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In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
This is the first report on the development and characterization of eight monoclonal antibodies (MABs) generated against whole- and membrane-enriched tachyzoite extracts of the apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy was used to localize respective epitopes in B. besnoiti tachyzoites along the lytic cycle. A pattern compatible with dense granule staining was observed with MABs 2.A.12, 2.F.3 and 2.G.4, which could be confirmed by immunogold electron microscopy for MABs 2.A.12 and 2.F.3. In particular, MABs 2.F.3 and 2.G.4 were secreted during early invasion, proliferation and egress phases. MABs 3.10.8 and 5.5.11 labelled the tachyzoite surface, whilst MABs 1.17.8, 8.9.2 and 2.G.A recognized the apical tip, which is reminiscent for microneme localization. Besides, the epitopes recognized by the latter two (MABs 8.9.2 and 2.G.A) exhibited a redistribution from the anterior part across the parasite surface towards the posterior end during invasion. Most MABs developed were genus-specific. Indeed, the MABs cross-reacted neither with T. gondii nor with N. caninum tachyzoites. In summary, we have generated MABs that will be useful to study the key processes in the lytic cycle of the parasite and with additional promising diagnostic value. However, the molecular identity of the antigens recognized remains to be elucidated.
Early, conforming antibiotic treatment in elderly patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a key factor in the prognosis and mortality. The objective was to examine whether empirical antibiotic treatment was conforming according to the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery guidelines in these patients. Multicentre study in patients aged ⩾65 years hospitalised due to CAP in the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. We collected socio-demographic information, comorbidities, influenza/pneumococcal vaccination history and antibiotics administered using a questionnaire and medical records. Bivariate analyses and multilevel logistic regression were made. In total, 1857 hospitalised patients were included, 82 of whom required intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Treatment was conforming in 51.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 49.1–53.8%) of patients without ICU admission and was associated with absence of renal failure without haemodialysis (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% CI 1.15–1.95) and no cognitive dysfunction (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.25–2.35), when the effect of the autonomous community was controlled for. In patients with ICU admission, treatment was conforming in 45.1% (95% CI 34.1–56.1%) of patients and was associated with the hospital visits in the last year (<3 vs. ⩾3, OR 2.70, 95% CI 1.03–7.12) and there was some evidence that this was associated with season. Although the reference guidelines are national, wide variability between autonomous communities was found. In patients hospitalised due to CAP, health services should guarantee the administration of antibiotics in a consensual manner that is conforming according to clinical practice guidelines.
This paper surveys in detail the relations between numerical integration and the Hamiltonian (or hybrid) Monte Carlo method (HMC). Since the computational cost of HMC mainly lies in the numerical integrations, these should be performed as efficiently as possible. However, HMC requires methods that have the geometric properties of being volume-preserving and reversible, and this limits the number of integrators that may be used. On the other hand, these geometric properties have important quantitative implications for the integration error, which in turn have an impact on the acceptance rate of the proposal. While at present the velocity Verlet algorithm is the method of choice for good reasons, we argue that Verlet can be improved upon. We also discuss in detail the behaviour of HMC as the dimensionality of the target distribution increases.
This study assessed milk productivity, demographic characteristics and workload distribution on a single high-yield dairy ewe farm in Spain (Avila, Spain; continental climate, latitude of 40.90 N, altitude of 900 m) over a 7-year period considering a transition from a herd management system involving five lambings per year (5LY) to a system involving 10 lambings per year (10LY). The 5LY system was practiced on the farm from 2010 to 2012 and the 10LY system from 2014 to 2015, with 2009 and 2013 being considered transition years. During this period, 27 415 lactations were recorded from an average of 3746 Lacaune sheep/year. Several productivity parameters were higher in 2014 to 2015 than in 2010 to 2012: milk yield/lactation (370±156 v. 349±185 l), lactation length (218±75 v. 192±75 days) and dry period length (53.5±38.3 v. 69.1±34.8 days) (all P<0.0001). During 2014 to 2015, investment in new lambing facilities was possible, workload was distributed more uniformly throughout the year, workload per worker was smaller, rate of ewe culling was lower (35.39±0.53% v. 42.51±7.51%), ewe longevity was greater and higher-order lactations were more numerous (P<0.0001). On the other hand, during 2010 to 2012, daily production was higher (1.73±1.66 v. 1.70±0.62 l/day; P=0.038), the interlambing period was shorter (283±50 v. 302±44 days; P<0.0001) and lambings/ewe per year were greater (1.42±0.01 v. 1.30±0.01; P<0.05). These results suggest that a 10LY herd management system can be compatible with profitability, productivity and good animal and worker’s welfare on a high-yield dairy farm, and may even be associated with better outcomes than a 5LY system.
