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Weaning is a critical transition phase in swine production in which piglets must cope with different stressors that may affect their health. During this period, the prophylactic use of antibiotics is still frequent to limit piglet morbidity, which raises both economic and public health concerns such as the appearance of antimicrobial-resistant microbes. With the interest of developing tools for assisting health and management decisions around weaning, it is key to provide robustness indexes that inform on the animals’ capacity to endure the challenges associated with weaning. This work aimed at developing a modelling approach for facilitating the quantification of piglet resilience to weaning. A total of 325 Large White pigs weaned at 28 days of age were monitored and further housed and fed conventionally during the post-weaning period without antibiotic administration. Body weight and diarrhoea scores were recorded before and after weaning, and blood was sampled at weaning and 1 week later for collecting haematological data. A dynamic model was constructed based on the Gompertz–Makeham law to describe live weight trajectories during the first 75 days after weaning, following the rationale that the animal response is partitioned in two time windows (a perturbation and a recovery window). Model calibration was performed for each animal. Our results show that the transition time between the two time windows, as well as the weight trajectories are characteristic for each individual. The model captured the weight dynamics of animals at different degrees of perturbation, with an average coefficient of determination of 0.99, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.99. The utility of the model is that it provides biologically meaningful parameters that inform on the amplitude and length of perturbation, and the rate of animal recovery. Our rationale is that the dynamics of weight inform on the capability of the animal to cope with the weaning disturbance. Indeed, there were significant correlations between model parameters and individual diarrhoea scores and haematological traits. Overall, the parameters of our model can be useful for constructing weaning robustness indexes by using exclusively the growth curves. We foresee that this modelling approach will provide a step forward in the quantitative characterisation of robustness.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
In this work we apply high-resolution X-ray diffractometry to the study of InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well structures on (001) and(lll)B GaAs substrates. The samples consisted of p-i-n diodes with a multiple quantum well embedded in the i-region and were simultaneously grown on (001) and (111)B substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. For the characterization we have used symmetric and asymmetric reflections at different azimuthal positions. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been possible thanks to our recently developed simulation model, which allows the calculation of any reflection regardless of the substrate orientation. X-ray results about composition and thickness are very similar in the samples simultaneously grown on both orientations as expected from our specific growth conditions. The information obtained from X-ray characterization is consistent with the results of photoluminescence and photocurrent measurements within the experimental uncertainty of the techniques. In (lll)B samples, X-ray diffractometry provides structural information which cannot be easily obtained from optical characterization techniques.
This paper reviews the neurocognitive particularities of subjects with sustained experience in simultaneous interpreting, a highly demanding form of bilingual processing. The literature converges into three broad empirical patterns. First, significant neurocognitive differences, including behavioral enhancements in verbal and executive domains, are observable after only one or two years of training. Second, such effects, both in interpreting students and/or professional interpreters, seem robust for crucial linguistic (e.g., translation) and executive (e.g., working memory) aspects of the activity, but not for more marginally relevant ones (e.g., conflict resolution) – suggesting that they are non-generalizable beyond directly taxed functions. Third, though more tentatively, some of the observed verbal and executive effects seem to be mutually independent and uninfluenced by other bilingual-experience-related factors (e.g., L2 competence), which could highlight their distinctive relation with interpreting practice. In sum, this particular model of expertise sheds novel light on the adaptive capacity of cognitive systems in bilinguals.
The purpose of this work is to study the effect of SiO2- and Al2O3-NPs on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weld bead (WB) created by a process of Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) between two AISI 1025 steel plates. Also it was necessary consider the chemical compositions of slags and burned fluxes, in order to determine the elements that are deposited and contribute in the final microstructure of WB. The welding materials to form each WB were a M12K electrode, a commercial fused flux (CFF) and AISI 1025 steel plates bevelled at 45°. In addition SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs an ethylic alcohol mixture were applied directly to the beveled surfaces, just before the SAW process, which was carried out according to the AWS A5.17 norm. Microstructural and phase changes at the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Welding Zone (WZ) were analysed by metallographic Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopies. The mechanical properties of the WBs were determined through Tensile, Charpy impact and Vickers Hardness tests. By means of metallography of WBs, it was determined that the length of the AF needles increases in 113 and 183 % when adding SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs, respectively. Related to the mechanical properties of the WB, the tensile and yield strength decreases with both additions, SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs. The microhardness at WZ was found to decrease by adding such oxide-NPs. Moreover, the impact energy absorbed by the WBs increases approximately by 83 or 57% due to SiO2- or Al2O3-NPs addition, respectively.
