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We combined tools of phylogeography, population genetics and biogeographical interpretation to analyse a group of phylogenetically independent lineages (animals and plants) that coexist within the same geographical region, yet under markedly different environments, in order to identify generalized barriers for gene flow. We tested the hypothesis that major geographic features have produced a concordant genetic structure in phylogenetically independent lineages. A rigorous bibliographic search was performed, selecting available molecular information from six taxa occupying distinct southern biomes of South America: Yungas, Prepuna, Puna and northern Monte. We estimated within-population genetic diversity, the genetic structure and haplotype phylogenies to assemble distribution maps of genetic barriers for each species. We found a strong association between genetic variation and latitudinal distribution of populations. We detected a major barrier for six taxa at 27°S latitude and a second one for a group of three species at 25–26°S. Two alternative non-exclusive hypotheses – geology and/or climate – explain concordant genetic barriers in divergent lineages. We suggest that the term ‘biogeographically significant units’ portrays a group of populations of phylogenetically unrelated taxa that inhabit the same geographic region that have been similarly impacted by major physical events, which can be used to identify priority areas in landscape conservation.
The life cycle of the avian parasitic flies Philornis Meinert (Diptera: Muscidae) is poorly known, limiting the understanding of the ecology of these flies, including interactions with their hosts. We provide data on length and survival of pupal and adult stages and the duration of the pre-oviposition period of Philornis torquans Nielsen. Specimens were collected at larval and pupal stages from infested broods. The pupal stage lasted on average 10.5 days and adults lived up to 100 days in the laboratory. At least 90.2% of larvae pupated and 85.7% of the latter emerged as adults. For individuals collected as larvae, pupal mortality was 3.5 times higher than for those collected as pupae. Females laid from 1–8 clutches in their lifetime and deposited, on average, 41 eggs per female (range: 1–148). Females collected as pupae were larger and had shorter pre-oviposition periods and lifespans than females collected as larvae, but there were no differences in the total eggs laid by these females. This is the first information on reproductive parameters of a subcutaneous species of Philornis, and forms the basis for studies on conditions required for reproduction of this species in captivity.
Radio astrometric campaigns using VLBI have provided distances and proper motions for masers associated with young massive stars (BeSSeL survey). The ongoing BAaDE project plans to obtain astrometric information of SiO maser stars located in the inner Galaxy. These stars are associated with evolved, mass-losing stars. By overlapping optical (Gaia), infrared (2MASS, MSX and WISE) and radio (BAaDE) sources, we expect to obtain important clues on the intrinsic properties and population distribution of late-type stars. Moreover, a comparison of the Galactic parameters obtained with Gaia and VLBI can be done using radio observations on different targets: young massive stars (BeSSeL) and evolved stars (BAaDE).
Using the VLBA, the BeSSeL survey has provided distances and proper motions of young massive stars, allowing an accurate measure of the Galactic spiral structure. By the same technique, we are planning to map the inner Galaxy using positions and velocities of evolved stars (provided by the BAaDE survey). These radio astrometric measurements (BeSSeL and BAaDE) will be complementary to Gaia results and the overlap will provide important clues on the intrinsic properties and population distribution of the stars in the bulge.
The Bulge Asymmetries and Dynamical Evolution (BAaDE) survey will provide positions and line-of-sight velocities of ~20, 000 evolved, maser bearing stars in the Galactic plane. Although this Galactic region is affected by optical extinction, BAaDE targets may have Gaia cross-matches, eventually providing additional stellar information. In an initial attempt to cross-match BAaDE targets with Gaia, we have found more than 5,000 candidates. Of these, we may expect half to show SiO emission, which will allow us to obtain velocity information. The cross-match is being refined to avoid false positives using different criteria based on distance analysis, flux variability, and color assessment in the mid- and near-IR. Once the cross-matches can be confirmed, we will have a unique sample to characterize the stellar population of evolved stars in the Galactic bulge, which can be considered fossils of the Milky Way formation.
