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Rates of common mental health problems (depression/anxiety) rise sharply in adolescence and peak in young adulthood, often coinciding with the transition to parenthood. Little is known regarding the persistence of common mental health problems from adolescence to the perinatal period in both mothers and fathers.
A total of 393 mothers (686 pregnancies) and 257 fathers (357 pregnancies) from the intergenerational Australian Temperament Project Generation 3 Study completed self-report assessments of depression and anxiety in adolescence (ages 13–14, 15–16, 17–18 years) and young adulthood (ages 19–20, 23–24, 27–28 years). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess depressive symptoms at 32 weeks pregnancy and 12 months postpartum in mothers, and at 12 months postpartum in fathers.
Most pregnancies (81%) in which mothers reported perinatal depression were preceded by a history of mental health problems in adolescence or young adulthood. Similarly, most pregnancies (83%) in which fathers reported postnatal depression were preceded by a preconception history of mental health problems. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds of self-reporting perinatal depression in both women and men were consistently higher in those with a history of persistent mental health problems across adolescence and young adulthood than those without (ORwomen 5.7, 95% CI 2.9–10.9; ORmen 5.5, 95% CI 1.03–29.70).
Perinatal depression, for the majority of parents, is a continuation of mental health problems with onsets well before pregnancy. Strategies to promote good perinatal mental health should start before parenthood and include both men and women.
Continued reliance on chemical methods for controlling annual bluegrass has resulted in many populations evolving resistance to PRE and POST herbicides, particularly in warm-season turfgrass species such as zoysiagrass. Soil seedbank management is critically important when managing herbicide-resistant weeds. Fraise mowing (also spelled fraze, frase, and fraize) is a new turfgrass cultivation practice designed to remove aboveground biomass while allowing turf to regrow vegetatively. We hypothesized that this process would remove annual bluegrass seed and therefore be a mechanical means of controlling annual bluegrass in turfgrass. Zoysiagrass field plots were fraise-mowed in June 2015 only, June 2016 only, June 2015 and June 2016, or left untreated. The fraise mower was configured to remove the uppermost 25 mm of plot surface (i.e., 15-mm verdure and 10-mm soil). Annual bluegrass infestation was quantified in April following fraise mowing via grid count. Soil cores (10.8 cm diameter) were extracted from each plot after grid count data were collected to assess effects of fraise mowing on the soil seedbank. Moreover, replicated subsamples (7.6 L) of debris generated during fraise mowing were collected to better understand weed seed content removed during the fraise mowing process. Fraise mowing in June offered a slight reduction (24%) in annual bluegrass cover the following April. Whereas 28% of the seed in fraise-mowing debris consisted of annual bluegrass, there was no difference in the quantity of annual bluegrass seed remaining in the soil seedbank among fraise-mowed and non–fraise-mowed plots. Although fraise mowing may help to temporarily reduce existing annual bluegrass infestations via mechanical removal, the frequency and depth we studied did not effectively reduce the seedbank. Fraise mowing is a useful tool for providing mechanical suppression of annual bluegrass but it is not a replacement for properly timed herbicide applications.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
Implementing antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) can be challenging due to prescriber resistance. Although barriers to implementing new ASPs have been identified, little is known about how prescribers perceive established programs. This information is critical to promoting the sustainability of ASPs.
To identify how prescribers perceive an established pediatric inpatient ASP that primarily utilizes prior authorization.
We conducted a cross-sectional survey administered from February through June 2017 in a large children’s hospital. The survey contained closed- and open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics and thematic content analysis approaches were used to analyze responses.
Of 394 prescribers invited, 160 (41%) responded. Prescribers had an overall favorable impression of the ASP, believing that it improves the quality of care (92.4% agree) and takes their judgment seriously (73.8%). The most common criticism of the ASP was that it threatened efficiency (26.0% agreed). In addition, 68.7% of respondents reported occasionally engaging in workarounds. Analysis of 133 free-text responses revealed that prescribers perceived that interacting with the ASP involved too many phone calls, caused communication breakdowns with the dispensing pharmacy, and led to gaps between approval and dispensing of antibiotics. Reasons given for workarounds included not wanting to change therapy that appears to be working, consultant disagreement with ASP recommendations, and the desire to do everything possible for patients.
Prescribers had a generally favorable opinion of an established ASP but found aspects to be inefficient. They reported engaging in workarounds occasionally for social and emotional reasons. Established ASPs should elicit feedback from frontline prescribers to optimize program impact.
Self-harm in young people is associated with later problems in social and emotional development. However, it is unknown whether self-harm in young women continues to be a marker of vulnerability on becoming a parent. This study prospectively describes the associations between pre-conception self-harm, maternal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems.
The Victorian Intergenerational Health Cohort Study (VIHCS) is a follow-up to the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) in Australia. Socio-demographic and health variables were assessed at 10 time-points (waves) from ages 14 to 35, including self-reported self-harm at waves 3–9. VIHCS enrolment began in 2006 (when participants were aged 28–29 years), by contacting VAHCS women every 6 months to identify pregnancies over a 7-year period. Perinatal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the third trimester, and 2 and 12 months postpartum. Mother–infant bonding problems were assessed with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire at 2 and 12 months postpartum.