Traditional sheep producers in the South European countries fed lambs with concentrate, in order to obtain light carcasses of young animals. As a consequence of this lamb production system, large grazing areas have been abandoned. However, some producers are taking into consideration the extensive grazing systems to reduce costs and at the same time to obtain subsidies established by the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. Moreover, the increasing demand of healthy and safe meat products is stimulating the interest in pasture-based production systems. However, in our dry mountain conditions, this grazing system can be associated to poorer ewe and lamb performances. The present study sought to compare the productive parameters of ewes and lambs obtained in four different management strategies.
The lambs production system in the South-European countries is characterised by producing light carcasses (< 13 kg) of young animals, less than 90 days old, and fed with the ewe milk and supplemented with concentrates. However, there is an increasing concern on the study of forage production system in growing lambs as a consequence of the interest in diversifying products and producing healthy and safe meat. When forage is included in the fattening diet a reduction of average daily gain is observed and carcasses have a lower degree of fatness, in comparison to the drylot system. The modification in the traditional type of carcass must be evaluated in order to assure that the final product meets the consumer demands. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the lambs fattening system on the carcass characteristics and meat quality especially on the instrumental analysis traits as colour and texture.
Churra Tensina is a coarse-wooled hardy breed usually managed in semi-extensive systems in Spanish Pyrenees. Grazing natural meadows in spring together with lambing season could be involved in the alternatives of its production system. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of dietary supplementation of lambs on grazing behaviour of Churra Tensina ewes and their lambs during lactation in natural meadows.
The prolonged interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows is primarily due to the suckling-mediated inhibition of pulsatile LH release. Undernutrition both before and after calving also suppresses LH release, reduces ovarian follicular growth and delays ovulation. The interactive effects of these factors on the interval from calving to first ovulation in beef cows were quantified by studying the incidence of ovulation, following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum in cows in differing body condition at calving and offered low or high planes of nutrition after calving.
The experiment was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design, in which the factors were body condition score at calving (Low v. Moderate), feeding level after calving (0.6 v. 1.0 MJ ME/d/kg M0.75), and restricted (once-a-day) v. ad libitum access and suckling. The experiment, duplicated at each of the four participating sites, involved 16 Simmental, 16 Sarda, 16 Brown Swiss and 16 Hereford x Friesian multi-parous cows. Follicle growth was monitored daily from day 21 post partum until the earlier of second ovulation or Day 90 post partum using transrectal ovarian ultrasonography.
The interval from calving to first ovulation is a major factor affecting reproductive and productive efficiency in beef cows. While this interval is affected by pre- and post-partum nutrition, the maternal-offspring bond is generally considered to be the major cause of delayed ovulation in beef cows. The endocrine and physiological mechanisms by which these factors either singularly or interactively control the duration of the post-partum anovulatory period are not well established, although they most likely involve the regulation of pulsatile LH release. The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of pre- and post-partum nutrition on LH secretion and follicle wave dynamics following acute calf isolation and once-a-day suckling (restricted access), after emergence of the fourth follicular wave post partum.
Classification algorithms based on neural network techniques are applied to study if the bulge stars can be differentiated from other stars belonging to other Galactic components. A synthetic sample is build as a mixture of four components, thin disk, thick disk, halo and bulge, according to some stellar system models and considering observational errors.
Research suggests that lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents have a higher risk of suicidal behaviours than their heterosexual peers, but little is known about specific risk factors.
To assess sexual orientation as a risk factor for suicidal behaviours, and to identify other risk factors among LGB adolescents and young adults.
A systematic search was made of six databases up to June 2015, including a grey literature search. Population-based longitudinal studies considering non-clinical populations aged 12–26 years and assessing being LGB as a risk factor for suicidal behaviour compared with being heterosexual, or evaluating risk factors for suicidal behaviour within LGB populations, were included. Random effect models were used in meta-analysis.