Positive Deviance (PD) is a process to achieve a social and cultural change. This strategy has been used for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in some health institutions in the United States, but has rarely been adopted in institutions from developing countries where resources are limited. We describe our experience of PD in the control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes. A time-series study was conducted based on the MRSA-HAI rate and the number of months with zero MRSA infections before and after application of PD (2001–2012). On comparing the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the mean overall rates of MRSA-HAI was 0·62 and 0·36, respectively (P = 0·0005); the number of months with zero MRSA-HAIs were 3/70 and 12/74 (odds ratio 0·264, 95% confidence interval 0·078–0·897); the percentage of MRSA-HAIs was 53·2% and 41·0%. These results are consistent with other published data. Implementation of PD was associated with a significant reduction of MRSA-HAIs, it did not involve high costs and the changes have been lasting.
This paper reviews the use of video games for measuring intelligence differences and reports two studies analyzing the relationship between intelligence and performance on a leisure video game. In the first study, the main focus was to design an Intelligence Test using puzzles from the video game. Forty-seven young participants played “Professor Layton and the curious village”® for a maximum of 15 hours and completed a set of intelligence standardized tests. Results show that the time required for completing the game interacts with intelligence differences: the higher the intelligence, the lower the time (d = .91). Furthermore, a set of 41 puzzles showed excellent psychometric properties. The second study, done seven years later, confirmed the previous findings. We finally discuss the pros and cons of video games as tools for measuring cognitive abilities with commercial video games, underscoring that psychologists must develop their own intelligence video games and delineate their key features for the measurement devices of next generation.
Buenos Aires city is located near the southern limit of the distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). This study aimed to assess long-term variations in the abundance of Ae. aegypti in Buenos Aires in relation to changes in climatic conditions. Ae. aegypti weekly oviposition activity was analyzed and compared through nine warm seasons from 1998 to 2014, with 200 ovitraps placed across the whole extension of the city. The temporal and spatial dynamics of abundances were compared among seasons, and their relation with climatic variables were analyzed. Results showed a trend to higher peak abundances, a higher number of infested sites, and longer duration of the oviposition season through subsequent years, consistent with a long-term colonization process. In contrast, thermal favorability and rainfall pattern did not show a consistent trend of changes. The long-term increase in abundance, and the recently documented expansion of Ae. aegypti to colder areas of Buenos Aires province suggest that local populations might be adapting to lower temperature conditions. The steadily increasing abundances may have implications on the risk of dengue transmission.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the DiViSA’s predictive validity in school-age children. To do so, two groups of school-age children were compared: one with low school achievement (N = 1,174), and one with typical development (N = 1,426). The obtained results show that: (1) in all grades, children with poor school performance exhibited lower levels of attention and task organization, greater hastiness, and made more commission errors; (2) the combination of variables that best differentiated between groups was not the same in all grades; (3) level of organization improved with age in the low-school-achievement group, and did not in the typical-development group; (4) the data regarding sensitivity (81% to 93%) and specificity (79% to 90%), for the first time computed for each grade separately, support the test’s predictive validity in the grades we evaluated. The discussion focuses on the DiViSA test’s usefulness in diagnosing attention problems. It is the first computerized test to include separate scores for: (a) how children complete the task (organization) and (2) the source of their errors (distraction or hastiness).
We have studied the rotation curve of the Galaxy at different heights below and above the equator. In the course of this work we noticed that the maximum brightness temperature of hydrogen oscillates around the galactic plane following a fairly sinusoidal pattern. It is further noticed that the maximum temperature of hydrogen occurs right on the plane in the regions where the rotation curve has a form indicating solid body rotation. A rotation curve based on points of maximum hydrogen temperature does not differ appreciably from a rotation curve measured on the galactic plane.
Data on the relationship between core symptoms and daily functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are limited. Daily functioning was assessed as part of an open-label extension, and associations with symptom scores were evaluated.
After a 5-week double-blind study with adults with ADHD receiving osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) 18, 36 or 72 mg/day, or placebo, participants were eligible for a 7-week open-label extension in which all patients received OROS MPH. Data for the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale – Observer: Screening Version (CAARS-O:SV) (primary endpoint) have been presented previously. Secondary endpoints included the observer self-reported short version of the CAARS (CAARS-S:S) and the Clinical Global Impressions – Severity Scale (CGI-S). Daily functioning and quality of life were assessed using the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) respectively. In post-hoc analyses, changes in CAARS-O:SV were evaluated in subgroups. Relationships between symptom and functional outcomes were evaluated in a multivariate regression analysis.
