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Despite lithium has been used for the last 50 years as a maintenance treatment for bipolar disorder during pregnancy, there is limited information about perinatal clinical outcomes from fetal exposure to lithium.
1. To quantify the rate of lithium placental passage
2. To assess any association between plasma concentration of lithium at delivery and perinatal outcome.
Observational and prospective study. Subjects: Women in maintenance treatment with lithium, being attended during pregnancy at the Perinatal Psychiatry Programme of Hospital Clínic (Barcelona, Spain) between 2007 and 2009. Procedure: We assessed sociodemographical data; dose/day of lithium carbonate; other drugs doses; plasmatic concentration of lithium carbonate in maternal blood intrapartum and in the umbilical cord; obstetrical maternal complications; gestational age at delivery; weight at delivery; Apgar scores; congenital malformations; hospital stays, infant serum concetrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Eight mother-child diads. Mean age of the mother (SD): 32.1 (4,7); 100% caucasian and married. Mean dose of maternal lithium (SD): 675mg (237,5mg). Premature rupture of membranes (%):25. Gestational mean age (in weeks) (SD): 39,9 (1). Birth weight (SD) : 3625gr (451,2gr); Mean Apgar1min (SD): 8,38 (1,1); Mean Apgar5min (SD): 9,75 (0,4). Loss of fetal intrapartum wellness (%): 12,5. Days of hospitalization (mean) (SD):9,5(16,6). Lithium plasmatic concentration (mEq/L), mean (SD): maternal 0,45(0,1), umbilical cord 0,33(0,1), lithium ratio uc/m 0,93 (0,3); infant TSH μU/mL mean (SD): 4,9(4,6).
Lithium placental passsage was 0,93 (0,63-1,07). ≤At umbilical cord lithium levels ≤ 0.60 mEq/L, we didn't have any preterm deliveries, low birth weight newborns, nor neonatal complications.
Lithium has been used in the treatment of pregnant women with bipolar disorder for many decades but information on the effects of its exposure on perinatal variables is scarce.
To determine the effects of in-utero exposure to lithium on neonatal outcomes among infants born to women with treatment with lithium during pregnancy.
Prospective and observational study including all consecutive cases of pregnant women with bipolar disorder type I or II (N = 22) and maintenance treatment with lithium monotherapy (n=13) or polytherapy (n=9), attended at the PERINATAL PSYCHIATRY PROGRAM CLÍNIC-BARCELONA between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated sociodemographic data, lithium plasma concentrations in maternal blood and umbilical cord, obstetric and neonatal variables.
No statistically significant differences were found regarding sociodemographic data between both groups. Rates for umbilical cord:maternal plasma lithium levels were higher in women treated with polytherapy than in women who received lithium alone (1.08 vs. 1.05). Neonates exposed to polytherapy had a higher weight percentile at birth (p70 vs p50) and greater gestational age (39.72 vs. 38.28 weeks), than those exposed to lithium alone. Acute neonatal complications were more frequently observed in infants that were exposed to lithium monotherapy (33.3% vs. 38.50), being all complications transitory and not severe.
The infants exposed to lithium polytherapy presented a higher weight at birth compared to those who received lithium monotherapy. However, no statistically significant differences were found between treatment groups. Further research is needed to better clarify safety of lithium and its effect on neonatal outcomes.
Mephedrone is a synthetic cathinone derivative included in the class of “New-Novel Psychoactive Substances”. Synthetic cathinones are marketed as “bath salts” or “plant food” and gained notable popularity for similar effects to 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), or amphetamines. Mephedrone is commonly consumed simultaneously with alcohol.
Objectives and aims
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interactions between mephedrone and ethanol in humans.
Twelve healthy male, recreational users of psychostimulants participated as outpatients in four experimental sessions. They received a single oral dose of mephedrone (200 mg) and alcohol (0.8 g/kg), mephedrone placebo and alcohol (0.8 g/kg), mephedrone (200 mg) and placebo alcohol, and both placebos. Design was double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, cross-over and controlled with placebo. Study variables included: vital signs (blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and pupil diameter), subjective effects (visual analogue scales-VAS, ARCI-49 item short form, and VESSPA questionnaire).