Sexual orientation was significantly associated with suicide attempts in adolescents and youths (OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.60–3.20). Gay or bisexual men were more likely to report suicide attempts compared with heterosexual men (OR=2.21, 95% CI 1.21–4.04). Based on two studies, a non-significant positive association was found between depression and suicide attempts in LGB groups.
Sexual orientation is associated with a higher risk of suicide attempt in young people. Further research is needed to assess completed suicide, and specific risk factors affecting the LGB population.
Zircon from two types of orthogneisses (inheritance-rich and inheritance-poor) from Sierra Nevada (Betic Cordillera, Spain) was investigated by integrating U–Pb geochronology, cathodoluminescence and back-scattered SEM imaging, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses and Raman spectroscopy to examine the conditions of magmatic zircon growth and the variable extent and mechanisms of the Alpine modifications. Zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss consists of two main domains: inherited (Neoproterozoic-to-Early Paleozoic and Devonian) cores and magmatic overgrowths, which provided 206Pb/238U concordant ages of 286 ± 3 Ma. In inheritance-poor gneiss, zircons consist of magmatic cores and very altered rims defining a discordia with an upper intercept with the Concordia at 287 + 21 –22 Ma and a lower intercept at 20.8 + 48.6 –20.8 Ma. Magmatic domains of zircon from inheritance-rich gneiss have lower rare-earth element (REE) contents than magmatic domains from inheritance-poor gneiss, reflecting the less evolved nature of the melt. Altered domains in zircon from inheritance-poor gneisss how greater U concentrations, lower REE concentrations and lower Th/U ratios relative to the cores, interpreted as representing Pb loss from the U-rich magmatic domains during the Alpine event. Morphological changes within single grains and between populations reflects the evolution during magmatic cooling. We show that, whereas classic methods allow two different interpretations for the geodynamic setting of the two types of gneisses, a complete study of composition, morphology and structure of zircon can help to decide that a model based on a common source for the granitic melt better fits the zircon characteristics than a model based on melts generated in two different geotectonic settings.
Our knowledge of the diversity, ecology, and phylogeny of Mesozoic birds has increased significantly during recent decades, yet our understanding of their flight competence remains poor. Wing loading (WL) and aspect ratio (AR) are two aerodynamically relevant parameters, as they relate to energy costs of aerial locomotion and flight maneuverability. They can be calculated in living birds (i.e., Neornithes) from body mass (BM), wingspan (B), and lift surface (SL). However, the estimates for extinct birds can be subject to biases from statistical issues, phylogeny, locomotor adaptations, and diagenetic compaction. Here we develop a sequential approach for generating reliable multivariate models that allow estimation of measurements necessary to determine WL and AR in the main clades of non-neornithine Mesozoic birds. The strength of our predictions is supported by the use of those variables that show similar scaling patterns in modern and stem taxa (i.e., non-neornithine birds) and the similarity of our predictions with measurements obtained from fossils preserving wing outlines. In addition, although our WL and AR values are based on estimates (BM, B, and SL) that have an associated error, there is no cumulative error in their calculation, and both parameters show low prediction errors. Therefore, we present the first taxonomically broad, error-calibrated estimation of these two important aerodynamic parameters in non-neornithine birds. Such estimates show that the WL and AR of the non-neornithine birds here analyzed fall within the range of variation of modern birds (i.e., Neornithes). Our results indicate that most modern flight modes (e.g., continuous flapping, flap and gliding, flap and bounding, thermal soaring) were possible for the wide range of non-neornithine avian taxa; we found no evidence for the presence of dynamic soaring among these early birds.
A total of 120 Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) pigs, 50% barrows and 50% gilts, with 54.1±0.14 kg BW and 103±3 days of age, were used to study the effect of advancing the shift to a standard finisher feed from 100 to 90 and 80 kg BW on production performances and carcass and pork quality. Each of the six treatments (two sexes×three BWs at time of feeding shift) was replicated four times and the experimental unit was the pen (with five pigs for growth performance and carcass variables and three pigs for pork and fat traits). The grower (163 g CP and 9.5 g total Lys/kg) and the finisher diets (152 g CP and 7.9 g total Lys/kg) were based on maize, barley and vegetal protein concentrates, contained 13.39 MJ metabolizable energy/kg and were offered ad libitum through the trial. Pigs intended for dry-cured product elaboration were slaughtered at 170±3 days of age as average (124 and 115 kg BW for barrows and gilts, respectively). For the overall period, barrows ate more feed (P<0.001) and grew faster (P=0.03) than gilts. No effect of feed shift was observed on growth performances, although the average daily CP intake (P=0.01) and feeding costs (P=0.04) were reduced by advancing the transition to the finisher feed. Carcasses from barrows were heavier (P<0.001) and had wider backfat depth (P<0.001) than those from gilts but no significant differences were observed in the meat chemical composition. The feed change schedule did not modify carcass or meat traits. It is concluded that an early shift to the finisher feed (at 80 kg BW instead of 100 kg BW) might be an interesting strategy in pigs intended for dry-cured products because, although it neither increased body fatness nor improved pork quality, CP intake and feeding costs were reduced without impairment of growth performances. Results were similar for barrows and gilts.