Five hundred sixty-four pregnancies from 384 women were included. One in 10 women (9.7%) reported pre-conception self-harm. Women who reported self-harming in young adulthood (ages 20–29) reported higher levels of perinatal depressive symptoms and mother–infant bonding problems at all perinatal time points [perinatal depressive symptoms adjusted β = 5.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.42–7.39; mother–infant bonding problems adjusted β = 7.51, 95% CI 3.09–11.92]. There was no evidence that self-harm in adolescence (ages 15–17) was associated with either perinatal outcome.
Self-harm during young adulthood may be an indicator of future vulnerability to perinatal mental health and mother–infant bonding problems.
The majority of art educators come from a non-digital art background, possessing knowledge of art processes in ceramics, darkroom photography, and painting, but having limited experience in new media art – particularly using computer code as an expressive medium. The authors of this chapter address the challenge of introducing preservice art educators to programmable media by defining it as both an expressive artform and a curricular tool through a digital art education curriculum. Such a curriculum frames digital art and interactive design concepts through image manipulation, web design, video production, game design, and physical computing assignments. Borrowing metaphorical language from traditional media practice becomes essential to art education students’ building conceptual links between formal game design mechanics and non-digital artworks. In conclusion, the authors make recommendations for curricular and policy changes to the teaching of technology in K-12 classrooms and art teacher preparation, providing a roadmap for 1,000 technological platforms of new media art education.
Subjective well-being incorporates elements of life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. It is increasingly relevant in the assessment of population health and economic development. There are strong continuities in well-being from youth into later life. Despite its significance, few global surveys capture subjective well-being. This paper describes patterns of well-being among young people in five Eastern European countries [Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine] and investigates association between demographic factors and well-being.
Nationally representative household surveys, including large Roma population samples, were conducted as part of UNICEF's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey programme. Young people aged 15–24 years (N = 11 944) indicated their satisfaction with life, happiness and expectations about the future. Multilevel logistic regressions were conducted to determine the impact of individual-level predictors while accounting for country- and cluster-level variability.
Around 40% of young people considered themselves very happy or very satisfied with their life overall. Three quarters reported optimism. Yet well-being varied greatly between countries, with youth in BiH and Ukraine reporting lowest levels of well-being. Current marriage, increasing wealth, higher education, rural residence and not having children were associated with greater well-being.
Patterns of well-being in youth vary substantially between countries and are only partly accounted for by standard demographic characteristics. Despite higher rates of adolescent marriage and childbearing, and lower levels of educational attainment and employment, Roma youth had similar levels of well-being to the general population.
This paper will discuss the structure-property model developed that correlates the tensile modulus to the elastic properties and angular distribution of constituent graphitic layers for carbon fiber derived from a polyethylene precursor. In addition, a high-temperature fiber tensile device was built to enable heating of carbon fiber bundles at a variable rate from 25 °C to greater than ∼2300 °C, while simultaneously applying a tensile stress. This capability combined with synchrotron wide-angle x-ray diffraction (WAXD), enabled observation in situ and in real time of the microstructural transformation from different carbon fiber precursors to high-modulus carbon fiber. Experiments conducted using PAN- and PE-derived fiber precursors reveal stark differences in their carbonization and high-temperature graphitization behavior.
Shortly after the inception of atomic magnetometry, alkali-vapor magnetometers were being used to measure the Earth's magnetic field to unprecedented precision. During the same era, Bell and Bloom first demonstrated all-optical atomic magnetometry through synchronous optical pumping  (see Chapters 1 and 6). In this approach, optical-pumping light is frequency- or amplitude-modulated at harmonics of the Larmor frequency ωL to generate a precessing spin polarization within an alkali vapor at finite magnetic field [2, 3]. Although this technique received considerable attention from the atomic physics community for its applicability to optical pumping experiments, Earth's-field alkali-vapor atomic magnetometers continued to rely on radiofrequency (RF) field excitation for several decades (see Chapter 4). Upon the advent of diode lasers addressing alkali and metastable helium transitions, synchronously pumped magnetometers experienced a revival beginning in the late 1980s. In recent years, such magnetometers have found applications in nuclear magnetic resonance detection  (see also Chapter 14), quantum control experiments , and chip-scale devices intended for spacecraft use  (see also Chapters 7 and 15).
All-optical magnetometers possess several advantages over devices that employ RF coils. RF-driven magnetometers can suffer from cross-talk if two sensors are placed in close proximity, since the AC magnetic field driving resonance in one vapor cell can adversely affect the other. All-optical magnetometers are free from such interference. When operated in self-oscillating mode , RF-driven magnetometers require an added ±90° electronic phase shift in the feedback loop to counter the intrinsic phase shift between the RF field and the probe-beam modulation.
Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guideline methodology, which are the principal greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, were evaluated in this study using a dairy farm GHG model. The model was applied to estimate GHG emissions from two contrasting dairy systems: a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. Data used to quantify emissions from these systems originated from a research study carried out over a 1-year period in Ireland. The genetic merit of cows modelled was similar for both systems. Total mixed ration was fed in the Confinement system, whereas grazed grass was mainly fed in the grass-based system. GHG emissions from these systems were quantified per unit of product and area. The results of both methods showed that the dairy system that emitted the lowest GHG emissions per unit area did not necessarily emit the lowest GHG emissions possible for a given level of product. Consequently, a recommendation from this study is that GHG emissions be evaluated per unit of product given the growing affluent human population and increasing demand for dairy products. The IPCC and LCA methods ranked dairy systems’ GHG emissions differently. For instance, the IPCC method quantified that the Confinement system reduced GHG emissions per unit of product by 8% compared with the grass-based system, but the LCA approach calculated that the Confinement system increased emissions by 16% when off-farm emissions associated with primary dairy production were included. Thus, GHG emissions should be quantified using approaches that quantify the total GHG emissions associated with the production system, so as to determine whether the dairy system was causing emissions displacement. The IPCC and LCA methods were also used in this study to simulate, through a dairy farm GHG model, what effect management changes within both production systems have on GHG emissions. The findings suggest that single changes have a small mitigating effect on GHG emissions (<5%), except for strategies used to control emissions from manure storage in the Confinement system (14% to 24%). However, when several management strategies were combined, GHG emissions per unit of product could be reduced significantly (15% to 30%). The LCA method was identified as the preferred approach to assess the effect of management changes on GHG emissions, but the analysis indicated that further standardisation of the approach is needed given the sensitivity of the approach to allocation decisions regarding milk and meat.
Galaxy-galaxy interactions and large scale galaxy bars are usually considered as the two main mechanisms for driving gas to the centres of galaxies. By using large samples of galaxy pairs and visually classified bars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we compare the relative efficiency of gas inflows from these two processes. We use two indicators of gas inflow: star formation rate (SFR) and gas phase metallicity, which are both measured relative to control samples. Whereas the metallicity of galaxy pairs is suppressed relative to its control sample of isolated galaxies, galaxies with bars are metal-rich for their stellar mass by 0.06 dex over all stellar masses. The SFRs of both the close galaxy pairs and the barred galaxies are enhanced by ~60%, but in the bars the enhancement is only seen at stellar masses M∗ > 1010 M⊙. Taking into account the relative frequency of bars and pairs, we estimate that at least three times more central star formation is triggered by bars than by interactions.
Several sulfonylurea herbicides are labeled for use on established bermudagrass or seashore paspalum, but label recommendations for many of these chemicals vary for sprigged turf. The objective of this study was to determine the safety of various sulfonylurea herbicides on newly planted, ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass and ‘Aloha’ seashore paspalum sprigs in Arkansas and Louisiana. Treatments were arranged as a five by two by two factorial with five herbicides (foramsulfuron at 29 and 59 g ai ha−1, halosulfuron at 35 and 70 g ai ha−1, metsulfuron at 21 and 42 g ai ha−1, sulfosulfuron at 66 and 131 g ai ha−1, and trifloxysulfuron at 28 and 56 g ai ha−1), two herbicide rates (low and high), and two application timings at 2 or 4 wk after sprigging (WAS). There was no discernable herbicide injury to, or reduction in, Tifway bermudagrass coverage in Arkansas, regardless of herbicide, application timing, or application rate. Trifloxysulfuron and metsulfuron were more injurious than other herbicides in Louisiana when applied at 2 WAS to Tifway bermudagrass, but injury levels were acceptable (< 15%), and there was no long-term reduction in establishment. Metsulfuron or halosulfuron applied at 2 or 4 WAS and sulfosulfuron applied at 4 WAS allowed > 90% establishment of Aloha seashore paspalum at both locations. Both trifloxysulfuron and foramsulfuron were injurious to seashore paspalum and reduced its establishment. These results suggest that sulfonylurea herbicides can be safely applied shortly after sprigging to Tifway bermudagrass and that metsulfuron, halosulfuron, and sulfosulfuron could be useful herbicides for establishing Aloha seashore paspalum from sprigs.
Staphylococcus aureus is a relatively uncommon cause of community-onset pneumonia (COP) that may complicate influenza infection. We reviewed admissions to children's hospitals to describe more systematically this entity. Records of patients hospitalized at three children's hospitals between 1 October 2006 and 30 April 2007 who had a positive S. aureus culture from a sterile site or respiratory specimen were reviewed and data were abstracted for episodes of primary S. aureus COP. Overall, 30 episodes met criteria for primary S. aureus COP; 12 (41%) involved methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Patients in 11 (37%) episodes were seen by a healthcare provider for their symptoms prior to hospital admission; three received an antimicrobial, none of which had activity against the S. aureus isolated. Mechanical ventilation was required in 21 (70%) episodes; five (17%) patients died. When evaluating patients with severe COP, providers should be aware of the potential for S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant strains.