The combination produced an increase in the cardiovascular effects of mephedrone and induced more intense feeling of euphoria and well-being in comparison to mephedrone and alcohol. Mephedrone reduced the drunkenness and sedation produced by alcohol.
These results are similar to those obtained with the combination of other psychostimulants as amphetamines and MDMA. Abuse liability of the combination is greater that induced by mephedrone.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Despite multiple clinical and preclinical studies investigating schizophrenia, the neurobiological basis of this disease is still unknown. The dysregulation of the serotonergic system, in particular the 5-HT2A receptor and the endocannabinoid system have been postulated as possible causes of schizophrenia.
The aim of this study is to evaluate the expression of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in primary cultures of pro-neurons from the olfactory epithelium in schizophrenia patients and control subjects.
We recruited a group of 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, who were treated with atypical antipsychotics, were clinically stable and had an illness duration range from 1 up to 15 years. The patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia from the medical record and confirmed by the structured clinical interview for DSM disorders. The expression of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in primary cultures of pro-neurons from the olfactory epithelium was quantified using proximity ligation assays and confocal microscopy.
Olfactory epithelium pro-neurons were viable and expressed the neuronal marker, III-β tubulin. We also established the presence and the functionality of CB1-5-HT2A receptor heteromers in these cells using the proximity ligation and cAMP activity assays, respectively. Heteromer expression was significantly increased in schizophrenia patients with respect to controls.
This highly innovative methodology will allow the noninvasive, low-cost study of new biomarkers for schizophrenia in a model closely related to the central nervous system.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.Acknowledgments
This work was supported by grants from DIUE-Generalitat-de Catalunya (2014SGR 680), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (PI14/00210) and (PI10/01708) FIS-FEDER-Funds. LG is supported by the Instituto-de Salud Carlos III through a “Río Hortega” (CM14/00111).
The aim of this study was to describe individuals seeking care for injury at a major emergency department (ED) in southern Puerto Rico in the months after Hurricane Maria on September 20, 2017.
After informed consent, we used a modified version of the Natural Disaster Morbidity Surveillance Form to determine why patients were visiting the ED during October 16, 2017–March 28, 2018. We analyzed visits where injury was reported as the primary reason for visit and whether it was hurricane-related.
Among 5 116 patients, 573 (11%) reported injury as the primary reason for a visit. Of these, 10% were hurricane-related visits. The most common types of injuries were abrasions, lacerations, and cuts (43% of all injury visits and 50% of hurricane-related visits). The most common mechanisms of injury were falls, slips, trips (268, 47%), and being hit by/or against an object (88, 15%). Most injury visits occurred during the first 3 months after the hurricane.
Surveillance after Hurricane Maria identified injury as the reason for a visit for about 1 in 10 patients visiting the ED, providing evidence on the patterns of injuries in the months following a hurricane. Public health and emergency providers can use this information to anticipate health care needs after a disaster.
This study assessed the in vitro anthelmintic (AH) activity of methanol and acetone:water leaf extracts from Annona squamosa, A. muricata and A. reticulata against Haemonchus contortus eggs. The egg hatch test was used to determine the effective concentrations required to inhibit 50% of eggs hatching (EC50). The role of polyphenols on AH activity was measured through bioassays with and without polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). Methanolic extracts mainly caused the death of eggs at the morula stage (ovicidal activity). Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts caused egg-hatching failure of developed larvae (larvae failing eclosion (LFE) activity). The lowest EC50 values against H. contortus eggs were observed for the methanolic extracts from A. reticulata and A. muricata (274.2 and 382.9 µg/ml, respectively). From the six extracts evaluated, the methanolic extracts of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed the highest ovicidal activity, resulting in 98.9%, 92.8% and 95.1% egg mortality, respectively. When the methanolic extract of A. squamosa was incubated with PVPP, its AH activity increased. Similarly, when acetone:water extracts of A. muriata and A. reticulata were incubated with PVPP, their LFE activity increased. Alkaloids were only evident in methanolic extracts, irrespective of PVPP incubation. The presence of acetogenins was not observed. In conclusion, methanolic extracts obtained from leaves of A. muricata, A. reticulata and A. squamosa showed ovicidal activity affecting the morula of H. contortus eggs, with minor LFE activity. Meanwhile, acetone:water extracts showed mostly LFE activity, with a lower proportion of ovicidal activity.