We have carried out optical spectroscopic observations at intermediate spectral resolution of the massive high redshift radio galaxy 0902+34 at z ≈ 3.39. This source was first identified by Lilly (1988) (from hereafter L88). The study of high redshift radio galaxies is interesting to analyze the physical conditions of the early universe and the galaxy evolution at cosmological redshifts. It has been claimed that some of these systems may be protogalaxies in the process of formation. Indications for this are the flat spectrum and the absence of the 4000 Å break, features which have already been observed in many cases. In particular, observations in the spectral range from V to K suggest that 0902+34 is a young galaxy (Eisenhardt and Dickinson 1992). Recent radio observations of the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen have detected (Uson et al. 1991) an absorption against the radio continuum source. This absorption could also leave a track in the optical, redwards the Lyα line. Our observations were carried out with the ISIS spectrograph at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (seeing ≈ 1.2–1.6 arcsec). A spectral dispersion of 0.78 Å/pixel (blue arm) and 1.38 Å/pixel (red arm) was obtained. Å long slit of width 3′ was used providing a spectral resolution of ≈ 5.4 Å in the blue arm and of ≈ 9.5 Å in the red one. Both resolutions are a clear improvement over that achieved by L88 of 20 Å, allowing us to resolve the Lyα line (and its possible structure) and any other possible strong features appearing in the spectral range observed (e. g., C iv λ1549, He ii λ1640, …). Six different observations of 2700 s of the radio galaxy 0902+34 were carried out. The slit was rotated to coincide with the parallactic angle at the beginning of each exposure. This will allow us to map spectroscopically different regions of the galaxy (for more details see Martín-Mirones et al. 1994).
Our etymological understanding of PDE bread has been influenced, to a considerable extent, by Otto Jespersen's comment that ‘An Englishman cannot thrive or be ill or die without Scandinavian words; they are to the language what bread and eggs are to the daily fare.’ This article analyses the evidence behind the possibility that PDE bread might represent a Norse-derived semantic loan, i.e. that OE brēad acquired the meaning ‘bread’, which was more frequently expressed by OE hlāf, because of the influence of its Viking Age Norse cognate (cp. OIc brauð ‘bread’). On the basis of an in-depth study of the attestations of OE brēad and hlāf and their early Middle English reflexes, as well as the use of their cognates in various Germanic languages, the article challenges the traditional view that OE brēad originally meant ‘piece, morsel of bread’ and concludes that Norse influence is not needed in order to account for the semantic history of PDE bread.
Nine wheat genotypes, bred for the high-input agronomical conditions of Henan Province (China), were tested under the high-yielding Mediterranean conditions of Spain. Two cultivars widely grown in the zone were included as controls. Crop growth and leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content, leaf stomatal conductance (gs) and canopy temperature (CT) were measured during the crop cycle and stable carbon (C), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) isotope compositions (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) were analysed on different plant parts. The lower yield of the Chinese genotypes compared with the controls was due to fewer grains/unit area, associated with lower tillering and a plant height clearly below the optimal range. Moreover, Chinese wheat exhibited a lower spike fertility index than the controls, and this was associated with a less compact spike structure. The physiological characteristics that were related to better performance under high-yielding Mediterranean conditions consisted of a higher green aerial biomass, particularly during the reproductive stage, together with more favourable water conditions (higher gs and lower CT and δ13C), the capacity to take up water during grain fill (higher δ18O) and a more efficient uptake (lower δ15N) and utilization (lower leaf N and Chl content) of N fertilizer. It is concluded that Chinese genotypes exhibited a low acclimation capacity to the moderate stress typical of the high-yielding Mediterranean conditions.
The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1–4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.