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The study aimed to investigate relationship between personality characteristics and optimism in university students.
Study sample included a number of students that randomly were selected. To measure characteristics of personality questionnaire, NEO-FFI and optimism inventory was used. After collecting data Pearson correlation coefficient was used to analyze the data.
Findings showed that there were positive significant correlation between Extroversion, Agreement, Conscience and optimism in university students.
Based on results, it is recemonded that with applying plans to increase optimism elements in students, mental health will increase.
To investigate delusional beliefs and their dimensions (distress, preoccupation, conviction) across three groups, including patients with schizophrenia, their healthy family members, and normal subjects.
Subjects were 25 patients with schizophrenia, 35 of their healthy first degree relatives, and 35 normal subjects. Frequency of delusional beliefs and their dimensions were assessed using Peters et al. Delusions Inventory (PDI-40). General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) was used to examine general mental health.
Frequency of delusional beliefs was higher in the patient group, compared with family group and normal subjects. Scores of all three dimensions of beliefs among the patients were significantly higher than the normal subjects but not more than their family members. In addition, conviction in the beliefs was significantly higher in the family members as compared to normal subjects.
The existence of the delusional beliefs among the healthy family members of patients with schizophrenia and the higher conviction in these beliefs as compared to normal subjects is in keeping with the continuum notion of psychosis. Further investigations are needed to support the notion.
Addiction is one of the most terrible disasters that has struck the young people in our country and has destroyed many of our economic and human resources. This study was done to determine the effective factors in the re-addiction after quitting in Ardabil.
Methods and materials:
This study was a descriptive study in which the subjects have been addicts referring to the governmental and nongovernmental drug treating centers in Ardabil. 380 addicts were chosen on the basis of sampling. The instrument was a questionnaire of two parts. The first part consists of 16 questions about demographic factors and the second part with 39 questions was about the factors that caused re-addiction. The questionnaire had a content validity and its reliability was determined by the test-retest method.
The results show that 50.5% of the subjects ranged between 30 to 50 years. less than 89.2% city residents, 32.6% opium addicts and 34.5% had quit at least twice, and 64.7% of them had started again after 2 months, 50.6% of the addicts had mental disorders. Chi-square statistical analyses showed that there is significant relationship between personal, social, economic and family-related factors with re-addiction.
It can be concluded that the combination of personal, social, economic and family-related factors play a very important role in re-addiction. So it is recommended that for re-addiction prevention all dimensions of the addicts have to be taken into consideration when they are quitting.
The revolving door phenomenon of hospitalization and relapse is very common among psychiatric patients in Iran.
To examine the effectiveness of a home aftercare service for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders.
Patients admitted to Roozbeh hospital (Tehran, Iran) were consecutively enrolled and were randomized into the home aftercare service and the treatment-as-usual groups. In the home aftercare group, multidisciplinary teams made home visits on a monthly basis that provided education and treatment. The treatment-as-usual group received the existing services. All patients were followed one year after discharge in 4-month intervals in which data about rehospitalisations, symptoms, functioning, quality of life, and service satisfaction were obtained.
A total of 130 patients were enrolled (70 with bipolar disorder and 60 with schizophrenia) and were randomized to receive either home aftercare (66) or treatment-as usual (64). Home aftercare led to greater reduction in mean rehospitalization rate in the follow-up (0.4 in home care vs 0.07 in TAU, p = 0.011). Moreover, patients in the home care group had more improvement in psychotic symptoms (p = 0.003), depressive symptoms (p = 0.003), and clinical global impression of illness severity (p = 0.008), as well as greater patient satisfaction with the service (p < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, home aftercare and bipolar diagnosis were associated with less rehopsitalization.
Home aftercare is an effective service for patients with severe mental disorders after being discharged from the hospital. Its implementation in aftercare services is suggested.
There have been concerns about people with mental health problems living in the community in Iran experiencing harassment.
This study measures the prevalence and nature of harassment experienced by people with mental health problems and compares them with the general population.