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus’ dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology. The first isolation occurred in Uganda in 1947. Since then, important outbreaks were documented globally. Consequently, an emergent public health problem arose from a rapidly increasing incidence and its association with the development of neurological diseases such as microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome. Key factors in the successful containment of outbreaks include surveillance of mosquitos in the neighbourhood, an early mosquito control treatment, an assertive information campaign, and the involvement of the local population and healthcare workers. As such, while ZIKV seems to be spreading globally in a similar manner to other arboviruses, such as Dengue and Chikungunya viruses, it can also be rapidly contained due to the pre-existing availability of necessary resources and regulatory tools as control measures. This review aims to provide a description of those characteristics of ZIKV infection that may be useful in the construction of effective outbreak control strategies.
Measurements of current rates of core-collapse supernovæ (CCSNe) suffer from significant uncertainties, probably due to the large fraction of CCSNe that explode in crowded regions which have bright background emission and significant dust extinction. Conventional optical (seeing-limited) SN surveys generally fail to detect them, but including them is crucial to the accurate determination of CCSN rates. Project SUNBIRD aims to tighten the present constraints on the fraction of CCSNe that are missed by conventional SN surveys. We are monitoring more than 25 dusty luminous infrared galaxies that are actively star-forming, for evidence of dust-obscured CCSNe, in an effort to characterise the population of CCSNes exploding in those nuclear regions of dusty LIRGs. We observe in the near-infrared, which is less affected by dust extinction compared to the optical; we are using Gemini South and Keck, and we make use of state-of-the-art laser guide-star adaptive optics instruments to achieve a spatial resolution <0’.1, which is sufficient to resolve close to the galactic nucleus.
During the project’s first year we discovered three CCSNe and one candidate one, with nuclear offsets as small as 200 pc, as cited in the poster. Aggregating the new discoveries with the CCSNe found in previous programmes employing AO, we compared the distribution of nuclear offsets of AO CCSN discoveries with all other documented CCSNe discovered in LIRGs. The poster showed that our method is singularly effective at uncovering CCSNe in the nuclear regions of LIRGs, and that while optical surveys dominate SNe discoveries far from a galaxy’s centre, near infra-red AO observations are needed to probe the regions within 1 kpc of the nucleus.
Workshop 11 covered the substantial recent progress in studies of supernovæ (SNe), tidal disruption events (TDEs), and other types of luminous transients occurring within the nuclear regions of galaxies. In the past, such transients have largely been missed owing to the substantial extinction of those regions, and to the problems of contrast against the bright (and often complex) nuclear background – or mistaken for normal active galactic nucleus (AGN) variability.
Despite the expectation of a high supernova rate in luminous infra-red galaxies (LIRGs), a deficit has been discovered in optical surveys that is due to high levels of extinction by dust and to issues of contrast against the bright nuclear background. Searching in the near infra-red enables observations to penetrate that dust, while using adaptive-optics achieves the resolution required to observe supernovæ close to the nuclei of those galaxies. Over the last decade multiple observing programmes using the best AO instrumentation mounted on large telscopes have accumulated a dataset of many LIRGs, and met with much greater success in discovering nuclear supernovæ. However, a significant proportion is still being missed. By using techniques to evaluate our detection efficiency in these data, and simulations of the supernovæ occuring in the galaxies, we can evaluate the nature of these transients.