A total of 370 patients entered the open-label extension. Significant improvements from baseline in CAARS-O:SV were similar regardless of sex, ADHD subtype, prior treatment or psychiatric co-morbidity. Significant improvements from double-blind baseline were also seen for the CAARS-S:S, CGI-S, SDS and Q-LES-Q. Improvements in the CAARS-O:SV Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale were associated with improvements in SDS total and subscale scores, and in the Q-LES-Q score at open-label endpoint. Improvements in CAARS-O:SV Inattention subscale and CGI-S scores were not significantly associated with functional changes.
Improvements in ADHD symptoms relating to hyperactivity and impulsivity in adults receiving OROS MPH are associated with improvements in daily functioning and quality of life.
The rTSSA-II (recombinant Trypomastigote Small Surface II) antigen was evaluated by ELISA to detect anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in sera from naturally infected dogs and humans. For this evaluation ELISA-rTSSA-II was standardized and groups were classified according to the results obtained through xenodiagnosis, ELISA and PCR. Sensitivity (Se), Specificity (Sp), Kappa index (KI) and area under curve (AUC) were determined. The Se was determined by using 14 sera from dogs infected with T. cruzi VI (TcVI) whereas Sp was determined by using 95 non-chagasic sera by xenodiagnosis, ELISA-Homogenate and PCR. The performance of ELISA-rTSSA-II in dog sera was high (AUC=0·93 and KI=0·91). The Se was 92·85% (1 false negative) and Sp was 100%. Two sera from dogs infected with TcI and 1 with TcIII were negative. For patients infected with T. cruzi, reactivity was 87·8% (36/41), there was only 1 indeterminate, and Sp was 100%. Fifty-four sera from non-chagasic and 68 sera from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis did not react with rTSS-II. ELISA-rTSSA-II showed a high performance when studying sera from naturally infected dogs and it also presented 100% Sp. This assay could be an important tool to carry out sero-epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of T. cruzi circulating lineages in the region.
The control of temperature distribution across the strip is essential for
the hot strip flatness improvement. Hot strips of Arcelor in Avilès may
display wavy edge defects that are generated after the finisher and are
attributed to residual stresses introduced by the accelerated cooling
on the run-out-table. A first approach has established that the thermal
drop on the run-out-table has a significant effect on flatness, at the
edges in particular. Among several systems that may control temperature
at the edges, the edge masking technology has been selected,
considering the previous implementation on CSP mills. Wavy edges
are considerably removed or even suppressed on the operator side,
while they are reduced but not eliminated on the drive side.
An epidemiological cohort study of Enteromyxum scophthalmi in cultured turbot was performed on a farm in North Western Spain. Four different ongrowing stocks (A, B, C, D) were monitored monthly until market size. Fish from stocks C and D were divided into 2 subgroups, receiving filtered (CF and DF) or unfiltered (CUF and DUF) water. The lack of water filtration was positively associated with infection prevalence, as all fish kept in filtered water remained uninfected. Parasite abundance varied seasonally (P<0·05) in stock B and subgroup CUF. Infection was also associated (P<0·05) with host weight, and the highest prevalences and intensities were detected in 101–200 g and 201–300 g fish. Distribution pattern of E. scophthalmi in subgroups CUF and DUF had a variance higher than the mean, indicating overdispersion. The minimum period necessary for the first detection of the parasite and for the appearance of disease symptoms and mortality, varied depending on the stock and introduction date, although a long pre-patent period was always observed. Several factors, such as host density, parasite recruitment and parasite-induced fish mortality can contribute to the observed distribution pattern. Risk factors found to be associated with E. scophthalmi infection, including water quality and accumulation of infective stages in the culture tanks, should be considered when designing control strategies to prevent the introduction and spread of infective stages in the facilities.
In order to improve the safety and reduce plant shut down time for
scheduled maintenance works, Aceralia is developing and testing on
its HSM at Aviles an application that ensures that the selected equipment
is correctly and safely powered down. This application also serves
updated information regarding the current status of maintenance
works and equipment. Finally, it performs automatic analysis of the
events happened during the shut down, deviations with respect to
the scheduling and other statistical analyses.
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