We study both numerically and experimentally the steady cone-jet mode of electrospraying close to the stability limit of minimum flow rate. The leaky dielectric model is solved for arbitrary values of the relative permittivity and the electrohydrodynamic Reynolds number. The linear stability analysis of the base flows is conducted by calculating their global eigenmodes. The minimum flow rate is determined as that for which the growth factor of the dominant mode becomes positive. We find a good agreement between this theoretical prediction and experimental values. The analysis of the spatial structure of the dominant perturbation may suggest that instability originates in the cone-jet transition region, which shows the local character of the cone-jet mode. The electric relaxation time is considerably smaller than the residence time of a fluid particle in the cone-jet transition region (defined as the region where the surface and bulk intensities are of the same order of magnitude) except for the high-polarity case, where these characteristic times are commensurate with each other. The superficial charge is not relaxed within the cone-jet transition region except for the high-viscosity case, because significant inner electric fields arise in the cone-jet transition region. However, those electric fields are not large enough to invalidate the scaling laws that do not take them into account. Viscosity and polarization forces compete against the driving electric shear stress in the cone-jet transition region for small Reynolds numbers and large relative permittivities, respectively. Capillary forces may also play a significant role in the minimum flow rate stability limit. The experiments show the noticeable stabilizing effect of the feeding capillary for diameters even two orders of magnitude larger than that of the jet. Stable jets with electrification levels higher than the Rayleigh limit are produced. During the jet break-up, two consecutive liquid blobs may coalesce and form a bigger emitted droplet, probably due to the jet acceleration. The size of droplets exceeds Rayleigh’s prediction owing to the stabilizing effect of both the axial electric field and viscosity.
The study of the mechanisms of radiocarbon (14C) release from different types of radioactive waste in final disposal conditions (organic, inorganic species, liquid, or gaseous phase) is an important aspect for the definition of waste acceptance criteria in a repository. The goal of this work is to determine the behavior of activated stainless steel, under standard leaching tests performed at El Cabril laboratory, with the aim of determining the retention capacity of the activated stainless steel, and therefore to assess the treatment and the potential additional barriers necessary for the fulfillment of waste acceptance criteria relevant to the El Cabril surface repository, Spain.
In this study, we analysed and compared the whole parasite community from the fish Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps collected from Fildes Bay at King George Island, Antarctica, during January–February 2017 in a field campaign supported by the Chilean Antarctic Institute. The fish samples collected were 45 specimens of N. rossii and 22 of N. coriiceps, with total lengths averaging 29.7 ± 5.3 cm and 32.5 ± 3.2 cm, respectively. Fish were dissected to collect their internal and external parasites. All the fish were parasitized; 13 taxa were found in N. rossii and 12 taxa in N. coriiceps. Acanthocephalans, mainly Metacanthocephalus johnstoni and Aspersentis megarhynchus, were the most abundant and prevalent parasites in both fish species. The abundance and richness of the parasite infracommunity increased with the host body length only in N. rossii. Twelve parasitic taxa were shared by both notothen species. Abundance and prevalence of parasitic taxa, as well as the average richness and abundance of the parasite infracommunities were mostly similar between the two fish species. Parasite compositions of N. coriiceps reported in published studies from King George Island were relatively comparable to our sample. We concluded that the two congeneric and sympatric fish species had highly similar parasite communities, which indicates that they use resources in a similar way, thus allowing them to become parasitized with the same parasitic species and in the same abundances. All parasites recorded in this study have been found in several other fish species; therefore, parasites from notothens are considered to be generalists.
Extinct Hydrochoerinae traditionally included within ‘Cardiomyinae’ (Cavioidea, Caviidae) are caviomorph rodents well represented in the late Miocene to late Pliocene of Argentina, but their paleobiology has received little scientific attention. The postcranium of these rodents is poorly known and has not been considered in morphofunctional or systematic studies. Here, we provide the first description of the postcranium of the basal hydrochoerine Cardiomys Ameghino, 1885, based on a well-preserved specimen from the late Miocene of Central Argentina, and evaluate its paleobiological and systematic implications. A morphofunctional study and a character mapping analysis were performed. We concluded that most of its postcranial features are neither adaptations to a specialized cursoriality, as in some extant cavioids, nor major modifications associated with swimming, as in extant capybaras. Cardiomys exhibits several features (high humeral distal articular surface, perforated olecranon fossa, proximal portion of radius cranially located with respect to the ulna, subrectangular-shaped radial head with flattened ulnar facet, calcaneocuboid joint distally located with respect to the astragalonavicular joint) that allow us to interpret it as an ambulatory caviid. Among cavioids, some features of Cardiomys are more similar to those of Hydrochoerus Brisson, 1762 (lateral coronoid process reduced, humeral capitular tail well differentiated, capitular tail facet of the radial head well developed and relatively short craniodistally, plantar process of the navicular massive and short). Other postcranial features (relatively longer and more gracile third metatarsal and phalanges, straight caudal border of the ulna) suggest that Cardiomys would have been a generalized hydrochoerine, as also indicated by its dental and cranial characters.