In the Almenara marsh (western Mediterranean), four cores were analyzed to establish the relationship between the marsh record of the Almenara marshlands and the environmental factors responsible for its evolution during the Holocene. One hundred and eighty-six samples were collected for sedimentologic and paleontological study: 63 for biomarker analysis; 5 for amino acid racemization (AAR) dating; and 5 for 14C dating. Litho and biofacies analyses identified distinct paleoenvironments, with the presence of a marsh environment alternating with inputs of alluvial material and marine sediments. Biomarkers indicated the constant presence of terrestrial (herbaceous) plants, together with a variable development of aquatic macrophytes. During the Holocene transgression, the Almenara marsh was occupied by oligohaline marsh facies with an oscillating water level and peat formation, which was established at the bottom of the record at 7570 cal yr BP and persisted until 3100±780 yr (AAR). Maximum surface flooding occurred at 5480 cal yr BP, registered 450m from the current coastline. At least three peat beds (dated with 14C dating and AAR) correlated with Bond (episode 5900 cal yr BP) and Wanner (episodes 4800–4500 and 3300–3500 cal yr BP) cycles and thus correspond to a regional model that affected the Northern Hemisphere.
The radio non-detection of two Type Ia supernovae (SNe) SN 2011fe and SN 2014J has been modeled considering synchrotron radiation from shock accelerated electrons in the SN shock fronts. With 10% each of the bulk kinetic energy in electric and magnetic fields, a very low density of the medium around both the SNe has been estimated from the null detection of radio emission, around 1 and 4 years after the explosion of SNe 2014J and 2011fe, respectively. Keeping the fraction of energy in electrons fixed at 10%, a medium with particle density ~ 1cm−3 is found when 1% of the post shock energy is in magnetic fields. In case of a wind medium, the former predicts the mass loss rate Ṁ to be <10−9M⊙ yr−1, and the latter gives an upper limit ~10−9M⊙ yr−1, for wind velocity of 100 kms−1, for both the SNe. The tenuous media obtained from this study favor the double degenerate as well as a spin up/down model for both SNe 2011fe and 2014J.
By using strontium isotopic ratios of dental enamel from molars, we were able to reconstruct the migration context for three individuals of a Columbian mammoth population (Mammuthus columbi) around Laguna de las Cruces, San Luis Potosí, central México. A three-step leaching procedure was applied to eliminate secondary Sr contributions in the molar enamel. One of the studied individuals showed 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to those obtained from soils and plants from Laguna de las Cruces and was identified as local, whereas the other two mammoths had different molar 87Sr/86Sr values, indicative of migration and mobility contexts.
This paper focus on evaluating the ability to use Mexican fly ash (FA) and copper slag (CS) to produce alkali cements (0% OPC) or hybrid cements (20% OPC + 80% fly ash). The alkali activators used were two: 8 M NaOH solution for alkali cements and NaCl with sodium silicate for hybrid cement (HYC). Results of mechanical testing and characterization of the reaction products formed after 2 and 28 days are presented and discussed. Mechanical strength in some cases exceeded 20 MPa, at 2 days curing. The chemical characterization techniques used were X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The study of corrosion behavior of polyurethane/nanohydroxyapatite hybrid coating in aerated Hank solution at 25 °C by Potentiodinamic and Electrochemical Impedance techniques was realized. The nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) powders were synthesized by ultrasonic assisted co-precipitation wet chemical method and then mixed with pure polyurethane (PU) during the polymerization. Results were supported by SEM morphologic characterization. Results showed that good corrosion resistance of hybrid coating, showing small corrosion product layer formation. Corrosion mechanisms are affected by an increasing of polarization resistance, promoting decreasing in the corrosion rates. Diffusion of ionic species was the governing mechanism in the corrosion behavior of polyurethane/nanohydroxyapatite hybrid coating.
This work studies the change microstructural and mechanical properties of biomedical component hot forging of titanium; was assessed quantitatively and qualitatively the microstructural features obtained in this titanium biocompatible Ti6Al4V. The forging process was obtained at temperature of 950 °C, after by technical optical microscopy are obtained the microstructural characterization showing the phases present after forging. Likewise, the technical X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows the presence of the phases. Also is evaluated the hardness and modulus of elasticity by technical nanoindentation. The characterization of this material has the objective to show that the results obtained with temperature study of 950 °C. Likewise by the forging process obtained a type phases and optimal properties required for these biomedical materials.