Face to face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers to ascertain experiences of harassment. Interviews were carried out with 112 people with mental health problems and with 104 people from the general population.
Sixty-one per cent of people with mental health problems reported experiencing harassment, nearly ten times more frequently than those in the general population (7%). Among the people with mental health problems, being female, having higher levels of education, or being unemployed were significantly associated with experiencing harassment. The harassment commonly involved verbal abuse, often made reference to individuals' mental health problems and was primarily committed by family members.
A significantly higher prevalence of harassment was reported among individuals with mental health problems living in the community than in the general population sample. Mental health professionals should proactively ask their service users about their experiences in the home, and educational interventions are recommended, particularly for families of people with mental health problems.
Declaration of interest:
This project was funded by Psychiatric and Psychological Research Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Bam earthquake in December, 2004 was one of the most devastating disasters in the world. It affected a total population of 970000 and decimated over 35000 people. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of full or partial posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its symptoms in a sample of survivors of Bam earthquake.
This cross-sectional study included 786 people in randomly selected households through cluster sampling eight months after the earthquake. Subjects were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
About 98 percent of the respondents were exposed to one or more traumatic life experiences. The most severe traumatic experience in 87.2 percent of the subject was witnessing others injuries or corpses. The lifetime prevalence of PTSD was 59.1 percent. Partial PTSD (having some PTSD symptoms without fulfilling the minimum criteria) and current PTSD had prevalence rates equal to 20.2 and 51.9 percent, respectively. There was not a significant difference between men and women with regard to prevalence of PTSD and its symptoms. “Numbness and avoidance” was the least prevalent and “reexperience” the most prevalent symptom groups.
PTSD is highly prevalent in Bam earthquake survivors that warrant implementing community-based interventions for the disturbed population.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunctions and its relationship with depression and anxiety in a sample of patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 135 married patients who underwent BMT at least 1 year before evaluation. Sexual dysfunctions assessed by a questionnaire that was derived from Sexual History Form and Sexual Problem Measure. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess depression and anxiety in patients.
Questionnaires were completed by 128 (82.5%) participant. Fifty three percents of participants was male. The mean age of participants was 39.57±8.74. Sexual dysfunctions in post BMT period were significantly more frequent than period prior to the beginning of oncologic malignancy (P< 0.05). Sexual activity was decreased significantly after BMT (P< 0.01). The three most prevalent sexual dysfunctions in male group were premature ejaculation(56%) and problem in orgasm(40%) and desire(32.7%), and in female group were problem in arousal(77%) and desire(77%) and painful intercourse(77%). Sexual dysfunction was more prevalent in female group.
According to HADS score, 42(32.8%) patients had clinical depression (HADS-D score>14) and 12 (9.8%) patients had clinical anxiety (HADS-A score>14). There was not any significant relationship between mean HADS-A and HADS-D scores and scores of sexual dysfunctions questionnaires.
This study showed that sexual function and activity may be adversely affected by BMT. Factors other than anxiety and depression may have correlation with sexual dysfunction in these patients, of course limitation of this study should be considered.
A review of available evidence indicate that crime features depend on many and variable factor. for example psychological, environmental, personality cal and so on. in psychology and psychiatry it seems personality plays important role in tendency to crime. So we aim to develop a personality profile for our crime sample. So we aim to develop a personality profile for our criminal sample.
38 male with history of crime and sent to jail were randomly selected and Eysence's Personality Questionnaire was administered on them. the questionnaire assesses personality on four dimension: Extroversion, Introversion, Neuroticism and lie detector.
Result showed the criminals have high score in Neuroticism and Extroversion and their profile shows critical situations that need treatment interventions.
It is recommended to plan psychiatric interventions to reduce level of Neuroticism in them and direct them to better and social behavior.
This study examines the effectiveness of positive thinking skills training on student’s happiness. In this study, using a twogroup experimental design, 30 female students from Sharif University were chosen. These subjects randomaly assigned two groups (each with 15 Ss.). Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was administered for both groups in pretest condition. The experimental group experienced an eoght session interrention on positive thinking skills training. Research findings revealed that the applied intervention significantly increased happiness and its components. In sum, the results emphasized the cognitive manipulation effects on subjective happiness.
Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive – behavioral therapy and psychological debriefing in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a few evidences are available for using these techniques in large scale disasters.
Objective & Aim:
This study aimed to asses the effect of some psychological interventions in reducing PTSD symptoms after Bam earthquake in different age groups.
In a before-after quasi experimental clinical trial, we compared the efficacy of one session of psychological debriefing and three sessions of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in bam earthquake PTSD symptoms in different age groups. We evaluated PTSD symptoms before and immediately and three months after interventions by CAPS scaling system and analyzed data.
one hundred and thirty persons entered in the study and 51 persons excluded during interventions because of migration. Interventions were showed to be effective only in short term period. The means of PTSD symptoms frequency and severity of avoidance symptoms were reduced during three months period of study which were statistically significant P<0.05. Interventions showed no efficacy for recall symptoms in long term and hyper arousal symptoms in short term and long term periods. There was no statistically significant difference among age groups.
Psychosocial supportive interventions may be effective on some of the PTSD symptoms but there is no difference in different
Psychological debriefing is a way for prevention and reducing post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in treatment of PTSD. Few evidence is available for using of these techniques in large scale disasters.
This study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy of psychological debriefing and cognitive-behavioral group therapy combination on Bam earthquake-related PTSD symptoms in adolescents.
In a before-after trial, we evaluated the efficacy of one session psychological debriefing and three sessions of group cognitivebehavioral therapy in Bam earthquake adolescents survivors with PTSD symptoms. The mean age of participants was 16.4 years and no one had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorder that needed pharmacological intervention. Before, immediately and 3 months after interventions we evaluated PTSD symptoms using Clinical Administrated PTSD Scale for DSM-IV and analyzed them.
30 persons were included in the study, 8 of whom were excluded during interventions because of migration. The mean frequency of PTSD symptoms reduced immediately after interventions which was statistically significant (P< 0.05). There was no efficacy for intensity and severity.
Psychological debriefing and group cognitive-behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing the frequency of avoidance symptoms.
Due to the increase of population, especially in mega cities of Iran and lack of educational facilities for all of children to study, in some schools the students with physical disabilities and mental disorders are studying with normal students. Apart from problems in academic achievement these students encounter in school compared with normal students, they are at the risk of depression and isolation. As they can not participate in sports activities, they find it hard to compete with other students.The linguistic interaction of these students with normal students is limited and they apply aggressive words in interaction with normal students. There was designed a study to investigate the linguistic competence of physically-disabled students in the class and school yard. With the coordination with the school authorities, some students carried specific MP3s to record their conversations with physically-disabled students. Their behaviors in the school yard were monitored and recorded.Having analysed the data, the researchers classified the physically-disabled students verbal interaction and behavior in two major categories; class supervised and yard-unsupervised. In physical conflicts followed by expression of wrong words, they are the first side to shout and request for help from the authorities, as they knew that the authorities give rights to them.Reduction of school behavior score which is a significant parameter in continuing education is awaiting the normal students involving in physical conflict with physically disabled students. The increase of linguistic interaction through collective songs can be a good solution for these students to evacuate their hostile feelings. Educating parents to consider the natural differences can help the remedy to be complemented.
Psychological debriefing has been widely advocated for routine use following major traumatic events. Cognitive Behavioral Interventions, art supportive therapies, and sport and recreational support activities are other interventions for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder.
We assessed the effects of theses methods individually and in combination on reduction posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in adolescents who had experienced Bam earthquake.
In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of psychological debriefing, group cognitive-behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in 200 adolescents with PTSD symptoms who survived of Bam earthquake and compare it with a control group. Patients were randomly assigned to one of intervention programs including: group cognitive-behavioral therapy; group CBT plus art and sport interventions; art and sport interventions without group CBT; and control group.