This study assessed whether bilingual memory is susceptible to the extreme processing demands of professional simultaneous interpreters (PSIs). Seventeen PSIs and 17 non-interpreter bilinguals completed word production, lexical retrieval, and verbal fluency tasks. PSIs exhibited enhanced fluency in their two languages, and they were faster to translate words in both directions. However, no significant differences emerged in picture naming or word reading. This suggests that lexical enhancements in PSIs are confined to their specifically trained abilities (vocabulary search, interlingual reformulation), with no concomitant changes in other word-processing mechanisms. Importantly, these differences seem to reflect specifically linguistic effects, as both samples were matched for relevant executive skills. Moreover, only word translation performance correlated with the PSIs’ years of interpreting experience. Therefore, despite their tight cooperation, different subcomponents within bilingual memory seem characterized by independent, usage-driven flexibility.
Two metal fillers with TiC nanoparticles (TiC NPs) of less than 100 nm for the overlay process is an alternative to hardfacing for treating surfaces subjected to severe wear. In this work, the effect of tribological behavior for TiC NPs addition on two Co-based filler materials, as well as the dilutions, was studied. Mixtures of Co-based filler metals without and with 0.5% and 2% TiC NPs were deposited onto D2 steel plates using PTA (Plasma Transferred Arc). The BET surface area was 0.17 m2 g-1 and 0.31 m2 g-1, respectively, for Stellite 6 and 12. The distribution of ca 23% macroporous for Stellite 6 was sufficient to get inside the TiC NPs, as well as in the case of Stellite 12, with a pore distribution of ca 13%. Stellite 12 has an increase in the dilutions (70%) and enthalpies showed endothermic reactions. Stellite 6 with NPs was determined to be most effective in increasing the wear resistance.
Alterations of foetal development in utero can affect the structure and physiology of the adult offspring, a process known as “foetal programming” (Barker, 1994). Results from the first phase of this study indicated that offspring from mature ewes offered a restricted energy intake in early pregnancy were heavier at birth and had improved survival rates to weaning (Muñoz et al., 2006). The aim of the second phase of the study was to determine the effects of plane of ewe nutrition in early and mid pregnancy on carcass characteristics of male offspring and on reproductive performance and concentrations of the adiposity indicator, leptin, in female offspring, post-weaning.
What is a good (useful) mathematical model in animal science? For models constructed for prediction purposes, the question of model adequacy (usefulness) has been traditionally tackled by statistical analysis applied to observed experimental data relative to model-predicted variables. However, little attention has been paid to analytic tools that exploit the mathematical properties of the model equations. For example, in the context of model calibration, before attempting a numerical estimation of the model parameters, we might want to know if we have any chance of success in estimating a unique best value of the model parameters from available measurements. This question of uniqueness is referred to as structural identifiability; a mathematical property that is defined on the sole basis of the model structure within a hypothetical ideal experiment determined by a setting of model inputs (stimuli) and observable variables (measurements). Structural identifiability analysis applied to dynamic models described by ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a common practice in control engineering and system identification. This analysis demands mathematical technicalities that are beyond the academic background of animal science, which might explain the lack of pervasiveness of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling. To fill this gap, in this paper we address the analysis of structural identifiability from a practitioner perspective by capitalizing on the use of dedicated software tools. Our objectives are (i) to provide a comprehensive explanation of the structural identifiability notion for the community of animal science modelling, (ii) to assess the relevance of identifiability analysis in animal science modelling and (iii) to motivate the community to use identifiability analysis in the modelling practice (when the identifiability question is relevant). We focus our study on ODE models. By using illustrative examples that include published mathematical models describing lactation in cattle, we show how structural identifiability analysis can contribute to advancing mathematical modelling in animal science towards the production of useful models and, moreover, highly informative experiments via optimal experiment design. Rather than attempting to impose a systematic identifiability analysis to the modelling community during model developments, we wish to open a window towards the discovery of a powerful tool for model construction and experiment design.
