttraumatic stress, we conducted a meta-analysis on existing empirical literature. Bibliographic searches identified 209 candidate articles, of which 13 articles with 14 independent effect sizes were eligible for meta-analysis, reflecting a combined sample size of N = 6897. Individual study designs included case-control (e.g. examination of differences in delay discounting between individuals with and without PTSD) and continuous association studies (e.g. relationship between posttraumatic stress symptom severity and delay discounting). In a combined analysis of all studies, the overall relationship was a small but statistically significant positive association between posttraumatic stress and delay discounting (r = .135, p < .0001). The same relationship was statistically significant for continuous association studies (r = .092, p = .027) and case-control designs (r = .179, p < .001). Evidence of publication bias was minimal. The included studies were limited in that many did not concurrently incorporate other psychiatric conditions in the analyses, leaving the specificity of the relationship to posttraumatic stress less clear. Nonetheless, these findings are broadly consistent with previous meta-analyses of delayed reward discounting in relation to other mental health conditions and provide further evidence for the transdiagnostic utility of this construct.
Dengue, chikungunya, and Zika are arboviruses that cause 390 million infections annually. Risk factors for hospitalization are poorly understood. Communities affected by these diseases have an escalating prevalence of allergies and obesity, which are linked to immune dysfunction. We assessed the association of allergies or body mass with hospitalization for an arbovirus infection. From 2014 to 2017, we recruited participants with a clinical diagnosis of arbovirus infection. Arbovirus infections were laboratory-confirmed and allergies were self-reported. Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), weight, and height were measured. We used two logistic regression models to assess the relationships between hospitalization and allergies and between hospitalization and body mass (MUAC for participants <20 years old and body mass index (BMI) for adults ≥20 years old). Models were stratified by age group and adjusted for confounders. For allergies, 41 of 265 were hospitalized. There was no association between allergies and hospitalization. For body mass, 34 of 251 were hospitalized. There was a 43% decrease in hospitalization odds for each additional centimetre MUAC among children (aOR 0.566, 95% CI 0.252–1.019) and a 12% decrease in hospitalization odds for each additional BMI unit among adults (aOR 0.877, 95% CI 0.752–0.998). Our work encourages the exploration of the underlying mechanisms.
Of 731 restricted antimicrobial prescriptions subject to antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) prospective audit and feedback (PAF) over a 3-year period, 598 PAF recommendations (82%) were fully accepted. Physician auditors had an increased odds of PAF recommendation acceptance, reinforcing the complementary role of the ASP physician in the multidisciplinary ASP team.
Scottish constitutional history has become a subject of much interest in recent decades. Since the Union came into force in May 1707, Scotland has been one component of a complex and dynamic state. The Union itself has been described as an ‘enigma’ that defies easy or conventional definitions.1 Britain is simultaneously ‘unitary’, in the sense that sovereign power, to this day, rests with the ‘crown-in-parliament’ at Westminster, and ‘pluralistic’, because the Treaty continues to guarantee Scotland (more than Wales and Northern Ireland) considerable autonomy in civil affairs.2 In this respect, the establishment of a Scottish parliament in 1999 is simply the belated democratisation of what has always been a distinct ‘national’ politics. It has also (re)kindled debates on Scotland’s possible constitutional futures and this has included reflection on Scotland’s pre-Union heritage. These debates were aided by the creation of an accessible online edition of the records of the Scottish parliament to 1707.3 The renewed interest in Scottish parliamentary history has complemented endeavours in the field of political thought, where attention has focused on the centrality of kingship to Renaissance and early modern discourses. Certain questions have been thrown into sharper relief as a consequence of these inter-related developments. How did abstracted conceptualisations of the political community inform the ways in which people engaged with its governing and representative institutions? How were the boundaries of legitimate political action negotiated and renegotiated over time? To what principles were political actors expected to conform and what happened when those principles were challenged?
To determine the prevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG nucleocapsid (N) antibodies among healthcare personnel (HCP) with no prior history of COVID-19 and to identify factors associated with seropositivity.
Prospective cohort study.
An academic, tertiary-care hospital in St. Louis, Missouri.
The study included 400 HCP aged ≥18 years who potentially worked with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and had no known history of COVID-19; 309 of these HCP also completed a follow-up visit 70–160 days after enrollment. Enrollment visits took place between September and December 2020. Follow-up visits took place between December 2020 and April 2021.
At each study visit, participants underwent SARS-CoV-2 IgG N-antibody testing using the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay and completed a survey providing information about demographics, job characteristics, comorbidities, symptoms, and potential SARS-CoV-2 exposures.
Participants were predominately women (64%) and white (79%), with median age of 34.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 30–45). Among the 400 HCP, 18 (4.5%) were seropositive for IgG N-antibodies at enrollment. Also, 34 (11.0%) of 309 were seropositive at follow-up. HCP who reported having a household contact with COVID-19 had greater likelihood of seropositivity at both enrollment and at follow-up.
In this cohort of HCP during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, ∼1 in 20 had serological evidence of prior, undocumented SARS-CoV-2 infection at enrollment. Having a household contact with COVID-19 was associated with seropositivity.
People with psychosis in Malawi have very limited access to timely assessment and evidence-based care, leading to a long duration of untreated psychosis and persistent disability. Most people with psychosis in the country consult traditional or religious healers. Stigmatising attitudes are common and services have limited capacity, particularly in rural areas. This paper, focusing on pathways to care for psychosis in Malawi, is based on the Wellcome Trust Psychosis Flagship Report on the Landscape of Mental Health Services for Psychosis in Malawi. Its purpose is to inform Psychosis Recovery Orientation in Malawi by Improving Services and Engagement (PROMISE), a longitudinal study that aims to build on existing services to develop sustainable psychosis detection systems and management pathways to promote recovery.