Thirty one individuals were excluded because of migration. A statistically significant reduction in overall PTSD symptoms as well as in avoidance symptoms was observed after group cognitive-behavioral therapy. There was no significant difference in reduction of overall PTSD and avoidance symptoms between the other groups.
Psychological interventions in form of group cognitive behavioral therapy can reduce the symptoms of PTSD symptoms but we could not find the art and sport supportive therapy alone or in combination with group CBT to be useful in this regard.
The aim of the present study was toinvestigate the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in adolescents in fiveprovinces of Iran: Tehran, Shiraz, Esfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad.
In the present study, 9636 children and adolescents aged 6-18 yearswere selected from Tehran, Shiraz, Esfahan, Tabriz and Mashhad. The clinicalpsychologists were instructed to complete the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), then each of them that received high score in SDQ, completethe Persian version of Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). Oneway ANOVA was used totest for significant differences of disorders according to sex, age and province of residence.
Based on the results, the highest prevalenceof psychiatric disorders in the five provinces was related to conduct disorder (20.9%), and the lowest prevalence was related to substance abuse andalcohol abuse (0%). Also, ADHD had the most prevalence in boys (23.6%) and ODDhad the most prevalence in girls (19%). Among the 5 provinces, Tehran and Shiraz allocated the highest rates of ODD; Esfahan, Tabriz andMashhad had the highest rates of social phobia
In this study, the highest prevalence ofpsychological problems in the five provinces was related to conduct problems, and the lowest prevalence was related to substance abuse andalcohol abuse. It was determined that girls have more ODD than boys. In the current study, theprevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents in the urbanpopulation in Tehran province was higher than expected.
Cosmetic surgery in Iran is suggested to be the most common. The aim of this study was to determine the social factors affecting decision on undergoing nasal cosmic surgery.
Materials and methods:
100 participants were enrolled in this study (50 participants undergone nasal surgery and 50 controls who had no intention to apply for plastic surgery. Controls were selected among friends and relatives of the surgery group and were matched for sex, age (±1year), marital status, income and education (in the same category as surgery group).
A self administered questionnaire was used to measure social and family factors namely: having a car, having a house, father's job, mother's job, the participant birth order, out of marriage sexual contact, and number of sisters. Multivariate logistic was used to analysis the data.
Among the factors used in the final model only number of sisters shown a positive and significant association with application for nasal surgery (P = 0.019).
Being adjusted for monthly income and no significant association with the participant's father's or mother's job (social class of the participants) may explain the high rate of cosmic surgery among Iranian population. While matched for sex, a direct and significant association between number of sisters of the participants and undergoing plastic surgery suggests the importance of family members and their gender in making decision on undergoing nasal cosmic surgery.
After Islamic revolution in IRAN, it was forbidden for men to teach in girls' schools and for women to teach in boys' schools. This religion-based approach was exactly to limit the opposite sexes' interaction in schools to prevent sexual abnormalities. There appeared, however, some conflicts in teaching affairs especially in elementary schools for 6 to 11 year-old students who were in close memory of mother at home, needing loving attention. Ironically, most students having come from kindergartens in which they were being taught along with the opposite sex were confronted a place free from their opposite sex counterpart. the governmental schools could not attract little children who came from kindergarten with women tutors as they felt they lost the motherhood love and attention. on the other hand, lack of social interaction with opposite sex in streets, parks or other public places led to the suppression of sexual instincts. This negative approach brought difficulties for university students when they saw the opposite sexes in university which reduced their academic abilities at least at entry level. the increasing number of university students who were forced to leave university or had loss of academic achievement shows that suppression of sexual instincts in youth can retard their growth and afflict them severely. the statistics of suicide among the youth are increasing. the focus of educational experts on establishing co-educational clubs has been a valve safety to help the youth to become adapted to the presence of opposite sex. This paper examines the psychological trends in separation of girls and boys.