Despite the higher proportion of foreclosures and home evictions executed in Spain, compared to other countries, and the known link between social exclusion and mental health problems, studies exploring this association in Spain remain scarce. This study investigated the link between the process of home eviction and the appearance of symptomatology of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Two hundred and five people affected by the process of home eviction were assessed using a structured interview that included three validated assessment instruments for PTSD, perceived stress, anxiety and depression. Analysis involved comparison with the normative groups that formed the validation studies together with regression analysis to determine the major psychological and socio-demographic predictors of perceived stress. Of the participants, 95.1% reported that they were experiencing the process of home eviction with fear, helplessness, or horror. In PTSD symptomatology, they scored higher than the normative PTSD group in symptoms of avoidance (t = 5.01; p < .05), activation (t = 5.48; p < .01), and total score (t = 4.15; p < .05). Of this subgroup, 72.5% fulfilled the DSM-IV symptom criteria for PTSD. The major predictor of perceived stress was PTSD symptomatology (B = .09; p < .001). The process of home eviction in Spain is having an alarming impact on mental health of affected people calling for effective measures to provide psychological and social support.
Different aging heat treatments were performed in a Titanium alloy using as aging media metallic baths in comparison to typical furnace aging. As a first step, a Duplex Aging (DA) consisted of solubilization followed by quenching to room temperature after aging heat treatment in different metallic baths (Zn, Sn and Bi). A second procedure was Alternative Aging (AA) which consisted of solubilization and direct aging inside three different aforementioned baths. Microstructural aging variations begins at half hour until 30 h at 550°C inside metallic bath of Zn, Sn or Bi. Both kinds of aging promoted a microstructural variation and so on microhardness values. Microstructural analysis by Optical Microscopy showed a structural refinement after AA treatment. The highest hardness value of 375 HVN was achieved in Alternative Aging with Zn bath, which was found to be dependent on laminar α phase refining. Moreover, after AA treatment for 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10 and 30 h at 550°C in the metallic bath of Zn and Sn, the results indicated similar hardness values in different times, resulting in the fastest kinetic for Sn metallic bath at 2 h compared to that 4 h in Zn metallic bath. The observed increase in micro-hardness is not very attractive, it is recommended to use large aging times in order to stabilize final spacing of microstructural features in AA treatment.
The Brangus breed was developed to combine the superior characteristics of both of its founder breeds, Angus and Brahman. It combines the high adaptability to tropical and subtropical environments, disease resistance, and overall hardiness of Zebu cattle with the reproductive potential and carcass quality of Angus. It is known that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC, also known as bovine leucocyte antigen: BoLA), located on chromosome 23, encodes several genes involved in the adaptive immune response and may be responsible for adaptation to harsh environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate whether the local breed ancestry percentages in the BoLA locus of a Brangus population diverged from the estimated genome-wide proportions and to identify signatures of positive selection in this genomic region. For this, 167 animals (100 Brangus, 45 Angus and 22 Brahman) were genotyped using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array. The local ancestry analysis showed that more than half of the haplotypes (55.0%) shared a Brahman origin. This value was significantly different from the global genome-wide proportion estimated by cluster analysis (34.7% Brahman), and the proportion expected by pedigree (37.5% Brahman). The analysis of selection signatures by genetic differentiation (Fst) and extended haplotype homozygosity-based methods (iHS and Rsb) revealed 10 and seven candidate regions, respectively. The analysis of the genes located within these candidate regions showed mainly genes involved in immune response-related pathway, while other genes and pathways were also observed (cell surface signalling pathways, membrane proteins and ion-binding proteins). Our results suggest that the BoLA region of Brangus cattle may have been enriched with Brahman haplotypes as a consequence of selection processes to promote adaptation to subtropical environments.
This paper presents an inspection system integrated into an on-ground autonomous platform with range of approximately 80 km. The vehicle is prepared to autonomously cover a field following a predefined route plan. Two types of cameras were integrated in the platform. An RGB-D sensor and a reflex camera were placed in a fixture and connected to a high-performance computer. The heterogeneous information acquired from the RGB-D was later integrated to automatically generate 3D maps of the crops by using custom software developed in the authors’ previous work. The inspection system performance was tested in actual vineyards by conducting several samplings in 2016. Results show that the proposed technology is viable and can provide complementary information to other inspection alternatives.