The growth of social activities for women in Iran has had a two-sided outcome for women. The worst, the women have encountered the phenomenon of prison, which is a great problem in traditional and Islamic societies. The change of role expectations after the release from prison has imposed many restrictions on women so that there is not any vivid future for them. Lack of enough education and skill has deprived the prisoner women from retaining their pre-prison situation. The high number of suicide among prisoner women shows that subculture of encountering with prisoned women in Islamic societies is based on sin approach in that the women are sinners who will be sent to hell in the other world and they must see the punishment of their sin to be ready for the extreme heat. Disinterestedness in the interaction with other people and loving isolation are two characteristics of style life for these women. The efforts of authorities to return these women to normal life, unfortunately, have failed to work. This paper investigates the reasons and roots of exclusion for prisoner women in Iran and Islamic societies.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.
Most of the educational psychologists believe that co-education can help the young people to have their sexual instincts activated so that they could release their sexual emotions easily during puberty. In contrast, Islamic educational authorities in Iran strongly insist that children arriving elementary schools must be separated and the teachers and textbooks are chosen according to their sexes. Therefore, men are teaching in boys’ schools and women in girls’ schools. There has been great effort to include men's pictures in boys’ textbooks to prevent from the sexual arousal. As there are not enough universities in the country, the university candidates are mixed in their classes and courses. This can bring flame to the ashes of hidden sexuality and involve the students in abnormal behaviours to control or suppress them. The conflict of interaction with the opposite sex in university with that in the family setting or even society has been proved to create depression among the first year students especially those coming from small and closed environments and rural settings. The statistics of referrals to the counselling office in the university show that self-involvement to control sexual instincts have been the great concern of the students. They spend most of their time thinking about their classmates of different sexes. This paper aims to study the psychological and social outcomes of suppressed instincts for young people having entered the university and the effect on marriage.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Depression occurs frequently in patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neural basis of depression in PD remains unclear. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (DMRI) connectometry is based on the spin distribution function (SDF), which quantifies the density of diffusing water.
The aim of this study was to assess the microstructural changes in the brain connectivity of PD patients with and without depressive symptoms.
DMRI was used to assess microstructural abnormalities in the brains of 16 PD patients with depressive symptoms compared to 11 PD patients without depressive symptoms. Data used in the preparation of this paper were obtained from the Parkinson's progression markers initiative (PPMI) database (http://www.ppmi-info.org/data/). This dataset was acquired on a 3-Tesla scanner (Siemens), producing 64 DWI at b = 1000 s/mm2 and one b0 image. Diffusion MRI data were corrected for subject motion, eddy current distortions, and susceptibility artefacts due to magnetic field inhomogeneity. DMRI connectometry was conducted in a total of 27 patients using percentage measurement.
PD Patients with depressive symptoms showed decreased anisotropy (FDR < 0.05) in the fornix bilaterally, left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and corticospinal tract bilaterally compared to PD patients without depressive symptoms.
Lesser WM integrity of the left ILF fibers, which connect visual face recognition areas to the amygdala and hippocampus, seems to be associated with depressive symptoms in PD patients. Our study supports the hypothesis that neurodegenerative processes in projections from the somatosensory, cingulate, and insular cortices may be related to depression in PD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Short description migration of villagers to cities can be damaging the women's status in social affairs and promotion of family. Long description, one of the most controversial problems of rural dwellers’ migration to big cities, is the occupation of women in low-level jobs. The villagers mostly have little skills and women are deprived of knowledge and skills to cope with the new situation so that they cannot find good jobs to meet the family needs. The low-level jobs and income by men in black market after having migrated to the cities force women to adopt to work in dirty jobs or work as maid at homes to increase the financial capacities of the family and provide educational facilities for children. This can bring about many dangers for the family. First, children are deprived of family interaction most part of the day and most of them become trapped with illegal gangs of drug distribution. Second, women can be exploited with the burglary and shoplifting groups who use low educated and poor women. The destiny of most of these women is prison and being away from the family, which in turn worsens the situation. Vocational skills provided by NGOs have helped women to sustain their life but they are not enough. The factors involving with the situation of these women are the main focus of this paper.
Disclosure of interest
The author has not supplied his declaration of competing interest.